A number of polities have declared independence and sought diplomatic recognition from the international community as de jure sovereign states, but have not been universally recognised as such. These entities have de facto control of their territory. A number of such entities have existed in the past. There are two traditional doctrines that provide indicia of how a de jure sovereign state comes into being; the declarative theory defines a state as a person in international law if it meets the following criteria: a defined territory a permanent population a government, a capacity to enter into relations with other states. According to the declarative theory, an entity's statehood is independent of its recognition by other states. By contrast, the constitutive theory defines a state as a person of international law only if it is recognised as such by other states that are a member of the international community. Proto-states reference either or both doctrines in order to legitimise their claims to statehood.
There are, for example, entities which meet the declarative criteria, but whose statehood is not recognised by any other states. Non-recognition is a result of conflicts with other countries that claim those entities as integral parts of their territory. In other cases, two or more recognised states may claim the same territorial area, with each of them de facto in control of a portion of it. Entities that are recognised by only a minority of the world's states reference the declarative doctrine to legitimise their claims. In many situations, international non-recognition is influenced by the presence of a foreign military force in the territory of the contested entity, making the description of the country's de facto status problematic; the international community can judge this military presence too intrusive, reducing the entity to a puppet state where effective sovereignty is retained by the foreign power. Historical cases in this sense can be seen in Japanese-led Manchukuo or the German-created Slovak Republic and Independent State of Croatia before and during World War II.
In the 1996 case Loizidou v. Turkey, the European Court of Human Rights judged Turkey for having exercised authority in the territory of Northern Cyprus. There are entities which do not have control over any territory or do not unequivocally meet the declarative criteria for statehood but have been recognised to exist de jure as sovereign entities by at least one other state; this has happened in the case of the Holy See, Estonia and Lithuania, more the State of Palestine at the time of its declaration of independence in 1988. The Sovereign Military Order of Malta is in this position. See list of governments in exile for unrecognised governments without control over the territory claimed; the criteria for inclusion means a polity must claim sovereignty, lack recognition from at least one UN member state, either: satisfy the declarative theory of statehood, or be recognised as a state by at least one UN member state. There are 193 United Nations member states, while both the Holy See and Palestine have observer state status in the United Nations.
However, some countries fulfill the declarative criteria, are recognised by the large majority of other states and are members of the United Nations, but are still included in the list here because one or more other states do not recognise their statehood, due to territorial claims or other conflicts. Some states maintain informal relations with states that do not recognise them. Taiwan is one such state, as it maintains unofficial relations with many other states through its Economic and Cultural Offices, which allow regular consular services; this allows Taiwan to have economic relations with states that do not formally recognise it. A total of 56 states, including Germany, the United States, the United Kingdom, maintain some form of unofficial mission in Taiwan. Kosovo, Northern Cyprus, Transnistria, the Sahrawi Republic and Palestine host informal diplomatic missions, and/or maintain special delegations or other informal missions abroad; the Sovereign Military Order of Malta is a non-state sovereign entity and is not included, as it claims neither statehood nor territory.
It has established full diplomatic relations with 107 sovereign states as a sovereign subject of international law, maintains full diplomatic relations with the European Union, the Holy See, the State of Palestine. Additionally, it participates in the United Nations as an observer entity. Although it is not recognised as a subject of international law by France, the order maintains official, but not diplomatic, relations with France and with four other states: Belgium, Switzerland and Canada. Uncontacted peoples who either live in societies that cannot be defined as states or whose statuses as such are not definitively known; some subnational entities and regions function as de facto independent states, with the central government exercising little or no control over their territory. These entities, however, do not explicitly claim to be independent states and are therefore not included. Examples include Galmudug and Puntland in Somalia, Gaza in Palestine, Iraqi Kurdistan, Rojava in Syria, the Wa State in Myanmar.
Entities considered to be micronations are not included. Though micronations claim to be sovereign and independent, it is debatable whether a mic
Graham Miller is a television presenter and journalist who now runs the independent media and communications business - MediaVu. Miller first showed interest in radio in the 1970s when he joined the Hospital Relay Group broadcasting to hospital patients in Harpenden and Welwyn Garden City; when established he retained his interest in hospital radio including an interview with Graham Jones at Radio Hertford Miller's career began in 1973 when he worked for BBC Radio Birmingham as a reporter. In 1974, he joined BBC Radio London and Anglia Television and HTV West where he worked in producer and reporter/presenter roles. In 1983, he joined Thames Television's Thames News as Sports Editor and co-presented the regional news with Andrew Gardner. In 1993, he joined ITN where he worked alongside newscaster Trevor Mcdonald as the lead sports correspondent and presenter on News at Ten. After leaving ITN, he formed a sports marketing and communications agency but has worked as a freelance reporter for Sky Sports News, CNN and Today FM. Miller has reported for a number of major British journalism outlets including Sunday Mirror, Telegraph and Evening Standard.
O'Brien is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in Josephine County, United States. As of the 2010 census, O'Brien had a population of 504; the unemployment rate is 6.9% higher than the national average of 5.2% The community was named after John O'Brien, one of the first settlers to arrive at the locality. In 2012, a small group started protecting the town; the town consists of a market, the O'Brien Country Store, Oregon Discount Gas, part of the country store, a post office, a fire station, the McGrew's restaurant, Lone Mountain RV Park, the Almost Heaven Resort and a small U-Haul rental area. It is the southernmost town in Josephine county, Oregon before the California border on Highway 199; the post office and country store are share a building. To the east of O'Brien is the ghost town of Waldo further east is Takilma, an unincorporated town known to have a high amount of hippies. To the north of O'Brien is the Illinois Valley's only city, Cave Junction, further north are the towns of Kerby and Selma.
To the northeast is the unincorporated Holland, which has only a store and private properties. O'Brien is in southwestern Josephine County in the valley of the West Fork of the Illinois River, a north-flowing tributary of the Rogue River. U. S. Route 199 passes through the community, leading north 7 miles to Cave Junction and 36 miles to Grants Pass, south 5 miles to the California state line and 45 miles to Crescent City, California. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the O'Brien CDP has a total area of 5.23 square miles, of which 0.02 square miles, or 0.26%, are water. O'Brien has a climate, a Mediterranean in nature with hot and dry summer days and cool and wet winters, it is subtropical in nature due to its hot summer days, some of the hottest in Oregon, with temps topping 95 °F. Summer lows are low in comparison to its highs