California State Route 17
State Route 17 is a freeway and expressway that runs between San Jose and Santa Cruz in the U. S. State of California. SR 17 carries substantial commuter and vacation traffic between Santa Cruz and the rest of the San Francisco Bay Area. From its southern terminus with SR 1 in Santa Cruz, Route 17 begins as a five-lane freeway. From there, it proceeds through Scotts Valley. At the north end of Scotts Valley, it becomes a four-lane divided highway, with access at various points without interchanges, begins a winding ascent of the Santa Cruz Mountains; the road crosses the Santa Clara/Santa Cruz county line through the Patchen Pass referred to as "The Summit", at an elevation of 1,800 feet, where there is an interchange with SR 35. Just north of the summit, a winding descent of the mountains begins, again with access at various points without grade separations, as far as Los Gatos. At Los Gatos, SR 17 becomes a freeway again, it expands to six lanes after an interchange with SR 85. This interchange has three levels.
S. 50 in Sacramento, SR 17 is at-grade, with the other levels below-grade. The number of lanes expands to eight shortly before reaching its northern terminus at Interstate 280, where it continues as Interstate 880. SR 17 is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration. SR 17 is eligible to be included in the State Scenic Highway System, but it is not designated as a scenic highway by the California Department of Transportation. SR 17's combination of narrow shoulders, dense traffic, sharp turns, blind curves, wandering fauna such as deer and mountain lions, sudden changes in traffic speeds have led to driving conditions that result in a number of collisions and fatalities, leading to the reputation of SR 17 as one of the most dangerous highways in the state. In the winter months, because SR 17 crosses a high precipitation area in the Santa Cruz Mountains, the roadway can become slippery from rain, snow or ice at the summit.
Despite having fewer curves than Santa Cruz County, certain sections of SR 17 in Santa Clara County are so dangerous that they have been nicknamed. The first long sweeping turn North of Summit Road with its sharp angle and steep entering downhill slope is called "The Valley Surprise" for the fact that so many strike the median shortly after having entered the Santa Clara Valley; the most infamous is called "Big Moody Curve". This curve is named after Big Moody Creek below greater than a 180 degree turn, bracketed by additional 90 degree turns; the inside surfaces of the median barriers in both of these turns are chipped up and black with tire rubber. Efforts to improve safety have included adding electronic speed monitoring signs and warnings lights on curves, removing trees to improve visibility around blind curves, increased patrol and enforcement of traffic laws; the portion between Los Gatos and Scotts Valley has been designated the Highway 17 Safety Corridor by Caltrans and the California Highway Patrol.
Gillian Cichowski Memorial Overcrossing Bridge, over SR 17 near Los Gatos at Lexington Reservoir, was named by California Senate Concurrent Resolution 32, Chapt. 70 in 1994. Gillian Cichowski was killed in an accident at this location in 1992; this is one of the few highway constructions in California named for a woman. The overpass was in response to a campaign by friends of Gillian Cichowski to make the intersection safer; the overpass was open to northbound traffic July 18, 1996 and opened to southbound traffic August 29, 1996. Margaret Green of Sunnyvale, California died in a similar accident near the same location during overpass construction. SR 17 in Santa Cruz County is named after California Highway Patrol Lieutenant Michael Walker. Walker was setting flares to direct traffic around an auto accident on New Year's Eve 2005 when he was struck and killed. In response to this accident near the Glenwood Road intersection, Caltrans began work in 2008 to widen the shoulder to eight feet; the earliest connection between Santa Cruz and San Jose was an old Native American foot trail.
The first road that could be navigated by a wagon was a dirt toll road built by Charlie McKiernan, known as "Mountain Charlie" by locals, some time around 1853. Portions of this road still exist as Mountain Charlie Road, to the west of Highway 17 and south of Summit Road. Several other stage lines were built as competitors, such as the San Jose Turnpike, which follows the approximate route of present-day Soquel San Jose Road. After realignment to increase the road width; these sections became side streets named with variations containing Old Turnpike. Some of these now dead end streets have retained the look of narrow stage coach roads. SR 17 was opened in 1940, replacing several other modes of transportation, including the old Glenwood Highway from 1919, the railroad which went all the way from Santa Cruz to San Francisco and Oakland; the railroad stopped operating in 1940 and the tunnels that it passed through were sealed soon after. Nearly all the tunnel entrances still exist, but are unusable as the tunnels themselves are collapsed.
The rise in the use of automobiles made the railroads unprofitable. The city of Glenwood, founded by Charles C. Martin in 1851, gained notoriety for hot springs in the area; the Glenwood Highway, which passed through town, was deserted when the "New 17" was built, the town became a ghost of its former self. The town has but one
California State Legislature
The California State Legislature is a bicameral legislature consisting of a lower house, the California State Assembly, with 80 members. Both houses of the Legislature convene at the California State Capitol in Sacramento; the California State Legislature is one of just ten full-time state legislatures in the United States. The Democratic Party holds supermajorities in both houses of the California State Legislature; the Assembly consists of 61 Democrats and 19 Republicans, while the Senate is composed of 28 Democrats and 10 Republicans, with two vacancies. Except for a brief period from 1995 to 1996, the Assembly has been in Democratic hands since the 1970 election; the Senate, has been under continuous Democratic control since 1970. New legislators convene each new two-year session, to organize, in the Assembly and Senate Chambers at noon on the first Monday in December following the election. After the organizational meeting, both houses are in recess until the first Monday in January, except when the first Monday is January 1 or January 1 is a Sunday, in which case they meet the following Wednesday.
Aside from the recess, the legislature is in session year-round. Since California was given official statehood by the U. S. in September 9, 1850 as part of the Compromise of 1850, the state capital was variously San Jose and Benicia, until Sacramento was selected in 1854. The first Californian State House was a hotel in San Jose owned by businessman Pierre "Don Pedro" Sainsevain and his associates; the State Legislature meets in the California State Capitol in Sacramento. Members of the Assembly serve two-year terms. All 80 Assembly seats are subject to election every two years. Members of the Senate serve four-year terms; every two years, one half of the Senate is subject to election, with odd-numbered districts up for election during presidential elections, even-numbered districts up for election during midterm elections. Term limits were established in 1990 following the passage of Proposition 140. In June 2012, voters approved Proposition 28, which limits legislators to a maximum of 12 years, without regard to whether they serve those years in the State Assembly or the State Senate.
Legislators first elected on or before June 5, 2012 are restricted by the previous term limits, approved in 1990, which limited legislators to three terms in the State Assembly and two terms in the State Senate. The proceedings of the California State Legislature are summarized in published journals, which show votes and who proposed or withdrew what. Reports produced by California executive agencies, as well as the Legislature, were published in the Appendices to the Journals from 1849 to 1970. Since the 1990s, the legislature has provided a live video feed for its sessions, has been broadcast statewide on the California Channel and local Public-access television cable TV. Due to the expense and the obvious political downside, California did not keep verbatim records of actual speeches made by members of the Assembly and Senate until the video feed began; as a result, reconstructing legislative intent outside of an act's preamble is difficult in California for legislation passed before the 1990s.
Since 1993, the Legislature has hosted a web/ftp site in another. The current Website contains the text of all statutes, all bills, the text of all versions of the bills, all the committee analyses of bills, all the votes on bills in committee or on the floor, veto messages from the Governor. Before committees published reports for significant bills, but most bills were not important enough to justify the expense of printing and distributing a report to archives and law libraries across the state. For bills lacking such a formal committee report, the only way to discover legislative intent is to access the state archives in Sacramento and manually review the files of relevant legislators, legislative committees, the Governor's Office from the relevant time period, in the hope of finding a statement of intent and evidence that the statement reflected the views of several of the legislators who voted for the bill; the most sought-after legislative committee appointments are to banking and insurance.
These are sometimes called "juice" committees, because membership in these committees aids the campaign fundraising efforts of the committee members, because powerful lobbying groups want to donate to members of these committees. A bill is a proposal to repeal, or add to existing state law. An Assembly Bill is one introduced in the Assembly. Bills are designated in the order of introduction in each house. For example, AB 16 refers to the 16th bill introduced in the Assembly; the numbering starts afresh each session. There may be one or more "extraordinary" sessions; the bill numbering starts again for each of these. For example, the third bill introduced in the Assembly for the second extraordinary session is ABX2 3; the name of the author, the legislator who introduced the bill, becomes part of the title of the bill. The legislative procedure, is divided into distinct stages: Drafting; the procedure begins when a Assembly Member decides to author a bill. A legislator sends the idea for the bill to the California Office of the Legislative Counsel, which drafts it into bill form and returns the draft to the legislator for introduction.
Introduction or First Reading. A legislator introduces a bill for the first time by reading or having read: the bill number, name of
Santa Clarita, California
Santa Clarita the City of Santa Clarita, is the third largest city in Los Angeles County and the 24th largest in the state of California. The city has annexed a number of unincorporated areas, contributing to the large population increase, it is located about 35 miles northwest of downtown Los Angeles, occupies most of the Santa Clarita Valley. It is a notable example of a U. S. edge boomburb. Santa Clarita was ranked by Money magazine in 2006 as 18th of the top 100 places to live. Santa Clarita was incorporated in December 1987 as the union of four unincorporated communities, Canyon Country, Newhall and Valencia, most of which are situated on the land of the former Rancho San Francisco; the four communities retain separate identities, it is common for residents to refer to a specific neighborhood when asked where they are from. Santa Clarita is bounded on the west by the Golden State Freeway; the Antelope Valley Freeway runs northeast-southwest through an irregular east border, the Newhall Pass is the city's southernmost point.
Six Flags Magic Mountain amusement park and Stevenson Ranch are both associated with Santa Clarita, though since both are located west of Interstate 5, neither is within the Santa Clarita city limits. The Santa Clara River was named by Spanish explorers for Clare of Assisi; the valley and the settlement became known as "little Santa Clara" in deference to the Northern California mission and city of Santa Clara, California. In time, "little Santa Clara" became "Santa Clarita." Santa Clarita was incorporated in December 1987. About AD 450, the Tataviam arrived. In 1842, Francisco Lopez made the first "documented" discovery of gold in California; the event is memorialized in an 1842 mining claim issued by Gov. Juan B. Alvarado; the discovery was made in Placerita Canyon, an area used as Hollywood's original back lot. The community of Newhall is named after Henry Newhall, a businessman who made his fortune during the California Gold Rush after opening up the H. M. Newhall & Company, a successful auction house in San Francisco.
Newhall's next business interest was railroads. He invested in rail companies that would connect San Francisco to other cities and became president of the San Francisco and San Jose Railroad. In 1870, he and his partners sold the company to Southern Pacific Railroad, on whose board of directors he sat. After railroads, Newhall turned to real ranching, he purchased a number of the old Spanish and Mexican land grants in the state for a total of 143,000 acres between Monterey and Los Angeles counties. The most significant portion was the 46,460 acres Rancho San Francisco in northern Los Angeles County, which he purchased for $2/acre, which became known as Newhall Ranch after Newhall's death. Within this territory, he granted a right-of-way to Southern Pacific through what is now Newhall Pass, he sold them part of the land, upon which the company built a town named after him: Newhall; the first station built on the line he named for his hometown, Massachusetts. After his death, Newhall's heirs incorporated the Newhall Land and Farming Company, which oversaw the development of the communities that now make up Santa Clarita.
On September 26, 1876, Charles Alexander Mentry brought in the state's first productive oil well at Mentryville, giving rise to the California oil industry. The oil was brought to a refinery at Newhall, now the oldest existing petroleum refinery in the world. A few days earlier, on September 5, 1876, Charles Crocker and Leland Stanford joined their railroads in Canyon Country, linking Los Angeles with the rest of the nation for the first time; the Saugus Cafe, on Railroad Avenue in Saugus, was established in 1887 and appears to be, by far, the oldest still-operating restaurant in Los Angeles County. Filming in Santa Clarita began shortly after the turn of the 20th century with a veritable Who's Who of actors, including William S. Hart, Tom Mix, Harry Carey and a young John Wayne. Hart and Carey made their homes in the Santa Clarita Valley; the Santa Clarita Valley was the scene of the second worst disaster in California's history in terms of lives lost, known as the "worst civil engineering failure of the 20th century".
Shortly before midnight on March 12, 1928, the St. Francis Dam collapsed. By the time the floodwaters reached the Pacific Ocean near Ventura five hours nearly 600 people were dead. Within modern Santa Clarita city limits, the present day site of the Westfield Valencia Town Center mall would have been buried beneath muck and debris; some buildings in Newhall became makeshift morgues. After multiple failed attempts to form a city and at least two failed attempts to form a separate county, the people of the Santa Clarita Valley incorporated the City of Santa Clarita at 4:30 PM on December 15, 1987 after voting in favor of incorporation by a margin of two to one in that year's general election; the other proposed name for the new city, narrowly defeated, was "City of the Canyons." Santa Clarita, according to the United States Census Bureau, has an area of 62.16 square miles, of which 62.10 square miles is land and 0.06 square miles is water. Santa Clarita is near the San Fernando fault zone and was affected by the 1971 San Fernando earthquake known as the Sylmar quake.
The city was affected by the 1994 Northridge earthquake, many commercial and residential buildings were devastated by its aftermath, including the nearby Newhall Pass, the Valencia Town Center, Six Flags Magic Mountain. Magi
California State Route 82
State Route 82 is a state highway in the U. S. state of California that runs from Interstate 880 in San Jose to I-280 in San Francisco following the San Francisco Peninsula. It is the spinal arterial road of the peninsula and runs parallel to the nearby Caltrain line along much of the route. For much of its length, the highway is named El Camino Real and formed part of the historic El Camino Real mission trail, it passes through and near many the historic downtowns of many Peninsula cities, including Burlingame, San Mateo, Redwood City, Menlo Park, Palo Alto, Mountain View, Sunnyvale, through some of the most walkable and transit-oriented neighborhoods in the region. At its south end SR 82 starts as The Alameda at I-880 in San Jose. Once it enters Santa Clara, it bends north-east around Santa Clara University and onto El Camino Real, where it continues for the remainder of its trip up the San Francisco Peninsula, paralleling the Caltrain corridor. SR 82 called "El Camino" by local residents, runs through a number of cities on the Peninsula, including Palo Alto, San Carlos, San Mateo and Millbrae, it is a central artery of the Peninsula communities through which it passes.
In Daly City, SR 82 becomes Mission Street, connecting with San Francisco's Mission Street, but quickly flows onto San Jose Avenue, crossing Alemany Boulevard, terminating at I-280. SR 82 takes an inland course paralleling US 101; the entire route is at street level with at least four lanes of traffic. The Bayshore Freeway and I-280 tend to provide faster alternatives than Route 82 during traffic jams on those freeways. From 1964 to 1968, SR 82 continued past its current end north on Alemany Boulevard to Bayshore Boulevard in San Francisco. Prior to 2013, SR 82 continued past its current south end on The Alameda, becoming Santa Clara St. in Downtown San Jose turning south on Montgomery St. / Autumn St.. It turned south on Market St. which becomes 1st St. and Monterey Highway. It followed Monterey Highway until it turned east on Blossom Hill Road, where it ended at US 101; this relinquished segment south of I-880 within San Jose is no longer a state highway, but the state's Streets and Highways Code mandates that the City of San Jose is still required to maintain "signs directing motorists to the continuation of Route 82" and "ensure the continuity of traffic flow" on this segment.
Signs along US 101, I-280, SR 87 where these relinquished segments intersect still have SR 82 shields. Though as of 2017, certain signs with SR 82 shields have been removed along US 101 near Blossom Hill Road and Capitol Expressway. SR 82 is part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration. A segment of US 101, the highway became inadequate for the needs of traffic with the rapid growth of the San Francisco Bay Area after World War II, including urbanization of the towns along its path; the Bayshore Highway to the east was built as "Bypass US 101" and was upgraded to a freeway in 1937. With this upgrade, the original US 101 route was transferred to the Bayshore Freeway, El Camino Real became US 101 BYP, but in response to protests, the switch in designations was reversed two years in 1939, the Bayshore Freeway remained US 101 BYP until 1964. In 1964, US 101 was moved again onto the Bayshore Freeway, its former alignment on El Camino Real became SR 82.
It was defined as two portions: From Route 101 near Ford Road south of San Jose to Route 101 in San Francisco, from Route 101 near Alemany Boulevard to Route 87 in San Francisco. In 1968, the portions from I-280 to US 101 and from SR 101 to SR 87 were transferred to I-280. SR 87 was deleted north of SR 237 in 1980, is only constructed south of US 101, SR 82 today is designated as part of El Camino Real. In 2013, SR 82 was relinquished south of I-880 through San Jose. However, the state's Streets and Highways Code states that the City of San Jose is still required to "ensure the continuity of traffic flow on the relinquished former portion of Route 82" along The Alameda into downtown San Jose, from there along Monterey Highway to its former terminus at Blossom Hill Road and US 101; the city has the further option to apply to make this segment a business route. The Grand Boulevard Initiative is a partnership of nineteen Bay Area transit agencies and municipalities that operate or manage various portions of the route.
Although El Camino Real is under the stewardship of Caltrans, the organization sponsors aesthetic and infrastructural improvements along the corridor and its neighboring parcels in order to revitalize the streetscape and promote density and more walkable and transit-oriented development. Except where prefixed with a letter, postmiles were measured on the road as it was in 1964, based on its original southern terminus at US 101, do not reflect current mileage. R reflects a realignment in the route since M indicates a second realignment, L refers an overlap due to a correction or change, T indicates postmiles classified as temporary. Segments that remain unconstructed or have been relinquished to local control may be omitted; the numbers reset at county lines.
San Fernando Road
San Fernando Road is a major street in the City of Los Angeles and Los Angeles County. Within the Burbank city limits it is signed as San Fernando Boulevard, north of Newhall Pass it is signed as The Old Road, it was designated as Business Loop 5 in the 1970s. San Fernando Road starts off in Castaic as The Old Road, passing through Santa Clarita, where it is a major frontage road for Interstate 5; the name is considered amusing by local residents, who have styled some traffic signs along the road using a faux Old English typeface. The Old Road reaches as far as Newhall Pass, whereupon its intersection with Sierra Highway near the junction of the Golden State Freeway and the Antelope Valley Freeway, it becomes San Fernando Road. San Fernando Road enters the Northwestern/Western San Fernando Valley, passes through the Sylmar district of Los Angeles, the City of San Fernando, it re-enters the city of Los Angeles at the intersection with the Ronald Reagan Freeway in the Pacoima district, where it parallels Interstate 5.
Like Laurel Canyon Boulevard to the west in Sun Valley, it passes through rock quarries and the Hanson Dam Recreation Area, one of the last remaining open spaces in the San Fernando Valley. The portion between Sun Valley and the city of Burbank is industrial, with heavy truck traffic thorough this area. San Fernando Road passes next through downtown Burbank. Upon entering the Burbank city limits, it is signed as San Fernando Boulevard. At the intersection with Cypress Avenue in the Media City Center, there is a brief interruption in the route. 1st Street and Magnolia Boulevard connect both portions of San Fernando Boulevard. The road becomes San Fernando Road again once it enters the city of Glendale, where it serves as a major street for West and South Glendale. From the intersection with the Ventura Freeway to its southern terminus, the street follows the Los Angeles River through the Atwater Village, Glassell Park, Cypress Park neighborhoods. North of Figueroa Street San Fernando Road splits with Avenue 26, passes under the Arroyo Seco Parkway at the mouth of the Arroyo Seco.
San Fernando Road ends at the Pasadena Avenue intersection, where it becomes Avenue 20, which ends 5 blocks at North Main Street, northeast of/near Downtown Los Angeles. Prior to the construction of Interstate 5, San Fernando Road was old U. S. Route 99 and U. S. Route 6. With the completion of the Golden State Freeway, it was re-signed as State Route 163 in the 1960s and Business Interstate 5 in the 1970s. Today, San Fernando Road is used as an alternative to the congested I-5 Freeway between Lincoln Heights and the Newhall Pass, due to the few traffic signals on the route. Metro Local lines 94 and 224 run along San Fernando Road, as well as Metro Rapid line 794 and Glendale Transit lines 7 and 12. There is another San Fernando Road within the city of Santa Clarita starting only 2½ miles north of the northern end of the original San Fernando Road. San Fernando Road in Santa Clarita has now been renamed and split into 3 different streets from south to north Newhall Ave, Main Street, Railroad Ave.
At times, the route carried SR 126. San Fernando Road should not be confused with the nearby San Fernando Mission Blvd; the two roads intersect in the City of San Fernando about a mile from the San Fernando Mission. The former Southern Pacific Railroad follows both portions of San Fernando Road for their entire routes
Santa Cruz, California
Santa Cruz is the county seat and largest city of Santa Cruz County, California. As of 2013 the U. S. Census Bureau estimated Santa Cruz's population at 62,864. Situated on the northern edge of Monterey Bay, about 32 mi south of San Jose and 75 mi south of San Francisco, the city is part of the 12-county San Jose-San Francisco-Oakland Combined Statistical Area. Santa Cruz is known for its moderate climate, natural environment, redwood forests, alternative community lifestyles, liberal leanings, it is home to the University of California, Santa Cruz, a premier research institution and educational hub, as well as the Santa Cruz Beach Boardwalk, an oceanfront amusement park operating continuously since 1907. The present-day site of Santa Cruz was the location of Spanish settlement beginning in 1791, including Mission Santa Cruz and the pueblo of Branciforte; the City of Santa Cruz was incorporated in 1866 and chartered in April 1876. Important early industries included lumber, gunpowder and agriculture.
Late in the 19th century, Santa Cruz established itself as a beach resort community. Prior to the arrival of Spanish soldiers and colonists in the late 18th century, Santa Cruz County was home to the Awaswas Natives; the misnomer Ohlone, while used to describe the native people of the Santa Cruz area, is a generalized name for the many diverse groups that lived in the region stretching from San Francisco to the Monterey Bay. The diverse and numerous tribes of this region were earlier referred to by the Spanish as Coastanoan; the term "Ohlone" has been used in place of "Costanoan" since the 1970s by some descendant groups and by most ethnographers and writers of popular literature. Awaswa was one of the eight Costanoan languages and made up a tribe of Native Americas living in Western Santa Cruz County, stretching north of Davenport to Rio Del Mar; the Awaswas tribe was made up of no more than one thousand people and their language is now extinct. The only remnants of their spoken language are three local place names: Aptos and Zayante.
The majority of Ohlone or Coastanoan tribes had no written language, lived in small villages scattered around the Monterey Bay and San Francisco Bay regions. Within fifty years of the Spaniards' arrival, the Ohlone or Coastanoan culture and way of life had disappeared in the Bay area. Today, two of the Coastanoan tribes, the Awaswa people'missionized' in Santa Cruz and the Mutsun people'missionized' at San Juan Bautista, have joined together as the Amah Mutsan Tribal Band in an effort to protect and maintain the authentic and distinct cultural history and practices; the first European land exploration of Alta California, the Spanish Portolà expedition led by Gaspar de Portolà, passed through the area on its way north, still searching for the "port of Monterey" described by Sebastian Vizcaino in 1602. The party forded the river and camped nearby on October 17, 1769. Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, traveling with the expedition, noted in his diary that, "This river was named San Lorenzo.".
Next morning, the expedition set out again, Crespi noted that, "Five hundred steps after we started we crossed a good arroyo of running water which descends from some high hills where it rises. It was named "El Arroyo de la Santisima Cruz, which translates as "The Stream of the Most Holy Cross"). In 1791, Father Fermín Lasuén continued the use of Crespi's name when he declared the establishment of La Misión de la Exaltación de la Santa Cruz for the conversion of the Awaswas of Chatu-Mu and surrounding Ohlone villages. Santa Cruz was the twelfth mission to be founded in California; the creek, however lost the name, is known today as Laurel Creek because it parallels Laurel Street. It is the main feeder of Neary Lagoon. In 1797, Governor Diego de Borica, by order of the Viceroy of New Spain, Miguel de la Grúa Talamanca y Branciforte, marqués de Branciforte, established the Villa de Branciforte, a town named in honor of the Viceroy. One of only three civilian towns established in California during the Spanish colonial period, the Villa was located across the San Lorenzo River, less than a mile from the Mission.
Its original main street is now North Branciforte Avenue. Villa de Branciforte lost its civic status, in 1905 the area was annexed into the City of Santa Cruz. In the 1820s, newly independent Mexico assumed control of the area. Following the secularization of the Mission in 1834, the government attempted to rename the community that had grown up around the Mission, to Pueblo de Figueroa; the pueblo designation was never made official, however. The new name didn't catch on and Santa Cruz remained Santa Cruz. Mission farming and grazing lands, which once extended from the San Lorenzo River north along the coast to today's Santa Cruz County border, were taken away and broken up into large land grants called ranchos; the grants were made by several different governors between 1834 and 1845. Only two ranchos were within the boundaries of today's city of Santa Cruz. Rancho Potrero Y Rincon de San Pedro Regalado consisted of flat, river-bottom pasture land north of Mission Hill. Rancho Tres Ojos de Agua was on the west side.
Three other rancho boundaries became part of the modern city limits: Rancho Refugio on the west. Rancho Carbonera on the north, Rancho Arroyo del Rodeo on the east. After secularization put most California land into private hands, immigran
California State Route 160
State Route 160 is a state highway in the U. S. state of California consisting of two sections. The longer, section is a scenic highway through the alluvial plain of the Sacramento River, linking SR 4 in Antioch with Sacramento via the Antioch Bridge; the northern section, separated from the southern by Sacramento city streets, is the North Sacramento Freeway, running from the 16th Street Bridge over the American River to Interstate 80 Business towards Roseville. This northern section was deleted from the definition in the Streets and Highways Code in 2003, when the relinquished portion through downtown Sacramento was removed, but it is still maintained and signed by the California Department of Transportation as SR 160. State Route 160 begins in eastern Antioch at SR 4. After two interchanges, the highway rises onto the two lane Antioch Bridge over the San Joaquin River, it cuts north across the center of Sherman Island, reaching the Sacramento River on the opposite shore. From here to Sacramento, SR 160 never strays far from the river, first following the east levee over the 1949 Three Mile Slough Bridge, past Brannan Island State Recreation Area, across SR 12 opposite the river from Rio Vista.
After passing Isleton, the highway crosses the river on the Isleton Bridge, a bascule bridge built in 1923, runs along the west shore on Grand Island, where it meets the east end of SR 220. The Walnut Grove Bridge carries County Route J11 east across the river to Walnut Grove, and, at the north end of the island, SR 160 crosses the 1924 Steamboat Slough Bridge onto Sutter Island and the 1923 Paintersville Bridge across the Sacramento River to the mainland, both bascule bridges. On the mainland, SR 160 once again runs atop the east levee, now 1–2 miles west of Interstate 5; the final bridge over the river is the Freeport Bridge, which carries County Route E9 to the west levee, where it turns south to return to SR 160 at the west end of the Paintersville Bridge. About a mile beyond the Freeport Bridge, SR 160 leaves the levee, enters the city of Sacramento, passes under I-5, farms give way to suburbs. Here the former SR 160 is known as Freeport Boulevard, a major surface road that passes the Sacramento Executive Airport and Sacramento City College.
Freeport Boulevard turns to the northwest at about 4th Avenue. It was a one-way pair with 21st Street with Freeport heading one-way southbound and 21st heading one-way northbound; the city converted these streets back to two-way streets for traffic calming purposes in 2008. After a short jog west on Broadway, former SR 160 turns north on the one-way pair of 15th and 16th Streets immediately crossing Business 80 and entering downtown Sacramento.15th and 16th Streets lead traffic north past the east side of the State Capitol grounds, which lie between L and N Streets. At F Street, the path of southbound SR 160 jogged west for three blocks to 12th Street. 12th Street remains a one-way southbound roadway, but the two-way RT Light Rail now occupies its east side. 12th Street turns northeast at North B Street, the two directions of former SR 160 come together at Richards Boulevard, just south of the 16th Street Bridge over the American River and the south end of the state-maintained North Sacramento Freeway.
The light rail, which crosses the river between the two directions of SR 160, soon leaves at the Del Paso Boulevard interchange as the freeway turns east. Two folded diamonds at local streets and a northbound-only entrance ramp from Tribute Road are all that remains before SR 160 merges with Business 80 at the Arden Way interchange. Business 80 is known as the Capital City Freeway here; the northern portion is part of the California Freeway and Expressway System, as is the piece south of SR 12 near Rio Vista, though, of the latter, only the southernmost piece in Antioch is built to freeway standards. Both pieces are part of the National Highway System, a network of highways that are considered essential to the country's economy and mobility by the Federal Highway Administration; the entire southern portion, from SR 4 to Sacramento, is eligible to be included in the State Scenic Highway System, is designated as a scenic highway by the California Department of Transportation, meaning that it is a substantial section of highway passing through a "memorable landscape" with no "visual intrusions", where the potential designation has gained popular favor with the community.
In the late 1910s, Sacramento County improved the county road along the levee of the Sacramento River between Sacramento and Rio Vista, which crossed the river twice on free ferries near Paintersville and Isleton. A toll ferry across the San Joaquin River connected Sherman Island, south of Rio Vista, with Antioch, where drivers could head west through the Broadway Tunnel to reach the San Francisco Bay, but the road between Rio Vista and the ferry was poor. In 1922, the Victory Highway Association selected this "Netherlands Route" for the Victory Highway west of Sacramento, as it was both shorter than the Lincoln Highway route via Stockton and more scenic. In particular, the river district would "impress with the enormous productive resources of this state as well as supply him with an unmatched scenic drive", the Broadway Tunnel approach to the bay would bring him "over the Victory Highway to the end of his journey in such a fashion that he will never forget the view spread before him as he first comes into sight of the San Francisco B