Cymbal manufacturing is a difficult field to succeed in, most companies that are still around today have hundreds of years of smithing and crafting experience in their past. In the modern world, there are four primary cymbal manufacturers that together encompass over half of all cymbal sales, many of these companies establish themselves through unique manufacturing techniques, unusual qualities, competitive pricing, place or style of manufacturing, or cymbal material. Because so few of these vintage cymbals exist on the market today, most Bellottis are relatively small 12-15, and quite heavy. Their craftsmanship displays a fine lathing on top and bottom and very broad, the cast bronze cymbals are of a B20 alloy. The bellholes of most Bellottis are of small aperture, which suggests a date prior to the 1960s or earlier. Very finely crafted, most existing examples are likely to have hand or field cymbals. The tell-tale insignia is a stamp on the underside of the cymbal. There are two versions of this stamp, the first simply reads Bellotti on capital block letters.
The second version reads Bellotti, but incorporates the logo of a bell, Bellottis have an embossment that reads Italy or Made in Italy in a semicircular pattern. This embossment appears on other Italian cymbals of the 1940s-1960s, roberto Spizzichino was an Italian jazz drummer and renowned master cymbalsmith. Spizzichino lathed and hand-hammered cymbals in his workshop in San Quirico, early in his career, Spizzichino worked for the Italian cymbal company UFIP, providing cymbal development and research. In 1986, after leaving UFIP, Spizzichino started experimenting with his own Spizz brand cymbals, Spizzichino worked for Bespeco, an Italian musical equipment manufacturer. Bespeco still offers a line of machine-made B8 Spizz brand cymbals produced according to a developed by Spizzichino. The Chinese cymbal manufacturer, produced a number of its own Spizz brand cymbals during a brief collaboration in 1989 when Spizzichino visited the factory. He was in China to find a source for B20 blanks, Spizzichino was involved in the Wuhan/Spizz cymbals design but was not involved with the cymbal production and distribution.
He was not satisfied with the product and did not wish to be associated with it, neither the Bespeco Spizz or the Wuhan/Spizz cymbals were endorsed by Spizzichino. Recent Spizzichino brand cymbals are crafted from high quality B20 bell bronze discs sourced from Turkey, the first Spizzichinos were made from inexpensive, heavy B20 blanks imported from China. By heating, hand-hammering and lathing the material, Spizzichino sought to bring out desirable sound characteristics often lacking in machine-made modern cymbals, Spizzichino became unsatisfied with the purity of the Chinese material after a couple years, and found a different supplier
Transportation is not the only purpose of cruising, particularly on cruises that return passengers to their originating port, with the ports of call usually in a specified region of a continent. There are even cruises to nowhere or nowhere voyages where the ship makes 2–3 night round trips without any ports of call, by contrast, dedicated transport oriented ocean liners do line voyages and typically transport passengers from one point to another, rather than on round trips. The gradual evolution of passenger ship design from ocean liners to cruise ships has seen passenger cabins shifted from inside the hull to the superstructure with private verandas, the distinction between ocean liners and cruise ships has blurred, particularly with respect to deployment. Larger cruise ships have engaged in longer trips such as transoceanic voyages which may not return to the port for months. Some former ocean liners operate as cruise ships, such as Marco Polo, the only dedicated transatlantic ocean liner in operation as a liner of December 2013 is Queen Mary 2 of the Cunard fleet.
The industrys rapid growth has seen nine or more newly built ships catering to a North American clientele added every year since 2001, smaller markets, such as the Asia-Pacific region, are generally serviced by older ships. These are displaced by new ships in the growth areas. The worlds largest cruise ship is currently Royal Caribbean Internationals Harmony of the Seas beating her sister ships by about 2.15 meters, the birth of leisure cruising began with the formation of the Peninsular & Oriental Steam Navigation Company in 1822. The company started out as a line with routes between England and the Iberian Peninsula, adopting the name Peninsular Steam Navigation Company. It won its first contract to deliver mail in 1837, in 1840, it began mail delivery to Alexandria, via Gibraltar and Malta. The company was incorporated by Royal Charter the same year, becoming the Peninsular, P&O first introduced passenger cruising services in 1844, advertising sea tours to destinations such as Gibraltar and Athens, sailing from Southampton.
The forerunner of modern cruise holidays, these voyages were the first of their kind, the company introduced round trips to destinations such as Alexandria and Constantinople. It underwent a period of expansion in the latter half of the 19th century, commissioning larger. Some sources mention Francesco I, flying the flag of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and she was built in 1831 and sailed from Naples in early June 1833, preceded by an advertising campaign. The cruise ship was boarded by nobles and royal princes from all over Europe, however, it was restricted to the aristocracy of Europe and was not a commercial endeavour. Christian Wilhelm Allers published an account of it as Backschisch. The first vessel built exclusively for cruising, was Prinzessin Victoria Luise of Germany, designed by Albert Ballin. The ship was completed in 1900, the practice of luxury cruising made steady inroads on the more established market for transatlantic crossings
This is in contrast to lift-on/lift-off vessels, which use a crane to load and unload cargo. RORO vessels have either built-in or shore-based ramps that allow the cargo to be rolled on. While smaller ferries that operate across rivers and other short distances often have built-in ramps, the ramps and doors may be located in stern, bow or sides, or any combination thereof. At first, wheeled vehicles carried as cargo on oceangoing ships were treated like any other cargo, automobiles had their fuel tanks emptied and their batteries disconnected before being hoisted into the ship’s hold, where they were chocked and secured. This process was tedious and difficult, and vehicles were subject to damage, an early roll-on/roll-off service was a train ferry, started in 1833 by the Monkland and Kirkintilloch Railway, which operated a wagon ferry on the Forth and Clyde Canal in Scotland. The first modern train ferry was Leviathan, built in 1849, the Edinburgh and Newhaven Railway was formed in 1842 and the company wished to extend the East Coast Main Line further north to Dundee and Aberdeen.
The company hired the civil engineer Thomas Bouch who argued for a train ferry with an efficient roll-on/roll-off mechanism to maximise the efficiency of the system. Custom-built ferries were to be built, with lines and matching harbour facilities at both ends to allow the rolling stock to easily drive on and off the boat. To compensate for the tides, adjustable ramps were positioned at the harbours. The wagons were loaded on and off with the use of steam engines. ”The company was persuaded to install this train ferry service for the transportation of goods wagons across the Firth of Forth from Burntisland in Fife to Granton. The ferry itself was built by Thomas Grainger, a partner of the firm Grainger and Miller, the service commenced on 3 February 1850. Train-ferry services were used extensively during World War I and this involved three train-ferries to be built, each with four sets of railway line on the main deck to allow for up to 54 railway wagons to be shunted directly on and off the ferry.
These train-ferries could be used to transport vehicles along with railway rolling stock. Later that month a second train-ferry was established from the Port of Southampton on the South East Coast, in the first month of operations at Richborough,5,000 tons were transported across the Channel, by the end of 1918 it was nearly 261,000 tons. There were many advantages of the use of train-ferries over conventional shipping in World War I and it was much easier to move the large, heavy artillery and tanks that this kind of modern warfare required using train-ferries as opposed to repeated loading and unloading of cargo. The increase of traffic because of the war effort meant that economies. After the signing of the Armistice on 11 November 1918, train ferries were used extensively for the return of material from the Front, according to war office statistics, a greater tonnage of material was transported by train ferry from Richborough in 1919 than in 1918. As the train ferries had space for motor transport as well as rolling stock, thousands of lorries, motor cars
A cargo liner is a type of merchant ship which carries general cargo and often passengers. They became common just after the middle of the 19th century, a cargo liner has been defined as, A vessel which operated a regular scheduled service on a fixed route between designated ports and carries many consignments of different commodities. Cargo liners transported general freight, from raw materials to manufactures to merchandise, many had cargo holds adapted to particular services, with refrigerator space for frozen meats or chilled fruit, tanks for liquid cargos such as plant oils, and lockers for valuables. Cargo liners typically carried passengers as well, usually in a single class and they differed from ocean liners which focussed on the passenger trade, and from tramp steamers which did not operate on regular schedules. Cargo liners sailed from port to port along routes and on published in advance. The cargo liner developed in the century with the advancement of technology allowing bigger steamships to be built.
As cargo liners were faster than cargo ships, they were used for the transport of perishable and high-value goods. At first, they were used in Europe and America as well as across the Atlantic Ocean between Europe and America. The use and increased reliability of the steam engine gave greater fuel efficiency. Alfred Holt pioneered the use of engines in his steamships. By the last third of the 19th century it was possible for a steamship to carry coal to travel 6,000 miles before needing to refuel. The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 and the Panama Canal in 1914 made the use of cargo liners more profitable, Cargo liners soon comprised the great portion of the British merchant fleet, the largest in the world. With a focus on freight, most cargo liners carried a limited number of passengers, most commonly 12. The decline of the cargo liner came in the 1970s with the introduction of container ships, surviving examples include RMS St Helena and Claymore II. A number of container vessels still offer a small number of berths to paying passengers.
Typically a maximum of 12 passengers are carried as the ship would be required to carry a doctor if a greater number were on board. The recreational facilities are used by the crew and may be limited to a lounge, a gym with exercise equipment. Such journeys are of interest to people seeking a travel experience
A gas carrier is a ship designed to transport LPG, LNG or liquefied chemical gases in bulk. The seaborne transport of liquefied gases began in 1934 when an international company put two combined oil/LPG tankers into operation. The ships, basically oil tankers, had converted by fitting small, riveted. This enabled transport over long distances of substantial volumes of an oil refinery by-product that had distinct advantages as a domestic and commercial fuel. LPG is not only odourless and non-toxic, it has a calorific value. Today, most fully pressurised oceangoing LPG carriers are fitted with two or three horizontal, cylindrical or spherical cargo tanks and have capacities between 3,500 and 7,500 m3. However, in recent years a number of larger-capacity fully pressurised ships have been built, most notably a series of 10,800 m3 ships, built in Japan between 2003 and 2013. Fully pressurised ships are still being built in numbers and represent a cost-effective, simple way of moving LPG to and these carriers, incorporating tanks either cylindrical, spherical or bi-lobe in shape, are able to load or discharge gas cargoes at both refrigerated and pressurised storage facilities.
Ethylene carriers are the most sophisticated of the gas tankers and have the ability to not only most other liquefied gas cargoes. They are built to carry liquefied gases at low temperature and atmospheric pressure between terminals equipped with fully refrigerated storage tanks, discharge through a booster pump and cargo heater makes it possible to discharge to pressurized tanks too. The first purpose-built, fully refrigerated LPG carrier was constructed by a Japanese shipyard, to a United States design, fully refrigerated ships range in capacity from 20,000 to 100,000 m3. LPG carriers in the 50, 000–80,000 m3 size range are referred to as VLGCs. Although LNG carriers are often larger in terms of cubic capacity, the main type of cargo containment system utilised on board modern fully refrigerated ships are independent tanks with rigid foam insulation. The insulation used is commonly polyurethane foam. Older ships can have independent tanks with loosely filled perlite insulation, in the past, there have been a few fully refrigerated ships built with semi-membrane or integral tanks and internal insulation tanks, but these systems have only maintained minimal interest.
The large majority of ships currently in service have been constructed by shipbuilders in Japan. The majority of LNG carriers are between 125,000 and 135,000 m3 in capacity, in the modern fleet of LNG carriers, there is an interesting exception concerning ship size. This is the introduction of smaller ships of between 18,000 and 19,000 m3 having been built in 1994 and to service the needs of importers of smaller volumes
A fishing vessel is a boat or ship used to catch fish in the sea, or on a lake or river. Many different kinds of vessels are used in commercial and recreational fishing, according to the FAO, there are currently four million commercial fishing vessels. About 1.3 million of these are decked vessels with enclosed areas, nearly all of these decked vessels are mechanised, and 40,000 of them are over 100 tons. At the other extreme, two-thirds of the boats are traditional craft of various types, powered only by sail. These boats are used by artisan fishers and it is difficult to estimate the number of recreational fishing boats. They range in size from small dinghies to large charter cruisers, prior to the 1950s there was little standardisation of fishing boats. Designs could vary between ports and boatyards, traditionally boats were built of wood, but wood is not often used now because it has higher maintenance costs and lower durability. Fibreglass is used increasingly in smaller fishing vessels up to 25 metres, early fishing vessels included rafts, dugout canoes, and boats constructed from a frame covered with hide or tree bark, along the lines of a coracle.
The oldest boats found by excavation are dugout canoes dating back to the Neolithic Period around 7. These canoes were often cut from coniferous tree logs, using stone tools. A 7000-year-old seagoing boat made from reeds and tar has been found in Kuwait and these early vessels had limited capability, they could float and move on water, but were not suitable for use any great distance from the shoreline. They were used mainly for fishing and hunting, the development of fishing boats took place in parallel with the development of boats built for trade and war. Early navigators began to use skins or woven fabrics for sails. Affixed to a pole set upright in the boat, these sails gave early boats more range, Egyptians were building long narrow boats powered by many oarsmen. Over the next 1,000 years, they made a series of advances in boat design. They developed cotton-made sails to help their boats go faster with less work, they built boats large enough to cross the oceans. These boats had sails and oarsmen, and were used for travel, by 3000 BC, the Egyptians knew how to assemble planks of wood into a ship hull.
They used woven straps to lash planks together, and reeds or grass stuffed between the planks to seal the seams
Container ships are cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size intermodal containers, in a technique called containerization. They are a means of commercial intermodal freight transport and now carry most seagoing non-bulk cargo. Container ship capacity is measured in equivalent units. Typical loads are a mix of 20-foot and 40-foot ISO-standard containers, about 90% of non-bulk cargo worldwide is transported by container, and modern container ships can carry over 19,000 TEU. Container ships now rival crude oil tankers and bulk carriers as the largest commercial vessels on the ocean, there are two main types of dry cargo, bulk cargo and break bulk cargo. Bulk cargoes, like grain or coal, are transported unpackaged in the hull of the ship, break-bulk cargoes, on the other hand, are transported in packages, and are generally manufactured goods. Before the advent of containerization in the 1950s, break-bulk items were loaded, lashed and unloaded from the one piece at a time. However, by grouping cargo into containers,1,000 to 3,000 cubic feet of cargo, or up to about 64,000 pounds, is moved at once and each container is secured to the ship once in a standardized way.
Containerization has increased the efficiency of moving traditional break-bulk cargoes significantly, reducing shipping time by 84%, in 2001, more than 90% of world trade in non-bulk goods was transported in ISO containers. In 2009, almost one quarter of the dry cargo was shipped by container. The first ships designed to carrying standardized load units were use in the late 18th century in England, in 1766 James Brindley designed the box boat Starvationer with 10 wooden containers, to transport coal from Worsley Delph to Manchester by Bridgewater Canal. Before the Second World War first container ships were used to carrying baggages of the passenger train from London to Paris, Golden Arrow/Fleche dOr. These containers were loaded in London or Paris and carried to ports, Dover or Calais, on cars in the UK. The earliest container ships after the Second World War were converted to tankers, in 1951, the first purpose-built container vessels began operating in Denmark, and between Seattle and Alaska.
The first commercially successful container ship was Ideal X, a T2 tanker, owned by Malcom McLean, in 1955, McLean built his company, McLean Trucking into one of United States biggest freighter fleets. In 1955, he purchased the small Pan Atlantic Steamship Company from Waterman Steamship, on April 26,1956, the first of these rebuilt container vessels, Ideal X, left the Port Newark in New Jersey and a new revolution in modern shipping resulted. Container vessels eliminate the individual hatches and dividers of the general cargo vessels. The hull of a container ship is a huge warehouse divided into cells by vertical guide rails
A tug is a boat or ship that maneuvers vessels by pushing or towing them. Tugboats are powerful for their size and strongly built, and some are ocean-going, some tugboats serve as icebreakers or salvage boats. Early tugboats had steam engines, but today most have diesel engines, many tugboats have firefighting monitors, allowing them to assist in firefighting, especially in harbors. Seagoing tugs fall into four categories, The standard seagoing tug with model bow that tows its payload on a hawser. The notch tug which can be secured in a notch at the stern of a specially designed barge and this configuration is dangerous to use with a barge which is in ballast or in a head- or following sea. Therefore, notch tugs are usually built with a towing winch and these units stay combined under virtually any sea conditions and the tugs usually have poor sea-keeping designs for navigation without their barges attached. Vessels in this category are considered to be ships rather than tugboats. These vessels must show navigation lights compliant with those required of ships rather than required of tugboats.
Articulated tug and barge units utilize mechanical means to connect to their barges, the tug slips into a notch in the stern and is attached by a hinged connection. ATBs generally utilize Intercon and Bludworth connecting systems, aTBs are generally staffed as a large tugboat, with between seven and nine crew members. The typical American ATB operating on the east coast customarily displays navigational lights of a towing vessel pushing ahead, compared to seagoing tugboats, harbour tugboats are generally smaller and their width-to-length ratio is often higher, due to the need for a lower draught. In smaller harbours these are termed lunch bucket boats, because they are only manned when needed and only at a minimum. The number of tugboats in a harbour varies with the harbour infrastructure, things to take into consideration includes ships with/without bow thrusters and forces like wind and waves and types of ship. River tugs are referred to as towboats or pushboats and their hull designs would make open ocean operation dangerous.
River tugs usually do not have any significant hawser or winch and their hulls feature a flat front or bow to line up with the rectangular stern of the barge, often with large pushing knees. Tugboat engines typically produce 500 to 2,500 kW, for safety, tugboats engines often feature two of each critical part for redundancy. A tugboats power is stated by its engines horsepower and its overall bollard pull. The largest commercial harbour tugboats in the 2000s-2010s, used for towing container ships or similar, had around 60-65 tons of bollard pull, Tugboats are highly maneuverable, and various propulsion systems have been developed to increase maneuverability and increase safety
A bulk carrier, bulk freighter, or bulker is a merchant ship specially designed to transport unpackaged bulk cargo, such as grains, coal and cement in its cargo holds. Since the first specialized bulk carrier was built in 1852, economic forces have fuelled the development of ships, causing them to grow in size. Todays bulkers are specially designed to maximize capacity, efficiency, bulkers make up 15% - 17% of the worlds merchant fleets and range in size from single-hold mini-bulkers to mammoth ore ships able to carry 400,000 metric tons of deadweight. A number of specialized designs exist, some can unload their own cargo, some depend on port facilities for unloading, over half of all bulkers have Greek, Japanese, or Chinese owners and more than a quarter are registered in Panama. South Korea is the largest single builder of bulkers, and 82% of these ships were built in Asia, a bulk carriers crew participates in the loading and unloading of cargo, navigating the ship, and keeping its machinery and equipment properly maintained.
Loading and unloading the cargo is difficult and can take up to 120 hours on larger ships, crews can range in size from three people on the smallest ships to over 30 on the largest. Bulk cargo can be dense, corrosive, or abrasive. This can present safety problems, cargo shifting, spontaneous combustion, the use of ships that are old and have corrosion problems has been linked to a spate of bulker sinkings in the 1990s, as have the bulkers large hatchways, important for efficient cargo handling. New international regulations have since been introduced to improve design and inspection. There are various ways to define the term bulk carrier, most classification societies use a broader definition where a bulker is any ship that carries dry unpackaged goods. Multipurpose cargo ships can carry cargo, but can carry other cargoes and are not specifically designed for bulk carriage. The term dry bulk carrier is used to distinguish bulkers from bulk liquid carriers such as oil, very small bulkers are almost indistinguishable from general cargo ships, and they are often classified based more on the ships use than its design. A number of abbreviations are used to describe bulkers, OBO describes a bulker which carries a combination of ore and oil, and O/O is used for combination oil and ore carriers.
The terms VLOC, VLBC, ULOC, and ULBC for very large and ultra large ore and bulk carriers were adapted from the supertanker designations very large crude carrier, before specialized bulk carriers existed, shippers had two methods to move bulk goods by ship. In the first method, longshoremen loaded the cargo into sacks, stacked the sacks onto pallets, the second method required the shipper to charter an entire ship and spend time and money to build plywood bins into the holds. Then, to guide the cargo through the hatches, wooden feeders. These methods were slow and labor-intensive, as with the container ship, the problem of efficient loading and unloading has driven the evolution of the bulk carrier. Specialized bulk carriers began to appear as steam-powered ships became more popular, the first steam ship recognized as a bulk carrier was the British coal carrier SS John Bowes in 1852
A tanker is a merchant vessel designed to transport liquids or gases in bulk. Major types of tankship include the oil tanker, the chemical tanker, in the United States Navy and Military Sealift Command, any type of tanker used to refuel other ships is called an oiler. Tankers can range in size of capacity from several hundred tons, besides ocean- or seagoing tankers there are specialized inland-waterway tankers which operate on rivers and canals with an average cargo capacity up to some thousand tons. Before this, technology had not supported the idea of carrying bulk liquids. The market was not geared towards transporting or selling cargo in bulk, therefore most ships carried a wide range of different products in different holds. Liquids were usually loaded in casks—hence the term tonnage, which refers to the volume of the holds in terms of how many tuns or casks of wine could be carried, even potable water, vital for the survival of the crew, was stowed in casks. Carrying bulk liquids in earlier ships posed several problems, The holds, on ships the holds were not sufficiently water.
The development of iron and steel hulls solved this problem and discharging, Bulk liquids must be pumped - the development of efficient pumps and piping systems was vital to the development of the tanker. Steam engines were developed as prime-movers for early pumping systems, dedicated cargo handling facilities were now required ashore too - as was a market for receiving a product in that quantity. Casks could be unloaded using ordinary cranes, and the nature of the casks meant that the volume of liquid was always relatively small - therefore keeping the market more stable. The effect was negligible in casks, but could cause capsizing if the tank extended the width of the ship, tankers were first used by the oil industry to transfer refined fuel in bulk from refineries to customers. This would be stored in tanks ashore, and subdivided for delivery to individual locations. The use of tankers caught on other liquids were cheaper to transport in bulk, store in dedicated terminals. Even the Guinness brewery used tankers to transport the stout across the Irish Sea, among oil tankers, supertankers are designed for transporting oil around the Horn of Africa from the Middle East.
The supertanker Seawise Giant, scrapped in 2010, was 458 meters in length and 69 meters wide, supertankers are one of the three preferred methods for transporting large quantities of oil, along with pipeline transport and rail. Despite being highly regulated, tankers have been involved in environmental disasters resulting from oil spills, see Amoco Cadiz, Erika, Exxon Valdez, Prestige oil spill and Torrey Canyon for examples of coastal accidents. Many modern tankers are designed for a cargo and a specific route. Draft is typically limited by the depth of water in loading and unloading harbors, cargoes with high vapor pressure at ambient temperatures may require pressurized tanks or vapor recovery systems
A ferry is a merchant vessel used to carry passengers, and sometimes vehicles and cargo as well, across a body of water. Most ferries operate regular return services, a passenger ferry with many stops, such as in Venice, Italy, is sometimes called a water bus or water taxi. Ferries form a part of the transport systems of many waterside cities and islands. However, ship connections of much larger distances may be called ferry services, the profession of the ferryman is embodied in Greek mythology in Charon, the boatman who transported souls across the River Styx to the Underworld. Speculation that a pair of oxen propelled a ship having a wheel can be found in 4th century Roman literature Anonymus De Rebus Bellicis. Though impractical, there is no reason why it could not work and such a ferry, see When Horses Walked on Water, Horse-Powered Ferries in Nineteenth-Century America. The Marine Services Company of Tanzania offers passenger and cargo services in three of the African Great Lakes viz, Lake Victoria, Lake Tanganyika and Lake Nyasa.
It operates one of the oldest ferries in the region, Ferries from Great Britain sail to Belgium, the Netherlands, Norway and Ireland. Some ferries carry mainly tourist traffic, but most carry freight, in Britain, car-carrying ferries are sometimes referred to as RORO for the ease by which vehicles can board and leave. The busiest single ferry route is across the part of Øresund. Before the Øresund bridge was opened in July 2000, car and car & train ferries departed up to seven times every hour, in 2013, this has been reduced, but a car ferry still departs from each harbor every 15 minutes during daytime. The route is around 2.2 nautical miles and the crossing takes 22 minutes, all ferries on this route are constructed so that they do not need to turn around in the harbors. This means that the ferries lack natural stems and sterns, due to the same circumstances and port-side are dynamic and depending of in what direction the ferry sails. Despite the short crossing, the ferries are equipped with restaurants, kiosks, large cruiseferries sail in the Baltic Sea between Finland, Åland, Estonia and Saint Petersburg and from Italy to Sardinia, Corsica and Greece.
In many ways, these ferries are like cruise ships, many smaller ferries operate on domestic routes in Finland and Estonia. The south-west and southern parts of the Baltic Sea has several routes mainly for heavy traffic, on the longer of these routes, simple cabins are available. In Istanbul, ferries connect the European and Asian shores of Bosphorus, as well as Princes Islands, in 2014 İDO transported 47 million passengers, the largest ferry system in the world. Due to the numbers of freshwater lakes and length of shoreline in Canada