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List of sovereign states

The following is a list providing an overview of sovereign states around the world, with information on their status and recognition of their sovereignty. The 206 listed states can be divided into three categories based on membership within the United Nations system: 193 member states, two observer states and 11 other states; the sovereignty dispute column indicates states having undisputed sovereignty and states having disputed sovereignty. Compiling a list such as this can be a difficult and controversial process, as there is no definition, binding on all the members of the community of nations concerning the criteria for statehood. For more information on the criteria used to determine the contents of this list, please see the criteria for inclusion section below; the list is intended to include entities that have been recognised as having de facto status as sovereign states, inclusion should not be seen as an endorsement of any specific claim to statehood in legal terms. The dominant customary international law standard of statehood is the declarative theory of statehood, codified by the Montevideo Convention of 1933.

The Convention defines the state as a person of international law if it "possess the following qualifications: a permanent population. Debate exists on the degree; the declarative theory of statehood argues that statehood is purely objective and recognition of a state by other states is irrelevant. On the other end of the spectrum, the constitutive theory of statehood defines a state as a person under international law only if it is recognised as sovereign by other states. For the purposes of this list, included are all states that either: consider themselves sovereign and are regarded as satisfying the declarative theory of statehood, or are recognised as a sovereign state by at least one UN member stateNote that in some cases, there is a divergence of opinion over the interpretation of the first point, whether an entity satisfies it is disputed. Unique political entities which fail to meet the classification of a sovereign state are considered proto-states. On the basis of the above criteria, this list includes the following 206 entities: 203 states recognised by at least one UN member state Two states that satisfy the declarative theory of statehood and are recognised only by non-UN member states: Artsakh, Transnistria One state that satisfies the declarative theory of statehood and is not recognised by any other state: SomalilandThe table includes bullets representing entities which are either not sovereign states or have a close association to another sovereign state.

It includes subnational areas where the sovereignty of the titular state is limited by an international agreement. Taken together, these include: States in a free association relationship to another state Two entities controlled by Pakistan which are neither sovereign states, dependent territories, or part of another state: Azad Kashmir and Gilgit Baltistan Dependent territories of another state, as well as areas that exhibit many characteristics of dependent territories according to the dependent territory page Subnational entities created by international agreements Bissio, Roberto Remo, ed.. The World: A Third World Guide: 1995/96. Montevideo: Instituto del Tercer Mundo. ISBN 978-0-85598-291-1. OCLC 476299738. "Countries or areas and abbreviations". Statistics Division, United Nations. 1 April 2010. Davis, Tim. "World Countries and States List". Timdavis.com.au. "Geographic Names". Department of Public Information, Cartographic Section, United Nations. 7 September 2000. "ISO 3166-1 Country names and code elements".

International Organization for Standardization. 2010. "List of countries and currencies". Publications Office of the European Union. 4 May 2010. "The World Factbook". United States: Central Intelligence Agency. 2010. World of Information, International Chamber of Commerce. Middle East Review 2003/04: The Economic and Business Report. London: Kogan Page. P. 161. ISBN 978-0-7494-4066-4. OCLC 51992589

American International Health Alliance

American International Health Alliance is a nonprofit organisation aiming for assisting the global health. The organisation has managed project across the globe. In 2012, AIHA obtained the support of President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief project to strengthen the blood service in Central Asia and Cambodia. Due to its structure based on the programmatic modal and dynamic condition, this organisation is suitable to assist the community or worldwide countries which have limited resources, it is beneficial for sustainable evolution. AIHA is contributing to improve the worldwide health conditions; this organisation has been associated and contributed in the HIV-related area since 2000. AIHA established in 1992, which provides the healthcare services and supporting professional medical education organisation; the initial purpose is assisting the nations of the former Soviet Union to build a more complete healthcare system. It is the first organisation that forming the cooperative agreements with the countries which are equivalent with US, those countries are Georgia, Russia and Uzbekistan.

In 1993, this program expanded to more area such as Armenia, Belarus and Turkmenistan, it dabbled the broader area, including infection control, women's health and so on. In 2000, to cope with the increasing HIV/AIDS epidemic in some areas, AIHA set up a pilot program to control and prevent the mother-to-child transmission of HIV in those suffered countries. In 2016, AIHA established two biomedical partnerships to enhance the local capability of cadre in Uganda and Kenya. According to the management of the aids intervention plan, this project and new partnership can improve the treatment for the local in Zambia; the AIHA is led by the Mr. Greeley, He succeeded the founder of AIHA James P. Smith since 1992, Greeley has more than 30 years of experience working for international development and nonprofit health organisations, as well as for the pharmaceutical company Merck & Co. Inc; the director concentrated on improving the medication supplies of emerging countries. The funding of AIHA is supported by a unique collaboration between the U.

S. government and the private sector. AIHA has constructed 200 partnerships and projects in 34 countries since 2004, it was funded by over $361 million from U. S. Government grants and awards, U. S. twinning partners donated more than $292 million simultaneously. One of the donors is the U. S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, the US organisation focus on dealing HIV diseases, it regards the AIHA as the primary implementing partners; the corporation between AIHA and USAID is based on the investment from USAID. This public-private partnership aims to improve prime level care and treatment for those people living with HIV/AIDS in the Samara and Saratov regions of Russia. AIHA focus on the training and evaluation parts with the financial support by USAID and AIDS Healthcare Foundation; the result is optimistic that the health care of AIDS had been strengthened and the local patients symptom were improved during this corporation. The partnership model of AIHA are developing among 14 countries such as Africa, Asia and the Caribbean formed twinning partnerships and they leverage $110 million in US government funds, US partners contributes $41 million.

The organisation seeks the foreign partner and government with positive participation and interesting in investment to ensure to satisfy the specific demand. Civil society organisations participated in, planned the each stage of the program, from advertising to providing the services, it is crucial for the succeed and sustainability of PEPFAR and the accomplishment of preventing the AIDS; the goals of the CSO initiative are both expanding the capacity of PEPFAR team to make society participate the successful planning for Country Operational Plans plan meaningfully and enabling the worldwide PEPFAR team to join in. AIHA and the National Alliance of State and Territorial AIDS Directors started up a data use package which spreading up to the worldwide PEPFAR team and a series of techniques support and intervention measure to enhance the more meaningful interaction between national team and CSOs; these organisations represented the professionals with different experiences. Some may be informed in the strategy decisions, others might be not conversant.

PEFAR played a role of constructing a simplified framework, to achieve that promoting progress of censorship and present the epidemiology and planned data. As a result, that the CSO workers could analysis and inform the PEPFAR plans; the partnership model of AIHA demonstrates that host community should develop the recognition of ownership for both the programs and the methodology in order to have a sustainable outcome. AIHA improved Russian health care plan by sponsoring the programs in a partnership between US and Russian communities since 1992. Due to the deterioration of health condition in Russia since the 1960s, the fall of Soviet Union caused the failure of supporting health service which resulted with the shortage of medications, decreasing life span and increasing mortality. Russian health system was lack of the clinical practice, centralised management structure, a compartmentalised specialist-based system. In 1996, a new partnership between Los Alamos, NM, its sister city, Russia began.

AIHA granted the partnership with the goal of boosting the health of children and improving the treatment of chronic diseases in Savor community oriented primary care, summarised to the Los Alamos-Sarov medical partnership. AIHA implemented the health-care model in accordance with guidelines for asthma and diabetes that evidently resulted

Adopting Terror

Adopting Terror is a 2012 drama thriller film directed by Micho Rutare and starring Sean Astin, Samaire Armstrong, Monet Mazur. It was released on April 7, 2012. Parts of the movie were filmed in Los Angeles, Santa Clarita, Sun Valley, California. Tim and Cheryl are happy; as they begin to form a family bond with each other, Mona's biological father stalks them. Kevin is stopped by Tim and Cheryl; as this stalking becomes repetitive, they call the police but they have no answer for them. They are determined to protect Mona from the terror that Kevin brings to them. Sean Astin as Tim Broadbent Samaire Armstrong as Cheryl Broadbent Monet Mazur as Fay Hopkins Brendan Fehr as Kevin Anderson Michael Gross as Dr Ziegler Siena Perez as Mona Anderson - Six-months-old Bella Mateko as Mona - Age one Gracie Mateko as Mona - Age one Shiloh Nelson as Mona - Age two Ken Colquitt as Judge Ryan Official website at The Asylum Adopting Terror at AllMovie Adopting Terror at Rotten Tomatoes