Brunei the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace, is a country located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia. Apart from its coastline with the South China Sea, the country is surrounded by the Malaysian state of Sarawak, it is separated into two parts by the Sarawak district of Limbang. Brunei is the only sovereign state on the island of Borneo. Brunei's population was 423,196 in 2016. At the peak of the Bruneian Empire, Sultan Bolkiah is alleged to have had control over most regions of Borneo, including modern-day Sarawak and Sabah, as well as the Sulu Archipelago off the northeast tip of Borneo and the islands off the northwest tip of Borneo; the maritime state was visited by Spain's Magellan Expedition in 1521 and fought against Spain in the 1578 Castilian War. During the 19th century, the Bruneian Empire began to decline; the Sultanate ceded Sarawak to James Brooke and installed him as the White Rajah, it ceded Sabah to the British North Borneo Chartered Company. In 1888, Brunei became a British protectorate and was assigned a British resident as colonial manager in 1906.
After the Japanese occupation during World War II, in 1959 a new constitution was written. In 1962, a small armed rebellion against the monarchy was ended with the help of the British. Brunei gained its independence from the United Kingdom on 1 January 1984. Economic growth during the 1990s and 2000s, with the GDP increasing 56% from 1999 to 2008, transformed Brunei into an industrialised country, it has developed wealth from extensive petroleum and natural gas fields. Brunei has the second-highest Human Development Index among the Southeast Asian nations, after Singapore, is classified as a "developed country". According to the International Monetary Fund, Brunei is ranked fifth in the world by gross domestic product per capita at purchasing power parity; the IMF estimated in 2011 that Brunei was one of two countries with a public debt at 0% of the national GDP. Forbes ranks Brunei as the fifth-richest nation out of 182, based on its petroleum and natural gas fields. According to local historiography, Brunei was founded by Awang Alak Betatar to be Sultan Muhammad Shah, reigning around AD 1400.
He moved from Garang in the Temburong District to the Brunei River estuary. According to legend, upon landing he exclaimed, Baru nah, he was the first Muslim ruler of Brunei. Before the rise of the Bruneian Empire under the Muslim Bolkiah Dynasty, Brunei is believed to have been under Buddhist rulers, it was renamed "Barunai" in the 14th century influenced by the Sanskrit word "varuṇ", meaning "seafarers". The word "Borneo" is of the same origin. In the country's full name, Negara Brunei Darussalam, darussalam means "abode of peace", while negara means "country" in Malay; the earliest recorded documentation by the West about Brunei is by an Italian known as Ludovico di Varthema, who said the "Bruneian people have fairer skin tone than the peoples he met in Maluku Islands". On his documentation back to 1550; the people are men of goodwill. Their colour is whiter than that of the other sort... in this island justice is well administered... The settlement known as Vijayapura was a colony to the Buddhist Srivijaya empire and was thought to be located in Borneo's Northwest which flourished in the 7th Century.
In the aftermath of the Indian Chola invasion of Srivijaya, Datu Puti lead some dissident datus from Sumatra and Borneo in a rebellion against Rajah Makatunao, a Chola appointed local Rajah. The dissidents and their retinue tried to revive Srivijaya in a new country called Madja-as in the Visayas islands in the Philippines. One of the earliest Chinese records of an independent kingdom in Borneo is the 977 AD letter to Chinese emperor from the ruler of Po-ni, which some scholars believe to refer to Borneo. In 1225, a Chinese official, Chau Ju-Kua, reported that Po-ni had 100 warships to protect its trade, that there was a lot of wealth in the kingdom. In the 14th century, the Javanese manuscript Nagarakretagama, written by Prapanca in 1365, mentioned Barune as the constituent state of Hindu Majapahit, which had to make an annual tribute of 40 katis of camphor. In 1369, Sulu, formerly part of Majapahit, had rebelled and attacked Po-ni, looting it of treasure and gold. A fleet from Majapahit succeeded in driving away the Sulus, but Po-ni was left weaker after the attack.
A Chinese report from 1371 described Po-ni as poor and controlled by Majapahit. During the 15th century, Po-ni had seceded from Majapahit and converted to Islam, thus transforming into the independent Sultanate of Brunei. Brunei became a Hashemite state when she allowed the Arab Emir of Mecca, Sharif Ali, to become her third sultan. Scholars claim that the power of the Sultanate of Brunei was at its peak between the 15th and 17th centuries, with its power extending from northern Borneo to the southern Philippines and in the northern Philippines which Brunei incorporated via territorial acquisition accomplished through royal marriages. However, Islamic Brunei's power was not uncontested in Borneo since it had a Hindu rival called Kutai in the sou
Prince-Bishopric of Basel
The Prince-Bishopric of Basel was an ecclesiastical principality within the Holy Roman Empire, ruled from 1032 by Prince-Bishops with their seat at Basel, from 1528 until 1792 at Porrentruy, thereafter at Schliengen. The final dissolution of the state occurred in 1803 as part of the German Mediatisation; the Prince-Bishopric comprised territories now in the Swiss cantons of Basel-Landschaft, Jura and Bern, besides minor territories in nearby portions of southern Germany and eastern France. The city of Basel ceased to be part of the Prince-Bishopric after it joined the Swiss Confederacy in 1501; the city of Basel became. 740, continuing the 4th century diocese of Augusta Raurica. In 999, Rudolph III of Burgundy presented the bishop of Basel with the Abbey of Moutier-Grandval, establishing the bishopric as a secular vassal state of Burgundy with feudal authority over significant territories. After the death of Rudolph in 1032, the vassalage was converted to imperial immediacy, elevating the Bishop of Basel to the status of Prince-Bishop, ranking as an ecclesiastical Reichsfurst of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Prince-Bishopric reached the peak of its power during the late 12th to early 14th centuries. In the course of the 14th century, financial difficulties forced the bishops of Basel to sell parts of their territory. During the 15th century, however, a number of politically and militarily successful bishops managed to regain some of the lost territories and Basel began to align itself with the Old Swiss Confederacy as an "associated city". Basel became the focal point of western Christendom during the 15th century Council of Basel, including the 1439 election of antipope Felix V. In 1459 Pope Pius II endowed the University of Basel where such notables as Erasmus of Rotterdam and Paracelsus taught. Following the Imperial Reform of 1495, the prince-bishopric was part of the Upper Rhenish Circle of the Imperial Circle Estates. In the 16th century the city of Basel and its surrounding territory acceded to the Old Swiss Confederacy as the Canton of Basel, it soon joined the Swiss Reformation. The secular rule of the Prince-Bishops from this time was limited to territories west of Basel, more or less corresponding to the modern canton of Jura.
The Prince-Bishopric lost most of its remaining territories to the Rauracian Republic in 1792, retaining Schliengen as its sole dominion. Schliengen was made part of the Margraviate of Baden in the resolution of the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss of 1803, discontinuing the status of the bishops of Basel as secular rulers. By the 16th century, the Prince-Bishopric of Basel comprised: The Prince-Bishopric held the following territories, which were lost before 1527: Landgraviate of Buchsgau Landgraviate of Sisgau Barony of Valangin List of bishops of Basel History of Basel Prince-Bishopric of Basel in German and Italian in the online Historical Dictionary of Switzerland
Principality of Catalonia
The Principality of Catalonia was a medieval and early modern political entity in the northeastern Iberian Peninsula. During most of its history it was in dynastic union with the Kingdom of Aragon, constituting together the Crown of Aragon. Between the 13th and the 18th centuries it was bordered by the Kingdom of Aragon to the west, the Kingdom of Valencia to the south, the Kingdom of France and the feudal lordship of Andorra to the north and by the Mediterranean sea to the east; the term "Principality of Catalonia" remained in use until the Second Spanish Republic, when its use declined because of its historical relation to the monarchy. Today, the term Principat is used to refer to the autonomous community of Catalonia in Spain, as distinct from the other Catalan Countries, and including the historical region of Roussillon in southern France. The first reference to Catalonia and the Catalans appears in the Liber maiolichinus de gestis Pisanorum illustribus, a Pisan chronicle of the conquest of Menorca by a joint force of Italians and Occitans.
At the time, Catalonia did not yet exist as a political entity, though the use of this term seems to acknowledge Catalonia as a cultural or geographical entity. The counties that would make up the Principality of Catalonia were unified under the rule of the Count of Barcelona. In 1137, the County of Barcelona and the Kingdom of Aragon were unified under a single dynasty, creating what modern historians call the Crown of Aragon. Under Alfons I the Troubador, Catalonia was regarded as a legal entity for the first time. Still, the term Principality of Catalonia was not used until the 14th century, when it was applied to the territories ruled by the Courts of Catalonia, its institutional system evolved over the centuries, establishing political bodies and legislation which limited the royal power and secured the political model of pactism. Catalonia contributed to further develop the Crown trade and military, most their navy. Catalan language flourished and expanded as more territories were added to the Crown, including Valencia, the Balearic Islands, Sicily and Athens, constituting a thalassocracy across the Mediterranean.
The crisis of the 14th century, the end of the rule of House of Barcelona and a civil war weakened the role of the Principality in Crown and international affairs. The marriage of Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile in 1469 laid the foundations of the Monarchy of Spain. In 1492 the Spanish colonization of the Americas began, political power began to shift away towards Castile. Tensions between Catalan institutions and the Monarchy, alongside the peasants' revolts provoked the Reapers' War. By the Treaty of the Pyrenees the Roussillon was ceded to France. During the War of the Spanish Succession, the Crown of Aragon supported the Archduke Charles of Habsburg. After the surrender of Barcelona in 1714, the king Philip V of Bourbon, inspired by the model of France imposed the abolutism and a unifying administration across Spain, enacted the Nueva Planta decrees for every realm of the Crown of Aragon, which suppressed the main Catalan, Aragonese and Majorcan political institutions and rights and merged them into the Crown of Castile as provinces.
Like much of the Mediterranean coast of the Iberian Peninsula, it was colonized by Ancient Greeks, who chose to settle in Roses. Both Greeks and Carthaginians interacted with the main Iberian population. After the Carthaginian defeat, it became, along with the rest of Hispania, a part of the Roman Empire, Tarraco being one of the main Roman posts in the Iberian Peninsula and the capital of the province of Tarraconensis; the Visigoths ruled after the Western Roman Empire's collapse near the end of the 5th century. Moorish Al-Andalus gained control in the early 8th century, after conquering the Visigothic kingdom in 711–718. After the defeat of Emir Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqiwas's troops at Tours in 732, the Franks gained control of the former Visigoth territories north of the Pyrenees, captured by the Muslims or had become allied with them, in what is today Catalonia under French administration. In 795, Charlemagne created what came to be known as the Marca Hispanica, a buffer zone beyond the province of Septimania, made up of locally administered separate petty kingdoms which served as a defensive barrier between the Umayyad of Al-Andalus and the Frankish Kingdom.
A distinctive Catalan culture started to develop in the Middle Ages stemming from a number of these petty kingdoms organized as small counties throughout the northernmost part of Catalonia. The counts of Barcelona were Frankish vassals nominated by the Carolingian emperor the king of the Franks, to whom they were feudatories. During the 9th century, Wifred the Hairy, Count of Barcelona, made its title hereditary and founded the dynasty of the House of Barcelona, which ruled Catalonia until the death of Martin I, its last member, in 1410. In 987 Count Borrell II did not recognise the Frankish king Hugh Capet and his new dynasty taking Barcelona out of Frankish rule. During the 9th and 10th centuries, the counties became a society of aloers, peasant proprietors of small, family-based farms, who lived by subsisten
The Sultanate of Aceh the Kingdom of Aceh Darussalam, was a Sultanate centered in the modern-day Indonesian province of Aceh. It was a major regional power in the 16th and 17th centuries, before experiencing a long period of decline, its capital was the present-day Banda Aceh. At its peak it was a formidable enemy of the Sultanate of Johor and Portuguese-controlled Malacca, both on the Malayan Peninsula, as all three attempted to control the trade through the Strait of Malacca and the regional exports of pepper and tin with fluctuating success. In addition to its considerable military strength, the court of Aceh became a noted centre of Islamic scholarship and trade. Aceh's early history is unclear; the Acehnese language is one of the 10 languages of the Aceh-Chamic language group. According to the Sejarah Melayu, the Champa king Syah Pau Kubah had a son Syah Pau Ling who escaped when the capital Vijaya was sacked by the Vietnamese Lê dynasty in 1471, who founded the Aceh kingdom; the ruler of Aceh converted to Islam in the mid-15th century.
The Sultanate was founded by Ali Mughayat Syah, who began campaigns to extend his control over northern Sumatra in 1520. His conquests included Deli and Pasai, he attacked Aru, his son Alauddin al-Kahar extended the domains farther south into Sumatra, but was less successful in his attempts to gain a foothold across the strait, though he made several attacks on both Johor and Malacca, with the support along with men and firearms from Suleiman the Magnificent's Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Empire sent a relief force of 15 Xebecs commanded by Kurtoğlu Hızır Reis. On 21 June 1599 a Dutch captain, Cornelius Houtman arrived at "Acheen" aboard the Lioness as the first of three planned voyages to the East Indies; the crew stayed for three months acquiring other spices. British crew member John Davis claims the party was subsequently attacked by the local warlord with the loss of 68 dead and captured. After they arrived, they were permitted by the Sultan to purchase pepper, during the same year as representatives of the English East India Company under the command of James Lancaster arrived.
He returned in 1602 bearing a letter from English Queen Elizabeth I. The Sultan from 1589 to 1604 was Alauddin Riayat Shah ibn Firman Shah. Internal dissension in the Sultanate prevented another powerful Sultan from appearing until 1607 when Iskandar Muda came to the position, he extended the Sultanate's control over most of Sumatra. He conquered Pahang, a tin-producing region of the Malayan Peninsula, was able to force the Sultans of Johor to recognise his overlordship, if temporarily. During his reign, he created a code of laws known as Adat Meukuta Alam; the strength of his formidable fleet was brought to an end with a disastrous campaign against Malacca in 1629 when the combined Portuguese and Johor forces managed to destroy all his ships and 19,000 troops according to Portuguese account. Aceh's forces were not destroyed, however, as Aceh was able to conquer Kedah within the same year and taking many of its citizens to Aceh; the Sultan's son in law, Iskandar Thani, former prince of Pahang became his successor.
During his reign, Aceh focused on religious unity. After the reign of Sultan Iskandar Thani, Aceh was ruled by a series of female Sultana. Aceh's previous policy of taking hostages from conquered kingdoms' population made them eager to seek independence, the results were Aceh's control weakened while regional rulers gained effective power; the Sultan became a symbolic title. By the 1680s, a Persian visitor could describe a northern Sumatra where "every corner shelters a separate king or governor and all the local rulers maintain themselves independently and do not pay tribute to any higher authority." Aceh saw itself as heir to Pasai, the first Islamic state in Southeast Asia, succeeded Islamic missionary work of Malacca after it was conquered by the Roman Catholic Portuguese. It was called the "porch of Mecca," and became a centre of Islamic scholarship, where the Qur'an and other Islamic texts were translated into Malay, its notable scholars included Hamzah Fansuri, Syamsuddin of Pasai, Abdurrauf of Singkil, the Indian Nuruddin ar-Raniri.
Aceh gained wealth from its export of pepper, cloves, betel nuts, once it conquered Pahang in 1617, tin. Low interest rates and the use of gold currency strengthened its economy, it was always somewhat fragile economically, because of the difficulty in providing enough surplus food to support the military and commercial adventures of the state. As Aceh lost political cohesion in the 17th century, it saw its trading importance yielded to the Dutch East India Company, who became the dominant military and economic power in the region following the successful siege of Malacca in 1641. In 1699 Sultan Badr al-alam Syarif Hasyim Jamal ad-din ascended to the throne, the first male to rule in 60 years, he was succeeded by several short-lived rulers, in 1727 a member of the Buginese dynasty, Sultan Ala ad-din Ahmad Shah took power. In the late 18th and early 19th Centuries, Koh Lay Huan – the first Kapitan Cina of Penang, had good contacts with the English-and-French-speaking Sultan of Aceh, Jauhar al-Alam.
The Sultan allowed Koh to gather pepper plants in Aceh to begin pepper cultivation in Penang. About 1819, Koh helped Sultan Jauhar al-Alam put down a rebellion by Acehnese territorial chiefs. In the 1820s, as Aceh produced over half the world's supply of pepper, a new leader, Tuanku Ibrahim, was able to restore some authority to the Sultanate and gain control over the "pepper rajas
The term Barbary Coast was used by Europeans from the 16th century to the early 19th to refer to the coastal regions of North Africa inhabited by Berber people. Today this land is part of the modern nations of Morocco, Algeria and Libya; the English term "Barbary" could refer to all the Berber lands whether coastal or not, as seen in European geographical and political maps published during the 17th–20th centuries. The name derives from the Berber people of North Africa, from Greek Bàrbaroi and the Arabic Barbar, meaning "barbaric". In the West, the name evoked the Barbary pirates and Barbary slave traders based on that coast—who attacked ships and coastal settlements in the Mediterranean Sea and eastern North Atlantic Ocean, captured and traded slaves or goods from Europe and sub-Saharan Africa; these actions provoked the Barbary Wars of the early 19th century. Barbary was not always a unified political entity. From the 16th century onwards, it was divided into the political entities of the Regency of Algiers and Tripolitania.
Major rulers petty monarchs during the times of the Barbary states' plundering parties included the Pasha or Dey of Algiers, the Bey of Tunis and the Bey of Tripoli. Before the territory was divided between Ifriqiya, a west-central Algerian state centered on Tlemcen or Tiaret. Powerful Berber dynasties such as the Almohads and thereafter the Hafsids unified it for short periods. From a European perspective, Tripoli in modern-day Libya, was considered its capital or chief city—though Marrakesh in Morocco was the largest and most important Berber city at the time; some saw Tangiers in Morocco as the capital. The first United States military land action overseas, executed by the U. S. Marines and Navy, was the Battle of Derna, Tripoli in April 1805, it formed part of an effort to destroy all of the Barbary pirates, to free American slaves in captivity, to put an end to piracy acts between these warring tribes on the part of the Barbary states, which were themselves member states of the Ottoman Empire.
The opening line of the Marines' Hymn refers to this action: "From the halls of Montezuma to the shores of Tripoli..." This was the first time the United States Marine Corps took part in offensive actions outside of the United States. The modern word razzia is, via Italian and French, from Algerian Arabic ghaziya referring to slave raids conducted by Barbary pirates. Ottoman Algeria Ottoman Tripolitania Ottoman Tunisia Turkish Abductions Republic of Salé Langue de Barbarie Barbary duck "When Europeans Were Slaves: Research Suggests White Slavery Was Much More Common Than Previously Believed", Ohio State University
Kingdom of Cochin
Kingdom of Cochin was a late medieval kingdom and princely state on the Malabar Coast, South India. Once controlling much of the territory between Ponnani and Thottappally, the Cochin kingdom shrank to its minimal extent as a result of invasions by the Zamorin of Calicut; when Portuguese armadas arrived in India, the Kingdom of Cochin had lost its vassals like Edapalli, Cranganore etc. to Zamorin and was looking for an opportunity to preserve independance of Cochin, at risk. King Unni Goda Varma Tirumulpadu warmly welcomed Pedro Álvares Cabral on 24 December 1500 and negotiated a treaty of alliance between Portugal and the Cochin kingdom, directed against the Zamorin of Calicut. Cochin became a long-time Portuguese ally providing assistance against native overlords. After the Portuguese, the Dutch East India Company was an ally of Cochin; this was followed by the English East India Company. Today, the full official designation of the Raja of Cochin is “Perumpadappu Gangadhara Veera Kerala Thrikkovil Adhikarikal”.
The Kingdom of Cochin known as Perumpadappu Swarupam, was under the rule of the Later Cheras in the Middle Ages. The Nambudiri of Perumpadappu had married the sister of the last Later Chera king, Rama Varma Kulashekhara, as a consequence obtained Mahodayapuram, Thiruvanchikulam Temple along with numerous other rights, such as that of the Mamankam festival. After the fall of the Mahodayapuram Cheras in the 12th century, along with numerous other provinces Perumpadappu Swarupam became a free political entity. However, it was only after the arrival of Portuguese colonizers on the Malabar Coast did the Perumpadappu Swarupam acquire any political importance. Perumpadappu rulers had family relationships with the Nambudiri rulers of Edappally. After the transfer of Kochi and Vypin from Edappally rulers to the Perumpadappu rulers, the latter came to be known as kings of Kochi. Ma Huan, the Muslim voyager and translator who accompanied Admiral Zheng He on three of his seven expeditions to the Western Oceans, describes the king of Cochin as being a Buddhist.
The Cochin kingdom included much of modern-day Thrissur district excluding chavakkad taluk, few areas of Alathur taluk and the whole of Chittur Taluk of the Palakkad district and Kochi Taluk, most of Kanayannur Taluk, parts of Aluva Taluk, parts of Kunnathunad Taluk and parts of Paravur Taluk of the Ernakulam district which are now the part of the Indian state of Kerala. There is no extant written evidence about the emergence of the Kingdom of Cochin or of the Cochin Royal Family known as Perumpadapu Swaroopam. All, recorded are folk tales and stories, a somewhat blurred historical picture about the origins of the ruling dynasty; the surviving manuscripts, such as Keralolpathi and Perumpadapu Grandavari, are collections of myths and legends that are less than reliable as conventional historical sources. There is an oft-recited legend that the last Perumal who ruled the Chera dynasty divided his kingdom between his nephews and his sons, converted to Islam and traveled to Mecca on a hajj; the Keralolpathi recounts the above narrative in the following fashion: The last and the famous "Perumal" ruled Kerala for 36 years.
He left for Mecca by ship with some Muslims who converted to Islam. Before leaving for Mecca, he divided his kingdom between his sons; the Perumpadapu Grandavari contains an additional account of the dynastic origins: The last Thavazhi of Perumpadapu Swaroopam came into existence on the Kaliyuga day shodashangamsurajyam. Cheraman Perumal divided the land in half, 17 "amsa" north of Neelaeswaram and 17 amsa south, totaling 34 amsa, gave his powers to his nephews and sons. Thirty-four kingdoms between Kanyakumari and Gokarna were given to the "thampuran", the daughter of the last niece of Cheraman Perumal. Keralolpathi recorded the division of his kingdom in 345 Common Era, Perumpadapu Grandavari in 385 Common Era, William Logan in 825 Common Era. There are no written records on these earlier divisions of Kerala, but according to some historians the division might have occurred during the Second Chera Kingdom at the beginning of the 12th century. Cochin kingdom ruled over a vast area in central Kerala before the Portuguese arrival.
Their state stretched up to Ponnani and Pukkaitha in the north, Aanamala in the east, Cochin and Porakkad in the south, with capital at Perumpadappu on the northern border. Calicut was conquered by Zamorin of Eranad, who conquered large parts of Cochin Kingdom, began trying to assert suzerainty over Cochin. On the Malabar coast during the early 15th century and Cochin were in an intense rivalry, so the Ming dynasty of China decided to intervene by granting special status to Cochin and its ruler known as Keyili to the Chinese. Calicut had been the dominant port-city in the region. For the fifth Ming treasure voyage, Admiral Zheng He was instructed to confer a seal upon Keyili of Cochin and designate a mountain in his kingdom as the Zhenguo Zhi Shan. Zheng He delivered a stone tablet, inscribed with a proclamation composed by the Yongle E
Sultanate of Cirebon
The Sultanate of Cirebon was an Islamic sultanate in West Java founded in the 15th century. It is said to have been founded by Sunan Gunungjati, marked by his letter proclaiming Cirebon's independence from Pajajaran in 1482, although the settlement and the polity had been established earlier in 1445. Sunan Gunungjati established the Sultanate of Banten, it was one of the earliest Islamic states established in Java, along with the Sultanate of Demak. The sultanate's capital lay around the modern day city of Cirebon on Java's northern coast. Throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, the sultanate thrived and became a major regional centre of trade and commerce, as well as a prominent centre of Islamic learning; the sultanate split into three royal houses in 1677, a fourth split off in 1807, each with their own separate lines of descent and kratons. Today they remain. There are several suggestions about the origin of the name "Cirebon". According to Sulendraningrat who based on the script Babad Tanah Sunda and Atja on Carita Purwaka Caruban Nagari script, Cirebon at first was a small hamlet built by Ki Gedeng Tapa, which evolved into a bustling port village and named Caruban, because the port town was a melting pot settled by immigrants from various ethnic groups, languages and livelihoods.
Another theory suggests that the town's name derived from rebon, the Sundanese word for small shrimp that live in the area. A common livelihood in the settlement was fishing and collecting rebon along the coast, making shrimp paste or petis udang from it; the term for water used in shrimp paste manufacture is cai rebon, which gave its name to the town as Cirebon. Most of the history of Cirebon Sultanate was found in a local Javanese chronicle known as Babad; some notable chronicles that focused on the history of Cirebon are Carita Purwaka Caruban Nagari and Babad Cerbon. Foreign sources mentioned Cirebon, such as Tomé Pires' Suma Oriental, written in 1512-1515; the period of the sultanate is documented in colonial sources of the Dutch East Indies. Other than recording its own history, one of the royal houses of Cirebon Keraton Keprabonan led by Wangsakerta princes actively recorded and researched the history of Java by collecting old manuscripts; the coastal area around the port of Cirebon was known as a coastal village of Muara Jati, a part of the Sunda kingdom as stated on travel records of Prince Bujangga Manik, a Hindu Sundanese hermit who visited some of the holy Hindu sites in Java and Bali between the late 15th century, or early 16th century.
In his lontar manuscripts. The border of the Sunda kingdom in the west is Sunda Strait and in the east is Cipamali river and Cisarayu river in Central Java Province. At this time Muara Jati was located around 14 kilometres north from modern Cirebon; the transformation from small Hindu coastal fishing village into thriving Muslim port began with the rule of Ki Gedeng Tapa. Ki Ageng Tapa was a wealthy merchant living in the village of Muara Jati, he was appointed as the port master of Muara Jati fishing village by Sunda king reside in Kawali, located further inland south of Muara Jati. The Muara Jati was located several kilometres north of modern Cirebon; the thriving port town attracted Muslim traders. Ki Gedeng Tapa and his daughter, Nyai Subang Larang are said to have been converted to Islam. Nyai Subang Larang studied at Quro pesantren in the Karawang area. At that time the West Java region including Muara Jati belonged to the Sunda kingdom with its capital in Pakuan Pajajaran; the Sunda King Prabu Jayadewata or Sri Baduga Maharaja or popularly known as King Siliwangi was married to Nyai Subang Larang and had three children.
Although Prince Walangsungsang was the first-born son of the Sunda King, the prince did not earn the right as a crown prince of Pakuan Pajajaran. This was because his mother, Nyai Subang Larang was not the prameswari. Another reason was because of his conversion to Islam influenced by his mother, Subang Larang whom was a Muslim woman. At that time in 16th century West Java, the state's religion was the Sunda Wiwitan and Buddhism, it was his half brother, King Siliwangi's son from his third wife Nyai Cantring Manikmayang, chosen as crown prince, who ascended to the throne as King Surawisesa. In 1442 Prince Walangsungsang married Nyai Endang Geulis, daughter of Ki Gedheng Danu Warsih from Gunung Mara Api hermitage. Walangsungsang, with his sister Rara Santang, wandered around several hermitages to study spiritualism. In Gunung Amparan Jati they met an ulama Sheikh Datuk Kahfi from Persia. Walangsungsang, Rara Santang, Endang Geulis, learned Islam from Sheikh Kahfi; the Sheikh asked the Prince to open a new settlement in the area Southeast from Gunung Jati.
Walangsungsang was assisted by Ki Gedheng Danu Warsih's younger brother. The new settlement was called Dukuh Alang-alang. By clearing forest, he established a new settlement on 1 Shura in 1358, coinciding with 8 April 1445 CE. People of this new settlement elected Danusela as their new kuwu refer to as Ki Gedeng Alang-alang, he appointed Raden Walangsungsang as his deputy, titled as Pangraksabumi. How