India is a union of 29 states and 8 union territories. As of 2011, with an estimated population of 1.2 billion, India is the world's second most populous country after the People's Republic of China. India is home to 17.5 % of the world's population. The Indo-Gangetic plains have one of the world's biggest stretches of fertile flat-deep alluvium and are among the most densely populated areas of the world; the eastern and western coastal regions of Deccan Plateau are densely populated regions of India. The Thar Desert in western Rajasthan is one of the most densely populated deserts in the world; the northern and north-eastern states along the Himalayas contain cold arid deserts with fertile valleys. These states have less population density due to indomitable physical barriers; the first population census in British India was conducted in 1872. Since India's independence in 1947, a census has been conducted every 10 years, the first occurring in 1951; the census in India is conducted by the Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner under the Ministry of Home Affairs, is one of the largest administrative tasks conducted by a federal government.
The latest population figures are based on data from the 2011 census of India. During the decade of 2001–2011, India's annual population growth rate has slowed down from 2.15 percent to 1.76 percent. Based on decennial census data and Nagar Haveli and Daman and Diu has the fastest growth rate of 55.1 percent, followed by Meghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh. Nagaland recorded the lowest growth rate of -0.5 percent. India has 641,000 inhabited villages and 72.2 percent of the total population reside in these rural areas. Of them 145,000 villages have population size of 500–999 persons. There are 3,961 villages. India's 27.8 percent urban population lives in more than 5,100 towns and over 380 urban agglomerations. In the decade of 1991–2001, migration to major cities caused rapid increase in urban population. On the basis of net migrants by last residence during the past decade, Maharashtra had most immigration with 2.3 million, followed by National Capital Territory of Delhi and Haryana. Uttar Pradesh and Bihar topped the list for interstate emigration.
The five states of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh account for half of the total Indian population. While the national average for sex ratio shows an increase from 933 in 2001 to 940 in 2011, the 2011 census shows a sharp decline in child sex ratio, the number of females per thousand males in a population between age group 0–6 years. States such as Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Andaman and Nicobar Islands recorded an increase in child sex ratio. National child sex ratio has declined from 927 in 2001 to 914 in 2011. Telangana census was separated from Andhra Pradesh state census figures, after Telangana was formed on 2 June 2014. Data from Census 2011 as published by Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, Government of Telangana, Planning Commission of India. Population density is rounded to the nearest integer. List of states in India by past population Demographics of India List of country subdivisions by population List of metropolitan areas in India List of states and union territories of India by area Official website of Census of India Census of India - Density of population 2011 Indian Census Official website of Census of India in 2016 Official website of Census of India in 2020
Cold Water Music is the debut studio album by British musician Aim, released on 11 October 1999 by Grand Central Records. The album was re-issued in 2007 by ATIC Records; the first track, "Intro", contains a sample from the documentary Hoop Dreams of William Gates, one of the basketball players followed in the film, speaking from his recovery room after surgery. The commentary forms the lyrics to the track; the track "Cold Water Music" contains a sample of "Maureen in the Desert", written by Carter Burwell and taken from the soundtrack to the film Psycho III. The extended dialogue in the track "Demonique" was sampled from the John Carpenter horror films and Halloween II, it features the exchanges between the characters of Sheriff Leigh Brackett. The track "Ain't Got Time to Waste" is featured on the soundtrack of the European version of the video game Tony Hawk's Pro Skater. Credits for Cold Water Music adapted from album liner notes
A rim is an external flange, machined, molded, stamped or pressed around the bottom of a firearms cartridge. Thus, rimmed cartridges are sometimes called "flanged" cartridges. All cartridges feature an extractor or headspacing rim, in spite of the fact that some cartridges are known as "rimless cartridges"; the rim may serve a number of purposes, including providing a lip for the extractor to engage, sometimes serving to headspace the cartridge. There are various types of firearms rims in use in modern ammunition; these types are rimmed, semi-rimmed, rebated rim, belted. These categories describe the size of the rim in relation to the base of the case; the rimmed cartridge, sometimes called flanged cartridge, is the oldest of the types and has a rim, larger in diameter than the base of the cartridge. Rimmed cartridges use the rim to hold the cartridge in the chamber of the firearm, with the rim serving to hold the cartridge at the proper depth in the chamber—this function is called "headspacing".
Because the rimmed cartridge headspaces on the rim, the case length is of less importance than with rimless cartridges. This allows some firearms chambered for similar rimmed cartridges to safely chamber and fire shorter cartridges, such as using.38 Special cartridges in a.357 Magnum revolver. Rimmed cartridges are well suited to certain types of actions, such as revolvers and break-action firearms, where the rim helps hold the cartridge in position. Rimmed cartridges do not work quite as well in firearms that feed from a box magazine, since the magazine must be loaded so that the rim from each successive case is loaded ahead of the round beneath it, so the round will not snag on the rim of the cartridge below it as the bolt strips it out of the magazine. However, box magazine firearms firing rimmed. Semi-automatic handguns have been chambered in rimmed cartridges as well, for example a LAR Grizzly or Desert Eagle in.357 or.44 Magnum. Some types of rimmed cartridges, such as rimfire cartridges use the rim to contain the priming compound used to ignite the cartridge instead of a centrally-mounted primer such as used in centerfire cartridges.
Under the metric cartridge designation system, a capitalized "R" added at the end of the designation denotes a rimmed cartridge. For example, "7.62 × 54mmR" is a rimmed cartridge. Under Imperial designations, there is no distinction between rimmed and unrimmed cartridges, unless one is referring to a rimmed version of a cartridge, rimless, such as the.45 Auto Rim, a special rimmed version of the.45 ACP, intended for use in M1917 service revolvers. Examples of rimmed handgun cartridges include.44 Magnum. Rimmed rifle cartridge examples include the.22 Hornet.303 British and 7.62×54mmR. On a "rimless" case, the rim has or the same diameter as the base of the case. Since there is no rim projecting past the edge of the case, the cartridge must headspace on the case mouth, for a straight walled case, or on the case's shoulder for a bottlenecked case; the lack of a projecting rim makes rimless cases feed smoothly from box magazines, they are used in firearms that feed from a box magazine, although they work well in belt and tube-fed weapons.
Rimless cases are not well suited to break-open and revolver actions, though they can be used with appropriate modifications, such as a spring-loaded extractor or, in a revolver, a moon clip. Since a straight-walled rimless cartridge is designed to headspace off of the case mouth, this prevents the ammunition loader or manufacturer from using a heavy crimp, a ring pinched or "crimped" into the cartridge case, designed to lock the bullet securely in place until fired. Crimping affects the overall length of the cartridge, thus cannot be used on cartridges which headspace on the case mouth; this can be a problem for magnum revolvers or rifles which hold more than one round of ammunition, as the recoil from the firing successive rounds can loosen the bullets in the remaining cartridges, cause their bullet seating depth to change, which can have a serious effect of accuracy. This is not an issue for break-action single shot firearms, for obvious reasons, although it could cause problems in double rifles or "drilling"-type big game rifles, provided they have more than one rifle barrel.
Examples of rimless handgun cartridges include the 9mm Parabellum.40 S&W, and.45 ACP. Rimless rifle examples include the.223 Remington.308 Winchester.30-06 Springfield and 7.92×57mm Mauser. On a semi-rimmed case the rim projects beyond the base of the case, though not as much as a rimmed cartridge; the tiny rim provides minimal interference feeding from a box magazine, while still providing enough surface to headspace on. Semi-rimmed cases are less common than the other types. The.38 Super, a higher pressure loading of the old.38 ACP case, is notorious for being less accurate than rimless cases, so most modern.38 Super handguns are chambered so that the cartridge headspac