Sir John Robert Steell was a Scottish sculptor. He is best known for a number of sculptures displayed in Edinburgh, including the statue of Sir Walter Scott at the base of the Scott Monument. Steell was born in Aberdeen, but his family moved to 5 Calton Hill in Edinburgh in 1806, he was one of the thirteen children of John Steell senior, a carver and guilder, Margaret Gourlay, the daughter of William Gourlay, a Dundee shipbuilder. As the family grew they moved to a larger house at 20 Calton Hill. Due to his father's own fame as a sculptor, for much of his early working career he is referred to as John Steel Junior. Steell followed his father, training to be a carver himself, being apprenticed in 1818. In 1819 his father was declared bringing much shame on the family. However, John junior showed artistic talent, despite this, the family sent him to study art at the Trustees Academy in Edinburgh, under Andrew Wilson. Working with his father from studios at 6 Hanover Street his first major step came in 1827 when the North British Fire Insurance Company, at 1 Hanover Street, commissioned a huge timber statue of St Andrew to be placed on the outside of their office.
The work appears based on a sketch of a statue of St Andrew in Rome by François Duquesnoy. As the office stood opposite the Royal Scottish Academy it was noticed by Edinburgh's artistic society, acknowledged as a fine work. In 1829, spurred on by the success of this work, he travelled to Rome to study sculpture more intensely; the first work to attract international attention was Alexander taming Bucephalus carved in 1832–33. Around 1838 he was appointed as Sculptor to Her Majesty the Queen, a post, recognised as part of the Royal Household in Scotland. In 1840 he opened Scotland's first foundry on Grove Street in Edinburgh, dedicated to sculpture, to cast his statue of Wellington himself. In 1854 he commissioned a new house for himself at 24 Greenhill Gardens and lived there for the rest of his life, his fame by was international, receiving commissions from the United States and New Zealand. Prior to this he had lived at 3 Randolph Place on the edge of the Moray Estate in Edinburgh's West End.
He exhibited at the Royal Scottish Academy and the Royal Academy, was knighted in 1876 following the unveiling, by Queen Victoria, of his statue The Prince Consort, which stands in the centre of Charlotte Square in Edinburgh. Steell died at home, 24 Greenhill Gardens in Edinburgh's southern suburbs, on 15 September 1891 and is buried in an unmarked grave in Edinburgh's Old Calton Cemetery; this grave was purchased by his father John Steell senior and many members of the Steell and Gourlay families are interred there. In 1826 he married daughter of John Graham, an Edinburgh merchant, his eldest son, William Steell, appears to have been an architect but of minimal note. One of his few recorded works is the pedestal for John's statue of Dr Thomas Chalmers on George Street in Edinburgh, his youngest son, Graham Steell was a prominent British Physician and Cardiologist, best known for identifying the cardiac murmur that bears his name. Sir John Steell's brother Gourlay Steell was himself a noted animal painter: he was Queen Victoria's animal painter, taking over from Sir Edwin Landseer.
Many of Gourlay Steell's paintings remain in the private collection of Queen Elizabeth II. His portrait was painted by William Grant Stevenson. Steell's works include: a wooden statue of St Andrew in the Dalkeith Kilwinning No. X masonic lodge, Dalkeith – the work at 1 Hanover Street in Edinburgh. A bust of Wardlaw Ramsay in the Scottish Missionary Society Hall, Edinburgh, 1838 the statue of Sir Walter Scott sitting with his dog Maida under the Scott Monument, carved 1840–46 from a single 30 ton block of Carrara marble. A stone statue of Queen Victoria on top of the Royal Scottish Academy, 1844. A bust of the Duke of Wellington at Eton College, 1845. A bust of the Duke of Wellington at Apsley House, 1846. Pediment of the Head Office of the Bank of Montreal in Montreal, 1847. A statue of artist Allan Ramsay at the foot of The Mound in Edinburgh, 1850. A bronze equestrian statue of the Duke of Wellington outside Register House in Edinburgh, 1852; when it was unveiled the press dubbed the statue "the Iron Duke in bronze by Steell".
The gravestone of Professor John Wilson in Dean Cemetery in Edinburgh, 1854. A statue of Professor John Wilson in Princes Street Gardens, Edinburgh, 1856. A statue of Lord Melville the centrepiece of Melville Street in Edinburgh, 1857. A bust of Lord Cockburn standing in Parliament House, Edinburgh, 1857. A statue of Lord Jeffrey in Parliament House, 1857. A bust of Sir John McNeill, Scottish National Portrait Gallery, Edinburgh, 1859. A bronze bust of Florence Nightingale, on display at Derby Museum and Art Gallery, Derby, 1862. A statue of James Wilson, founder of The Economist at the Tower Knowe, Hawick 1863, carved from a single block of Carrara marble a monument to the Duke of Atholl at Blair Atholl, Perth, 1864. A statue of Lord Dalhousie in Calcutta, 1864. A monument to soldiers from the 93rd Sutherland Highlanders regiment who fell in the Crimean War, situated in Glasgow Cathedral, 1869. A seated statue of Scottish national poet Robert Burns in Central Park, New York City, 1871. A monument to Dean Ramsay east of St John's Church, on Princes Street Edinburgh, 1875.
A bust of Thomas de Quincey in the Scottish Nat
Aberdeen is a city in northeast Scotland. It is Scotland's third most populous city, one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas and the United Kingdom's 37th most populous built-up area, with an official population estimate of 196,670 for the city of Aberdeen and 228,800 for the local council area. During the mid-18th to mid-20th centuries, Aberdeen's buildings incorporated locally quarried grey granite, which can sparkle like silver because of its high mica content. Since the discovery of North Sea oil in the 1970s, Aberdeen has been known as the off-shore oil capital of Europe; the area around Aberdeen has been settled since at least 8,000 years ago, when prehistoric villages lay around the mouths of the rivers Dee and Don. The city has a long, sandy coastline and a marine climate, the latter resulting in chilly summers and mild winters. Aberdeen received Royal burgh status from David I of Scotland; the city's two universities, the University of Aberdeen, founded in 1495, Robert Gordon University, awarded university status in 1992, make Aberdeen the educational centre of the north-east of Scotland.
The traditional industries of fishing, paper-making and textiles have been overtaken by the oil industry and Aberdeen's seaport. Aberdeen Heliport is one of the busiest commercial heliports in the world and the seaport is the largest in the north-east of Scotland. Aberdeen hosts the Aberdeen International Youth Festival, a major international event which attracts up to 1000 of the most talented young performing arts companies. In 2015, Mercer named Aberdeen the 57th most liveable city in the world, as well as the fourth most liveable city in Britain. In 2012, HSBC named Aberdeen as a leading business hub and one of eight'super cities' spearheading the UK's economy, marking it as the only city in Scotland to receive this accolade. In 2018, Aberdeen was found to be the best city in the UK to start a business in a study released by card payment firm Paymentsense; the Aberdeen area has seen human settlement for at least 8,000 years. The city began as two separate burghs: Old Aberdeen at the mouth of the river Don.
The earliest charter was granted by William the Lion in 1179 and confirmed the corporate rights granted by David I. In 1319, the Great Charter of Robert the Bruce transformed Aberdeen into a property-owning and financially independent community. Granted with it was the nearby Forest of Stocket, whose income formed the basis for the city's Common Good Fund which still benefits Aberdonians. During the Wars of Scottish Independence, Aberdeen was under English rule, so Robert the Bruce laid siege to Aberdeen Castle before destroying it in 1308, followed by the massacring of the English garrison; the city was rebuilt and extended. The city was fortified to prevent attacks by neighbouring lords, but the gates were removed by 1770. During the Wars of the Three Kingdoms of 1644 to 1647 the city was plundered by both sides. In 1644, it was taken and ransacked by Royalist troops after the Battle of Aberdeen and two years it was stormed by a Royalist force under the command of the Marquis of Huntly. In 1647 an outbreak of bubonic plague killed a quarter of the population.
In the 18th century, a new Town Hall was built and the first social services appeared with the Infirmary at Woolmanhill in 1742 and the Lunatic Asylum in 1779. The council began major road improvements at the end of the 18th century with the main thoroughfares of George Street, King Street and Union Street all completed at the beginning of the 19th century; the expensive infrastructure works led to the city becoming bankrupt in 1817 during the Post-Napoleonic depression, an economic downturn after the Napoleonic Wars. The increasing economic importance of Aberdeen and the development of the shipbuilding and fishing industries led to the construction of the present harbour including Victoria Dock and the South Breakwater, the extension of the North Pier. Gas street lighting arrived in 1824 and an enhanced water supply appeared in 1830 when water was pumped from the Dee to a reservoir in Union Place. An underground sewer system replaced open sewers in 1865; the city was incorporated in 1891. Although Old Aberdeen has a separate history and still holds its ancient charter, it is no longer independent.
It is an integral part of the city, as is Woodside and the Royal Burgh of Torry to the south of the River Dee. During the Second World War Aberdeen was bombed quite badly on the 21 April 1943 when around 20 Luftwaffe bombers circled around Aberdeen; because there were no planes at RAF leuchars they were all fighting in the Battle of Britain this meant that the bombers would fly back and forth around Aberdeen. 98 people died on that night and 20,000 homes were destroyed during the bombing which caused severe damage to many different homes around the city. Aberdeen became Gaelic-speaking at some time in the medieval period. Old Aberdeen is the approximate location of the first settlement of Aberdeen; the Celtic word aber means "river mouth", as in modern Welsh. The Scottish Gaelic name is Obar Dheathain, in Latin, the Romans referred to the river as Devana. Mediaeval Latin has it as Aberdonia. Aberdeen is locally governed by Aber
Blackburn is a town in Lancashire, England. It lies to the north of the West Pennine Moors on the southern edge of the Ribble Valley, 9 miles east of Preston, 20.9 miles NNW of Manchester and 9 miles north of the Greater Manchester border. Blackburn is bounded to the south by Darwen, with which it forms the unitary authority of Blackburn with Darwen. At the time of the UK Government's 2001 census, Blackburn had a population of 105,085, whilst the wider borough of Blackburn with Darwen had a population of 140,700. Blackburn had a population of 117,963 in 2011, a massive increase since 2001. A former mill town, textiles have been produced in Blackburn since the middle of the 13th century, when wool was woven in people's houses in the domestic system. Flemish weavers who settled in the area during the 14th century helped to develop the woollen cottage industry. James Hargreaves, inventor of the spinning jenny, was a weaver in Oswaldtwistle near Blackburn, the most rapid period of growth and development in Blackburn's history coincided with the industrialisation and expansion of textile manufacturing.
Blackburn was a boomtown of the Industrial Revolution and amongst the first industrialised towns in the world. Blackburn's textile sector fell into terminal decline from the mid-20th century and subsequently faced similar challenges to other post-industrial northern towns, including deindustrialisation, economic deprivation and housing issues. In recent decades, the town has experienced high levels of immigration, with people of ethnic backgrounds other than white British making up 30.8% of the population, above the regional and national average. Blackburn has had significant investment and redevelopment since 1958 through government funding and the European Regional Development Fund. Blackburn was recorded in the Domesday Book as Blacheborne in 1086; the origins of the name are uncertain. It has been suggested that it may be a combination of an Old English word for bleach, together with a form of the word "burn", meaning stream, may be associated with a bleaching process. Alternatively, the name of the town may mean "black burn", or "black stream".
There is little evidence of prehistoric settlement in the Blakewater valley, in which Blackburn developed. Evidence of activity in the form of two urn burials has been discovered from the Bronze Age in the hills around Blackburn. In 1879, a cinerary urn was discovered at a tumulus at Revidge, north of the town; the presence of a sacred spring—perhaps in use during the Iron Age—provides evidence of prehistoric activity in the town centre, at All Hallows Spring on Railway Road. Blackburn is located; the road linked Bremetennacum Mamucium. The route of the road passed east of Blackburn Cathedral and crossed the river in the Salford neighbourhood just east of the modern town centre, it is not clear. All Hallows Spring was excavated in early archaeology in 1654 and found to contain an inscribed stone commemorating the dedication of a temple to Serapis by Claudius Hieronymus, legate of Legio VI Victrix. Christianity is believed to have come to Blackburn by the end of the 6th century in 596 as there is a record of a "church of Blagbourne" in that year, or 598 AD.
The town was important during the Anglo-Saxon era when the Blackburnshire Hundred came into existence as a territorial division of the kingdom of Northumbria. The name of the town appears in the Domesday Book as Blachebourne, a royal manor during the days of Edward the Confessor and William the Conqueror. Archaeological evidence from the demolition of the medieval parish church on the site of the cathedral in 1820 suggests that a church was built during the late 11th or early 12th century. A market cross was erected nearby in 1101; the manor came into the possession of Henry de Blackburn. One half was granted to the monks of Stanlow Abbey and this moiety was subsequently granted to the monks of Whalley Abbey. During the 12th century, the town's importance declined. In addition to a settlement in the town centre area, there were several other medieval domiciles nearby. Textile manufacturing in Blackburn dates from the mid-13th century, when wool produced locally by farmers was woven in their homes.
Flemish weavers who settled in the area in the 14th century developed the industry. By 1650 the town was known for the manufacture of blue and white "Blackburn checks", "Blackburn greys" became famous not long afterwards. By the first half of the 18th century textile manufacture had become Blackburn's main industry. From the mid-18th to the early 20th century Blackburn evolved from a small market town into "the weaving capital of the world", its population increased from less than 5,000 to over 130,000. John Bartholomew's Gazetteer of the British Isles provides a profile of Blackburn in 1887: Blackburn. Parl. and mun. bor. parish and township, NE. Lancashire, 9 miles E. of Preston and 210 miles NW. of London by rail – par. 48,281 ac. pop. 161,617. 91,958. 104,014. Market-days and Saturday, it is one besides producing calico, muslin, & c. There being over 140 mills at work. There are factories for making cotton machinery and steam-engines. B. has been associated with many improvements in the mfr. of cotton, among, the invention of the "spinni
Tynemouth is a town and a historic borough in Tyne and Wear, England at the mouth of the River Tyne, being 8.1 miles east-northeast of Newcastle upon Tyne. Part of Northumberland, the modern town of Tynemouth includes North Shields and Cullercoats and had a 2011 population of 67,519, it is administered as part of the borough of North Tyneside, but until 1974 was an independent county borough, including North Shields, in its own right. It had a population of 17,056 in 2001; the population of the Tynemouth ward of North Tyneside was at the 2011 Census 10,472. Its history dates back to an Iron Age settlement and its strategic position on a headland over-looking the mouth of the Tyne continued to be important through to the Second World War, its historic buildings, dramatic views and award-winning beaches attract visitors from around the world. The heart of the town, known by residents as "The village", has popular coffee-shops and restaurants, it is a prosperous area with comparatively expensive housing stock, ranging from Georgian terraces to Victorian ship-owners' houses to 1960s "executive homes".
It is represented at Westminster by the Labour MP Alan Campbell. Tynemouth was listed in the 2018 Sunday Times report on Best Places to Live in northern England; the headland towering over the mouth of the River Tyne has been settled since the Iron Age. The Romans may have occupied it as a signal station, though it is just north of the Hadrian's Wall frontier. In the 7th century a monastery was built in Tynemouth and fortified; the headland was known as Pen Bal Crag. The place where now stands the Monastery of Tynemouth was anciently called by the Saxons Benebalcrag The monastery was sacked by the Danes in 800, destroyed again in 875, but by 1083 it was again operational. Three kings are reported to have been buried within the monastery: King of Deira. Three crowns still adorn the North Tyneside coat of arms.. The queens of Edward I and Edward II stayed in the Castle and Priory while their husbands were campaigning in Scotland. King Edward III considered it to be one of the strongest castles in the Northern Marches.
After the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314, Edward II fled from Tynemouth by ship. A village had long been established in the shelter of the fortified Priory and c. 1325 the Prior built a port for fishing and trading. This led to a dispute between Tynemouth and the more powerful Newcastle over shipping rights on the Tyne which continued for centuries.. Prince Rupert of the Rhine landed at Tynemouth in August 1642 on his way to fight in the English Civil War. Tynemouth has a moderated oceanic climate influenced by its position adjacent to the North Sea; as a result of this, summer highs are subdued and according to the Met Office 1981–2010 data around 18 °C. As a consequence of its marine influence, winter lows are mild for a Northern English location. Sunshine levels of 1515 hours per annum are in the normal range for the coastal North East, true for the low amount of precipitation at 597.2 millimetres. In the late 18th century, sea-bathing became fashionable in Tynemouth from its east-facing beaches.
King Edward's Bay and Tynemouth Longsands are popular with locals and tourists alike. Prior's Haven is a small beach within the mouth of the Tyne, sheltered between the Priory and the Spanish Battery, with the Pier access on its north side, it was popular with Victorian bathers and is now home to Tynemouth Rowing Club and the local sailing club. King Edward's Bay is a small beach on the north side of the Priory, sheltered on three sides by cliffs and reached by stairways, or, by the fit and adventurous who understand the weather and tides, over the rocks round the promontories on the north or south sides. Longsands is the next beach to the north, an expanse of fine sand 1,200 yards long, lying between the former Tynemouth outdoor swimming pool and Cullercoats to the north. In 2013, Longsands was voted one of the best beaches in the country by users of the world's largest travel site TripAdvisor. TripAdvisor users voted the beach the UK's fourth favourite beach in its 2013 Travellers’ Choice Beaches Awards.
The beach was voted the 12th best in Europe. A statue of Queen Victoria by Alfred Turner, unveiled on 25 October 1902, is situated at the edge of the Village Green, home to the War Memorials for the residents of Tynemouth lost during the Second Boer War of 1899-1902. Designed by A. B. Plummer, 8th Viscount Midleton; the larger central memorial is made of white granite with a cruciform column rising from between four struts in a contemporary design for its time. The front face has a relief wreath carved onto it with the inscription below; the other three faces hold the honour roll for those lost during both World Wars. It was unveiled in 1923. DM O'Herlihy was named as the original designer but a press report stated that a Mr Steele designed the monument and credited O'Herlihy with preparatory works on the village green; the 82 names from World War II were added in 1999. Located on Huntington Terrace, Kings Priory School is a co-educational academy with over 800 pupils aged between 4 and 18. Though founded in Jarrow in 1860, the school moved to its present site in Tynemouth in 1865 providing a private education for local boys.
The school admits students of all faiths. A fee-paying indepe
Paisley is a town situated in the west central Lowlands of Scotland. Located on the northern edge of the Gleniffer Braes, the town borders the city of Glasgow to the east, straddles the banks of the White Cart Water, a tributary of the River Clyde, it serves as the administrative centre for the Renfrewshire council area, is the largest town in the historic county of the same name. Paisley is cited as "Scotland's largest town" and is the fifth largest settlement in the country, although it does not have city status; the town became prominent in the 12th century, with the establishment of Paisley Abbey, an important religious hub which had control over other local churches. By the 19th century, Paisley was a centre of the weaving industry, giving its name to the Paisley shawl and the Paisley Pattern; the town's associations with political Radicalism were highlighted by its involvement in the Radical War of 1820, with striking weavers being instrumental in the protests. As of 1993, all of Paisley's mills had closed, although they are memorialised in the town's museums and civic history.
And variously known as Paislay, Passelet and Passelay the burgh's name is of uncertain origin. However, some Scottish place-name books suggest "Pæssa's wood/clearing", from the Old English personal name Pæssa, "clearing", leāh, "wood". Pasilege and Paslie are recorded previous spellings of the name; the Gaelic translation is Pàislig. Paisley has monastic origins. A chapel is said to have been established by the 6th/7th century Irish monk, Saint Mirin at a site near a waterfall on the White Cart Water known as the Hammils. Though Paisley lacks contemporary documentation it may have been, along with Glasgow and Govan, a major religious centre of the Kingdom of Strathclyde. A priory was established in 1163 from the Cluniac priory at Wenlock in Shropshire, England at the behest of Walter fitz Alan, Steward of Scotland. In 1245 this was raised to the status of an Abbey; the restored Abbey and adjacent'Place', constructed out of part of the medieval claustral buildings, survive as a Church of Scotland parish church.
One of Scotland's major religious houses, Paisley Abbey was much favoured by the Bruce and Stewart royal families. King Robert III was buried in the Abbey, his tomb has not survived, but that of Princess Marjorie Bruce, ancestor of the Stewarts, is one of Scotland's few royal monuments to survive the Reformation. Paisley coalesced under James II's wish that the lands should become a single regality and, as a result, markets and commerce began to flourish. In 1488 the town's status was raised by James IV to Burgh of barony. Many trades sprang up and the first school was established in 1577 by the Town Council; the Paisley witches known as the Bargarran witches or the Renfrewshire witches, were tried in Paisley in 1697. Seven were convicted and five were hanged and burnt on the Gallow Green, their remains were buried at Maxwelton Cross in the west end of the town. This was the last mass execution for witchcraft in western Europe. A horse shoe was placed on top of the site to lock in the evil. A horse shoe is still visible in the middle of this busy road junction today—though not the original.
The modern shoe is made of bronze and bears the inscription, "Pain Inflicted, Suffering Endured, Injustice Done". The Industrial Revolution, based on the textile industry, turned Paisley from a small market town to an important industrial town in the late 18th century, its location attracted English mill owners. However, silk fell out of fashion in 1790; the mills switched to the imitation Kashmir shawls called "Paisley". Under the leadership of Thomas Coats, Paisley became the world centre for thread making; the high-status skilled weavers mobilised themselves in radical protests after 1790, culminating in the failed "Radical War" of 1820. Overproduction, the collapse of the shawl market and a general depression in the textile industry led to technical changes that reduced the importance of weavers. Politically the mill owners remained in control of the town. By the mid-19th century weaving had become the town's principal industry; the Paisley weavers' most famous products were the shawls, which bore the Paisley Pattern made fashionable after being worn by a young Queen Victoria.
Despite being of a Kashmiri design and manufactured in other parts of Europe, the teardrop-like pattern soon became known by Paisley's name across the western world. Although the shawls dropped out of fashion in the 1870s, the Paisley pattern remains an important symbol of the town: the Paisley Museum maintains a significant collection of the original shawls in this design, it has been used, for example, in the modern logo of Renfrewshire Council, the local authority. Through its weaving fraternity, Paisley gained notoriety as being a literate and somewhat radical town and between 1816 and 1820 became the scene of a Radical War. Political intrigue, early trades unionism and reforming zeal came together to produce mass demonstrations, cavalry charges down the high street, public riots and trials for treason. Documentation from the period indicates that overthrow of the government was contemplated by some; the weavers of Paisley were active in the'Radical War'. A mixture of religious opinions and healthy drink-fueled debate raged at night amongst the weavers, merchants and others.
The perceived radical n
Baron Carlo Marochetti was an Italian-born French sculptor. Carlo Marochetti was brought up in Paris as a French citizen, his first teachers were François Joseph Antoine-Jean Gros in Paris. There his statue of A Young Girl playing with a Dog won a medal in 1829, his Fallen Angel was exhibited in 1831. Between 1822 and 1830 he studied chiefly in Rome. From 1832 to 1848 he lived in France. In Paris, he made a panel representing the Battle of Jemappes for the Arc de Triomphe, the altar in the Church of the Madeleine and the tomb of Vincenzo Bellini in Père Lachaise Cemetery. While living in Paris, he created the equestrian monument of Emmanuel Philibert which stands in Piazza San Carlo in Turin, he followed the French king Louis-Philippe into exile in the United Kingdom after the fall of the July monarchy in 1848. He spent the greater part of his time from until his death in London, he lived in Onslow Square, had a large studio, his own foundry, nearby in Sydney Mews. Among his chief works were statues of Queen Victoria, Colin Campbell, 1st Baron Clyde, King Richard the Lionheart.
The Richard Coeur de Lion was displayed in the Great Exhibition, a bronze copy was made in 1860 to be displayed in front of the Palace of Westminster, where it has remained since. His statue of Robert Stephenson still stands in the forecourt of Euston Station, he made a bust of William Makepeace Thackeray for Westminster Abbey. He created the marble recumbent effigies for the tomb of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert in the Royal Mausoleum at Frogmore in Windsor Great Park and the statue on the Duke of Wellington Commemorative Column outside Stratfield Saye House. From 1864 he collaborated with Sir Edwin Landseer on the four bronze lions to be placed around the base of Nelson's Column in Trafalgar Square, cast them at his foundry; as a favourite sculptor of Queen Victoria, he was commissioned to make the seated figure of Prince Albert for the Albert Memorial in Kensington Gardens. However the first version was rejected by the architect of the monument, Sir George Gilbert Scott, Marochetti died before a satisfactory second version could be completed.
He designed Queen Victoria's memorial to Princess Elizabeth and a bust of Prince Albert at Newport Minster on the Isle of Wight. Marochetti was created a baron by the King of Sardinia and was a chevalier of the Legion of Honour, he was elected an associate of the Royal Academy 1861 and a full academician in 1866. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Marochetti, Carlo". Encyclopædia Britannica. 17. Cambridge University Press. P. 747. Historical Images of the marble tomb of the Prince Consort, built by Marochetti on behalf of Queen Victoria Carlo Marochetti in American public collections, on the French Sculpture Census website
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, with a population of 545,500 as of 2017. It lies within the United Kingdom's second-most populous built-up area, with a population of 3.2 million. It is fringed by the Cheshire Plain to the south, the Pennines to the north and east, an arc of towns with which it forms a continuous conurbation; the local authority is Manchester City Council. The recorded history of Manchester began with the civilian settlement associated with the Roman fort of Mamucium or Mancunium, established in about AD 79 on a sandstone bluff near the confluence of the rivers Medlock and Irwell, it was a part of Lancashire, although areas of Cheshire south of the River Mersey were incorporated in the 20th century. The first to be included, was added to the city in 1931. Throughout the Middle Ages Manchester remained a manorial township, but began to expand "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century. Manchester's unplanned urbanisation was brought on by a boom in textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution, resulted in it becoming the world's first industrialised city.
Manchester achieved city status in 1853. The Manchester Ship Canal opened in 1894, creating the Port of Manchester and directly linking the city to the Irish Sea, 36 miles to the west, its fortune declined after the Second World War, owing to deindustrialisation, but the IRA bombing in 1996 led to extensive investment and regeneration. In 2014, the Globalisation and World Cities Research Network ranked Manchester as a beta world city, the highest-ranked British city apart from London. Manchester is the third-most visited city after London and Edinburgh, it is notable for its architecture, musical exports, media links and engineering output, social impact, sports clubs and transport connections. Manchester Liverpool Road railway station was the world's first inter-city passenger railway station. Manchester hosted the 2002 Commonwealth Games; the name Manchester originates from the Latin name Mamucium or its variant Mancunium and the citizens are still referred to as Mancunians. These are thought to represent a Latinisation of an original Brittonic name, either from mamm- or from mamma.
Both meanings are preserved in Insular Celtic languages, such as mam meaning "breast" in Irish and "mother" in Welsh. The suffix -chester is a survival of Old English ceaster and from that castra in latin for camp or settlement; the Brigantes were the major Celtic tribe in. Their territory extended across the fertile lowland of what is now Stretford. Following the Roman conquest of Britain in the 1st century, General Agricola ordered the construction of a fort named Mamucium in the year 79 to ensure that Roman interests in Deva Victrix and Eboracum were protected from the Brigantes. Central Manchester has been permanently settled since this time. A stabilised fragment of foundations of the final version of the Roman fort is visible in Castlefield; the Roman habitation of Manchester ended around the 3rd century. After the Roman withdrawal and Saxon conquest, the focus of settlement shifted to the confluence of the Irwell and Irk sometime before the arrival of the Normans after 1066. Much of the wider area was laid waste in the subsequent Harrying of the North.
Thomas de la Warre, lord of the manor and constructed a collegiate church for the parish in 1421. The church is now Manchester Cathedral; the library, which opened in 1653 and is still open to the public today, is the oldest free public reference library in the United Kingdom. Manchester is mentioned as having a market in 1282. Around the 14th century, Manchester received an influx of Flemish weavers, sometimes credited as the foundation of the region's textile industry. Manchester became an important centre for the manufacture and trade of woollens and linen, by about 1540, had expanded to become, in John Leland's words, "The fairest, best builded and most populous town of all Lancashire." The cathedral and Chetham's buildings are the only significant survivors of Leland's Manchester. During the English Civil War Manchester favoured the Parliamentary interest. Although not long-lasting, Cromwell granted it the right to elect its own MP. Charles Worsley, who sat for the city for only a year, was appointed Major General for Lancashire and Staffordshire during the Rule of the Major Generals.
He was a diligent puritan, banning the celebration of Christmas. Significant quantities of cotton began to be used after about 1600, firstly in linen/cotton fustians, but by around 1750 pure cotton fabrics were being produced and cotton had overtaken wool in importance; the Irwell and Mersey were made navigable by 1736, opening a route from Manchester to the sea docks on the Mersey. The Bridgewater Canal, Britain's first wholly artificial waterway, was opened in 1761, bringing coal from mines at Worsley to central Manchester; the canal was extended to the Mersey at Runcorn by 1776. The combination of competition and improved efficiency halved th