The United States of America is a federal republic consisting of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories, various minor islands. The 48 contiguous states and Washington, D. C. are in North America between Canada and Mexico, while Alaska is in the far northwestern part of North America and Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific. Territories of the United States are scattered throughout the Caribbean Sea. States possess a number of powers and rights under the United States Constitution, such as regulating intrastate commerce, running elections, creating local governments, ratifying constitutional amendments; each state has its own constitution, grounded in republican principles, government, consisting of three branches: executive and judicial. All states and their residents are represented in the federal Congress, a bicameral legislature consisting of the Senate and the House of Representatives; each state is represented by two senators, while representatives are distributed among the states in proportion to the most recent constitutionally mandated decennial census.
Additionally, each state is entitled to select a number of electors to vote in the Electoral College, the body that elects the president of the United States, equal to the total of representatives and senators in Congress from that state. Article IV, Section 3, Clause 1 of the Constitution grants to Congress the authority to admit new states into the Union. Since the establishment of the United States in 1776, the number of states has expanded from the original 13 to the current total of 50, each new state is admitted on an equal footing with the existing states; as provided by Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution, Congress exercises "exclusive jurisdiction" over the federal district, not part of any state. Prior to passage of the 1973 District of Columbia Home Rule Act, which devolved certain Congressional powers to an elected mayor and council, the district did not have an elected local government. So, Congress retains the right to review and overturn laws created by the council and intervene in local affairs.
As it is not a state, the district does not have representation in the Senate. However, since 1971, its residents have been represented in the House of Representatives by a non-voting delegate. Additionally, since 1961, following ratification of the 23rd Amendment, the district has been entitled to select three electors to vote in the Electoral College. In addition to the 50 states and federal district, the United States has sovereignty over 14 territories. Five of them have a nonmilitary population, while nine of them do not. With the exception of Navassa Island, Puerto Rico, the U. S. Virgin Islands, which are located in the Caribbean, all territories are located in the Pacific Ocean. One territory, Palmyra Atoll, is considered to be incorporated, meaning the full body of the Constitution has been applied to it. Ten territories are considered to be unorganized, meaning they have not had an Organic Act enacted by Congress; the five inhabited territories each have limited autonomy and a non-voting delegate in Congress, in addition to having territorial legislatures and governors, but residents cannot vote in federal elections.
California is the most populous state, with 38,332,521 residents. The District of Columbia, with an estimated 646,449 residents as of 2012, has a higher population than the two least populous states; the largest state by area is Alaska, encompassing 665,384 square miles, while the smallest is Rhode Island, encompassing 1,545 square miles. The first state to ratify the current Constitution was Delaware, which it did on December 7, 1787, while the newest state is Hawaii, admitted to the Union on August 21, 1959; the largest territory in terms of both population and size is Puerto Rico, with 3,725,789 residents as of the 2010 Census and a total area of 5,325 square miles. The table below lists the 50 states, with their current capital, largest city, the date they ratified the U. S. Constitution or were admitted to the Union and area data, number of representative in the U. S. House of Representatives. List of regions of the United States Lists of U. S. state topics Political divisions of the United States List of Indian reservations in the United States State Resource Guides, from the Library of Congress State and Territorial Governments on USA.gov
The ASEAN University Network is an Asian university association. It was founded in November 1995 by ASEAN member countries including 13 universities. After the enlargement of ASEAN by the ASEAN Charter in 1997 and 1999, the AUN membership has been increasing; the ASEAN University Network is an arrangement between 30 universities in the ten ASEAN countries. The AUN is composed of a Board of Trustees, the participating universities, the AUN Secretariat; the Board of Trustees consists of one representative from each of the ASEAN Member Countries, the Secretary-General of ASEAN, the Chairman of the ASEAN subcommittee on Education and the Executive Director of the AUN. The BOT has the task of formulating policies, approving project proposals, the allocation of budgets and co-ordinating implementation activities; the board makes decisions on these activities on the basis of consensus. The participating universities have the task of implementing the AUN activities; when AUN was founded in 1995, it consisted of thirteen universities from seven countries.
Due to the inclusion of Myanmar and Cambodia in ASEAN, the network grew to 21 members. Although numerous applications for membership have been received, it was decided to only admit universities from the new member countries. Non members from the region however, are invited as observers on a regular basis; the AUN Secretariat is involved in the planning, organisation and evaluation of AUN activities and in the development of new ideas and the acquisition of funding. The permanent office of the Secretariat was established in 2000 and is located on the campus of Chulalongkorn University in Bangkok; the operating costs of the secretariat are allocated by the Thai Government. The financing of AUN activities comes from either cost sharing between the participating universities or from the external'dialogue partners' of ASEAN; the dialogue partners are Australia, China, EU, Japan, New Zealand, ROK, Russia and the United States. The United Nations Development Program has dialogue status; the meetings within the AUN Framework are financed by the hosts and travel expenses by the participants, or by universities from the richer countries for the poorer countries.
The ASEAN University Network emerged from a ambitious idea of the ASEAN leaders and the ASEAN Subcommittee on Education to establish an ASEAN University. A year after this idea was launched, it became clear that this would present too many problems concerning funding and leadership. Therefore, in 1994, it was decided that the founding of a network of existing institutions would be more feasible. In its early years, the AUN focused on the sharing of knowledge and experiences and on small-scale student and staff exchange; as from 1999, the collaborative activities became more complex with programmes like joint curriculum development, co-operation in ICT and the establishment of sub-networks. This is not only the case for intra-ASEAN co-operation but for the activities with the dialogue partners; this led to the establishment of a permanent secretariat in Bangkok in March 2000. Although there existed a secretariat since 1997, this secretariat was temporary. With the permanent office came an increase in structural funding for the secretariat.
In addition to the operating costs for the AUN secretariat the financial support for AUN activities increased since 1999. In addition to a growth in financial terms, projects became more comprehensive. In particular, the AUN Quality Assurance programme has ambitious goals with consequences that transcend the disciplinary boundaries; this can form a turning point in the sense that through such projects all members of the participating universities will be affected. Many of the current activities are focused on particular individuals of the universities, many other students and staff that are not involved in activities are not familiar with AUN and its activities. Most exchanges and gatherings for instance, although successful, have been modest in its impact on the universities as a whole. An explanation for this lies in the top-down character of the activities, with a high involvement of the university's central level and only modest involvement of the faculties. AUN is composed of 30 universities across 10 ASEAN countries: Australian Government.
Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade AUN enlargement ASEAN nations Home page The AUN Secretariat - official website, including member universities
George Brosius was a German-American gymnastics teacher associated from 1854 to 1915 with the Milwaukee Turnverein. He served in the Union Army from 1861 to 1864, he introduced physical education to the Milwaukee public schools in 1875 and supervised it until 1883. His crowning achievement was leading seven members of the Milwaukee Turnverein to the international gymnastics tournament in Frankfurt am Main in 1880, where they won the 2nd, 3rd, 5th, 13th, 21st individual prizes, he served as director of the American Gymnastic Union's Normal College of Physical Education in Milwaukee from 1875 to 1899. Brosius, George. Fifty Years Devoted to the Cause of Physical Culture, 1864-1914. Turners Media related to George Brosius at Wikimedia Commons