Novolipetsk Steel, or NLMK, is one of the four largest steel companies in Russia. NLMKs share of domestic crude steel production is about 21% and it primary produces flat steel products, semi-finished steel products and electrical steels. NLMK produces specialty coated steels, plus high-ductility and micro-alloyed steels, the Lipetsk area in central Russia has had substantial iron ore deposits. In 1702, Peter the Great ordered the construction of a foundry there. In 1931, Novolipetsk Iron and Steel began construction of a plant on the site of the ore mine. Prospering down through the decades, Novolipetsk became a company in 1992. The company seems to be acquisitive, see list of related organizations, in 1998, Vladimir Lisin became the chairman. The manufacturing area in Lipetsk covers 27 square kilometers, less than half of NLMKs output of steel is sold in Russia. The companys primary source of ore is now Stoilensky GOK. Companys revenue in 2013 is $10,909 bln, net profit — $189 mln, NLMKs assets are technically advanced and on par with its global peers.
NLMK is fully self-sufficient in iron-ore through its 97% stake in Stoilensky GOK, on December 15,2005, the company listed 42 million of its Global Depositary Shares on the London Stock Exchange. Each GDS represents 10 ordinary shares, in June 2006 NLMK altered its dividend policy and increased its target payout ratio from 15% to 20% of its net income under US GAAP. The company pursues the goal of bringing its total dividends over a period to 30%. NLMKs global M&A activity has focused on assets which the company could effectively leverage for processing its low-cost slabs into high-value-added products in its key export markets. The largest of NLMKs acquisitions was a 50% stake in a joint venture with the de, the venture includes one steel plant and five rolling mills in Western Europe and the United States. The joint venture includes service and distribution facilities located in Europe, in 2009 it stopped discharges of industrial wastewater into the river Voronezh. List of steel producers Official site - English language version
Forty-eight of the fifty states and the federal district are contiguous and located in North America between Canada and Mexico. The state of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east, the state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean, the geography and wildlife of the country are extremely diverse. At 3.8 million square miles and with over 324 million people, the United States is the worlds third- or fourth-largest country by area, third-largest by land area. It is one of the worlds most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, paleo-Indians migrated from Asia to the North American mainland at least 15,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century, the United States emerged from 13 British colonies along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the following the Seven Years War led to the American Revolution. On July 4,1776, during the course of the American Revolutionary War, the war ended in 1783 with recognition of the independence of the United States by Great Britain, representing the first successful war of independence against a European power.
The current constitution was adopted in 1788, after the Articles of Confederation, the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, were ratified in 1791 and designed to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. During the second half of the 19th century, the American Civil War led to the end of slavery in the country. By the end of century, the United States extended into the Pacific Ocean. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the status as a global military power. The end of the Cold War and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the sole superpower. The U. S. is a member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States. The United States is a developed country, with the worlds largest economy by nominal GDP. It ranks highly in several measures of performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP. While the U. S. economy is considered post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge economy, the United States is a prominent political and cultural force internationally, and a leader in scientific research and technological innovations.
In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America after the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci
There is an unrelated raw material processing company named Sinosteel based in the Peoples Republic of China. China Steel Corporation is the largest integrated steel maker in Taiwan and its main steel mill is located in Siaogang District, Kaohsiung. The corporation and its companies are administrated under the CSC Group. According to the International Iron and Steel Institute, China Steel is the 23rd largest steel producer in the world in 2016, China Steel was planned and organized in 1960s and the corporation was officially established on December 3,1971. On November 1,1974, CSC began the first stage of construction and its head office was located in Taipei between 1971 and 1975, but translocated to Kaohsiung since September 15,1975. The first blast furnace was launched on June 27,1977, a few months later, the first stage of the building plan of the steel mill was accomplished. The second and the stage were subsequently accomplished in 1982 and 1988. Presently, the company has a total of four blast furnaces, CSC was started as a non-governmental company.
It once transformed into a company on July 1,1977. Formosa Ha Tinh Steel, China Steel 25% shareholding since 2015 List of companies of Taiwan Ten Major Construction Projects China Steel Corporation
ThyssenKrupp AG /ˈtɪsɛn. krʊp/ is a German multinational conglomerate, based in Duisburg and Essen and divided into 670 subsidiaries worldwide. It is one of the worlds largest steel producers, it was ranked tenth-largest worldwide by revenue in 2015, the company is the result of the 1999 merger of Thyssen AG and Krupp, and now has its operational headquarters in Essen. In addition to production, ThyssenKrupps products range from machines and industrial services to high-speed trains. The subsidiary ThyssenKrupp Marine Systems manufactures frigates and submarines for German, ThyssenKrupp has 5,500 employees and generates €1.6 billion in revenue in Spain, where it mainly manufactures elevators. Italy, where the company produces most of its stainless steel, the businesses in those two countries make up 9% of all sales for the company. Construction of the headquarters began in 2007. The first buildings were complete in 2010, the phase of building was completed in June 2015. Situated in the west of Essen, the campus was designed by Chaix & Morel et associeés.
Their design was selected for construction in a design competition in 2006. ThyssenKrupp is the result of a merger of two German steel companies, Thyssen AG founded in 1891 under the name Gewerkschaft Deutscher Kaiser, as early as the 1980s, the companies began negotiations on a merger and began closely cooperating in some business areas. In 1997, the companies combined their flat steel activities, with a merger completed in March 1999. Krupp 1811, Friedrich Alfred Krupp establishes a cast steel factory in Essen,1826, After Friedrich Krupps death in 1826, his widow Therese Krupp runs the company together with other relatives and her eldest son Alfred, who was 14 years old at the time. 1833, Krupp manufactures complete rolling machines,1847, Expansion of the railroads increases demand for durable cast steel, triggering the company’s first surge of growth. Supplies include axles and the tires that can withstand increasing speed without cracking. 1859, The Prussian military orders 300 gun barrels, marking development of the second major production segment.
1862, Construction of the first Bessemer steel plant on the continent for mass production of rails, 1864–1872, The company purchases various iron ore mines to avoid dependency on external suppliers. In 1873, Krupp establishes his own shipping company in Rotterdam to transport ore from the Spanish company Orconera Iron Ore Co. in which he owns shares,1872, Alfred Krupp issues a General Directive establishing company hierarchy from foreman to management. Thyssen 1867, Establishment of Thyssen, Fossoul & Co. a company making hoop iron for barrels, baling etc
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China, is a state in East Asia. Neighbours include China to the west, Japan to the northeast, Taiwan is the most populous state that is not a member of the United Nations, and the one with the largest economy. The island of Taiwan, known as Formosa, was inhabited by Taiwanese aborigines before the 17th century. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning, the island was annexed by the Qing dynasty, the Qing ceded Taiwan to Japan in 1895 after the Sino-Japanese War. While Taiwan was under Japanese rule, the Republic of China was established on the mainland in 1912 after the fall of the Qing dynasty, following the Japanese surrender to the Allies in 1945, the ROC took control of Taiwan. However, the resumption of the Chinese Civil War led to the ROCs loss of the mainland to the Communists, and the flight of the ROC government to Taiwan in 1949. As a founding member of the United Nations, the ROC continued to represent China at the United Nations until 1971, in the early 1960s, Taiwan entered a period of rapid economic growth and industrialization, creating a stable industrial economy.
In the 1980s and early 1990s, it changed from a one-party military dictatorship dominated by the Kuomintang to a multi-party democracy with universal suffrage, Taiwan is the 22nd-largest economy in the world, and its high-tech industry plays a key role in the global economy. It is ranked highly in terms of freedom of the press, health care, public education, economic freedom, the PRC has consistently claimed sovereignty over Taiwan and asserted the ROC is no longer in legitimate existence. Under its One-China Policy the PRC refused diplomatic relations with any country that recognizes the ROC, the PRC has threatened the use of military force in response to any formal declaration of independence by Taiwan or if PRC leaders decide that peaceful unification is no longer possible. There are various names for the island of Taiwan in use today, the former name Formosa dates from 1542, when Portuguese sailors sighted the main island of Taiwan and named it Ilha Formosa, which means beautiful island.
The name Formosa eventually replaced all others in European literature and was in use in English in the early 20th century. This name was adopted into the Chinese vernacular as the name of the sandbar. The modern word Taiwan is derived from this usage, which is seen in forms in Chinese historical records. Use of the current Chinese name was formalized as early as 1684 with the establishment of Taiwan Prefecture, through its rapid development, the entire Formosan mainland eventually became known as Taiwan. The official name of the state is the Republic of China and it was a member of the United Nations representing China until 1971, when it lost its seat to the Peoples Republic of China. Over subsequent decades, the Republic of China has become known as Taiwan. In some contexts, especially ones from the ROC government
Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany, is a federal parliamentary republic in central-western Europe. It includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,021 square kilometres, with about 82 million inhabitants, Germany is the most populous member state of the European Union. After the United States, it is the second most popular destination in the world. Germanys capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while its largest conurbation is the Ruhr, other major cities include Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf and Leipzig. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity, a region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period the Germanic tribes expanded southward, beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation, in 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire.
After World War I and the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic, the establishment of the national socialist dictatorship in 1933 led to World War II and the Holocaust. After a period of Allied occupation, two German states were founded, the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic, in 1990, the country was reunified. In the 21st century, Germany is a power and has the worlds fourth-largest economy by nominal GDP. As a global leader in industrial and technological sectors, it is both the worlds third-largest exporter and importer of goods. Germany is a country with a very high standard of living sustained by a skilled. It upholds a social security and universal health system, environmental protection. Germany was a member of the European Economic Community in 1957. It is part of the Schengen Area, and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999, Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G8, the G20, and the OECD.
The national military expenditure is the 9th highest in the world, the English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz popular, derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- people, the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a mine in Schöningen where three 380, 000-year-old wooden javelins were unearthed
Iranian Mines & Mining Industries Development & Renovation, known as IMIDRO, is a major state-owned holding company active in the mining sector in Iran. IMIDRO has 8 major companies and 55 operational subsidiaries active in steel, copper, cement, in 2002 IMIDRO and its subsidiaries had 49.3 thousand employees with a total asset value of 33.5 thousand billion Rials. In 2002 IMIDRO subsidiaries annual turnover value was estimated at 3.23 thousand billion Rials, Iran is the 5th largest cement producer in world. In 2009 Iran produced some 65 million tons of cement per year and exported to 40 countries
China Baowu Steel Group
China Baowu Steel Group Corp. Ltd. commonly referred to as Baowu Steel, is a state-owned iron and steel company headquartered in the Baosteel Tower in Pudong, China. Baosteel is the fifth-largest steel producer in the world measured by crude steel output and it employs 130,401 employees as of the end of 2012, has annual revenues of around $21.5 billion, and produces a mix of products. According to World Steel Association, the corporation was ranked the 5th in 2015 the world ranking by production volume. The IPO of the subsidiary of Baosteel Group on the Shanghai Stock Exchange in 2000 was the largest in China up to that time, beginning in 1978, the Chinese government began to institute economic reforms. Plans called for an integrated steel production facility to be located near the port of Shanghai. The Baoshan District, a suburb of Shanghai, was chosen as the site, Baoshan Iron and Steel benefitted from the Chinese economic expansion which consumed all the steel available. However, with the liberalization of the Chinese economy, Baoshan found itself in competition with new rivals.
The company decided to add an export trade marketing component to remain competitive, although hurt by the Asian financial crisis, Baoshan pushed through with a merger of other money losing state owned enterprises, though it had managed to remain profitable itself. The new conglomerate was the largest steel producer in the country with annual production of nearly 20 million tons. It followed the parent company to become a subsidiary of Baosteel Group in 1998, in 2004, the listed subsidiary acquired Meishan Iron and Steel from Baosteel Group. In 2011, Boasteel Group acquired 51% stake of Guangdong Shaoguan Iron, on 21–22 September 2016, a plan to merge Baosteel Group and fellow state-owned steel maker Wuhan Iron and Steel Corporation was announced. Both Baosteel Group and Wuhan Iron and Steel Corporation were supervised by SASAC of the Central Government, as of December 2016, the name of the new group is China Baowu Steel Group Corporation. In early 2016, Baosteel Group was accused by US Steel Corp.
of stealing commercial secrets, the International Trade Commission launched a probe into these allegations in May 2016. Next to Baosteel, Hebei Iron and Steel Group, Wuhan Iron and Steel Co Ltd, Maanshan Iron and Steel Group, Anshan Iron and Steel Group and Jiangsu Shagang Group are under investigation. Steel plants Baoshan Iron and Steel Shanghai Meishan Iron and Steel Wuhan Iron and Steel Company Zhanjiang Iron and Steel Shanghai First Iron, Shanghai Second Iron and Steel Co. Ltd. Shanghai Pudong Iron and Steel Co. Ltd, Shanghai Fifth Iron and Steel Co. Ltd. Guangdong Shaoguan Iron and Steel SGIS Songshan Co. Ltd, excluding the investment held by the listed subsidiary Baoshan Iron and Steel, Baosteel Group owned 0. 88% stake in PetroChina Pipelines, the company that runs West–East Gas Pipeline. General Detailed History of Baosteel specific Baosteel official website Baosteel International official website
AK Steel Holding
AK Steel Holding Corporation is a steel producer headquartered in West Chester Township, Butler County, Ohio. The company has been criticized for its pollution and worker safety record, the company operates 8 steel plants and 2 tube manufacturing plants. The steel plants are in Ashland, Butler, Coshocton, Dearborn, Mansfield, Middletown, Rockport and Zanesville, Ohio. Of the companys 2016 sales, 66% was to the industry, 16% was to infrastructure and manufacturing industry. Armcos best known include, The crash barriers installed at roadsides, in central reservations. These barriers are commonly called Armco or Armco barriers in the United Kingdom, bent corrugated steel panels that can be bolted together to make culverts. These are known as Armco culverts, pre-fabricated and pre-primed/pre-painted steel panel buildings, often found in railyards and as outbuildings and storage structures. The company was founded in 1899 as The American Rolling Mill Company in Middletown, Ohio, in 1901, it opened a second production facility, Ashland Works in Ashland, Kentucky.
In 1971, Armco Steel purchased Kansas City-based engineering firm Burns & McDonnell, however, in 1985, in 1978, Armco Steel was renamed Armco, Inc. It moved its headquarters to New Jersey in 1985, in 1989, it entered into a limited partnership with Kawasaki Steel Corporation. Kawasaki Steel Corporation contributed several of its facilities to the company. While the company achieved over $1 billion in sales in the early 1990s. The company hired the 65 year old Tom Graham and Richard M. Wardrop and these executives divested unprofitable operations and replaced most of the companys executives and managers. In 1993, the company moved its headquarters to Pittsburgh and renamed itself AK Steel Holdings reflecting its Armco roots, in 1993, the company sold the Kansas City Bolt and Nut Company plant to Bain Capital to avoid its shutdown. The company executed an initial offering in 1994, using the proceeds to pay down its unmanageable debt load. In 1995, it moved its headquarters back to Middletown, in 1996, Graham made the controversial decision to spend $1.1 billion to construct a new steel production facility in Rockport, Indiana.
In 1996, rifts with its unions and its safety record, including 10 fatalities at its plants in 4 years, resulted in fines and scrutiny from the Occupational Safety, in 1999, the company acquired Armco Inc. its former parent company, for $1.3 billion. In 2007, it moved its headquarters to West Chester Township, Butler County, following the close of trading on June 30,2008, AK Steel was added to the S&P500 and Standard & Poors 500 Global Industry Classification Standard Steel Sub-Industry index
The gram is a metric system unit of mass. Originally defined as the weight of a volume of pure water equal to the cube of the hundredth part of a metre. The only unit symbol for gram that is recognised by the International System of Units is g following the numeric value with a space, the SI does not support the use of abbreviations such as gr, gm or Gm. The word gramme was adopted by the French National Convention in its 1795 decree revising the system as replacing the gravet introduced in 1793. Its definition remained that of the weight of a centimetre of water. French gramme was taken from the Late Latin term gramma and this word, ultimately from Greek γράμμα letter had adopted a specialised meaning in Late Antiquity of one twenty-fourth part of an ounce, corresponding to about 1.14 grams. This use of the term is found in the carmen de ponderibus et mensuris composed around 400 AD, the gram was the fundamental unit of mass in the 19th-century centimetre–gram–second system of units. The gram is today the most widely used unit of measurement for non-liquid ingredients in cooking and grocery shopping worldwide. 1 gram =15.4323583529 grains 1 grain =0.06479891 grams 1 avoirdupois ounce =28.349523125 grams 1 troy ounce =31.1034768 grams 100 grams =3.527396195 ounces 1 gram =5 carats 1 gram =8.
1 gram is roughly equal to 1 small paper clip or pen cap, the Japanese 1 yen coin has a mass of one gram. Conversion of units Duella Gold gram Orders of magnitude Gram at Encyclopædia Britannica