The Timor Sea is a shallow sea bounded to the north by the island of Timor, to the east by the Arafura Sea, to the south by Australia. The sea contains a number of uninhabited islands and significant hydrocarbon reserves. International disputes emerged after the reserves were discovered resulting in the signing of the Timor Sea Treaty; the Timor Sea was hit by the worst oil spill for 25 years in 2009. It is possible that Australia's first inhabitants crossed the Timor Sea from Indonesia at a time when sea levels were lower; the waters to the east are known as the Arafura Sea. The Timor Sea is adjacent to three substantial inlets on the north Australian coast, the Joseph Bonaparte Gulf, Beagle Gulf and the Van Diemen Gulf; the Australian city of Darwin is the only large city to adjoin the sea. The small town of Wyndham is located on the west arm of Cambridge Gulf, an inlet of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf. Rivers that enter the Timor Sea from the Northern Territory include Fish River, King River, Dry River, Victoria River and the Alligator Rivers.
Rivers in the Kimberley region that flow into the Timor Sea include the Ord River, Forrest River, Pentecost River and Durack River. The sea is about 480 km wide, covering an area of about 610 thousand km2, its deepest point is the Timor Trough, located in the northern part of the sea, which reaches a depth of 3,300 m. The remainder of the sea is much shallower, much of it averaging less than 200 m deep, as it overlies the Sahul Shelf, part of the Australian continental shelf; the Big Bank Shoals is an area on the sloping seabed between the continental shelf and the Timor Trough where a number of submerged banks are located. The ecosystem of the shoals is different to the deeper waters surrounding them. In May 2010, it was announced that a crater about 50 km wide has been discovered on the seabed of the Timor Sea; the International Hydrographic Organization defines the Timor Sea as being one of the waters of the East Indian Archipelago. The IHO defines its limits as follows: On the North The Southeastern limit of the Savu Sea the Southeastern coast of Timor and the Southern limit of the Banda Sea.
On the East. The Western of the Arafura Sea. On the South; the North coast of Australia from Cape Don to Cape Londonderry. On the West. A line from Cape Londonderry to the Southwest point of Roti Island. Many tropical storms and cyclones pass through the Timor Sea. In February 2005, Tropical Cyclone Vivienne disrupted oil and gas production facilities in the area, the next month, Severe Tropical Cyclone Willy interrupted production.. Petroleum production facilities are designed to withstand the effects of cyclones, although as a safety precaution production is reduced or temporarily halted and workers evacuated by helicopter to the mainland - to Darwin or Dili. A number of significant islands are located in the sea, notably Melville Island, part of the Tiwi Islands, off Australia and the Australian-governed Ashmore and Cartier Islands, it is thought. Scott and Seringapatam Reefs formed in the area and to the west on the same underwater platform is the Rowley Shoals; the Timor Current is an oceanic current that runs south-west in the Timor Sea between the Indonesia archipelago and Australia.
It is a major contributor to the Indonesian Throughflow that transports water from the Pacific Ocean to the Indian Ocean. Beneath the Timor Sea lie considerable reserves of gas. Confirmation of the prospectivity of the Timor Sea came when Woodside-Burmah’s Big John rig drilled Troubadour No.1 well in June 1974 on the Troubadour Shoals about 200 kilometres southeast of Timor, intersected 83 metres of hydrocarbons. A number of offshore petroleum projects are in operation and there is considerable exploration activity either underway and numerous proposed projects. A gas pipeline crosses the Timor Sea from the Joint Petroleum Development Area to Wickham Point near Darwin; the Timor Sea was the location for Australia's largest oil spill when the Montara oil field leaked oil, natural gas and condensate from 21 August to 3 November 2009. During the spill 400 barrels of oil leaked each day; the Montara Commission of Inquiry placed blame on the Thai company PTTEP, owner of the wells. The largest petroleum project in operation in the Timor Sea is the Bayu-Undan project operated by ConocoPhillips.
The Bayu-Undan field is located 500 km north-west of Darwin in the Bonaparte Basin. Production commenced in 2004 as a gas recycle project - with liquids being stripped from the raw production stream and exported. Gas was pumped back down into the reservoir. At around the same time, construction commenced on a 500 km subsea natural gas pipeline connecting the Bayu-Undan processing facility to a liquefied natural gas plant situated at Wickham Point in Darwin harbour. Since the completion of the pipeline and the Darwin LNG plant in 2005, gas produc
Puerto Rico the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea 1,000 miles southeast of Miami, Florida. An archipelago among the Greater Antilles, Puerto Rico includes the eponymous main island and several smaller islands, such as Mona and Vieques; the capital and most populous city is San Juan. The territory's total population is 3.4 million. Spanish and English are the official languages. Populated by the indigenous Taíno people, Puerto Rico was colonized by Spain following the arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1493, it was contested by French and British, but remained a Spanish possession for the next four centuries. The island's cultural and demographic landscapes were shaped by the displacement and assimilation of the native population, the forced migration of African slaves, settlement from the Canary Islands and Andalusia. In the Spanish Empire, Puerto Rico played a secondary but strategic role compared to wealthier colonies like Peru and New Spain.
Spain's distant administrative control continued up to the end of the 19th century, producing a distinctive creole Hispanic culture and language that combined indigenous and European elements. In 1898, following the Spanish–American War, the United States acquired Puerto Rico under the terms of the Treaty of Paris. Puerto Ricans have been citizens of the United States since 1917, enjoy freedom of movement between the island and the mainland; as it is not a state, Puerto Rico does not have a vote in the United States Congress, which governs the territory with full jurisdiction under the Puerto Rico Federal Relations Act of 1950. However, Puerto Rico does have one non-voting member of the House called a Resident Commissioner; as residents of a U. S. territory, American citizens in Puerto Rico are disenfranchised at the national level and do not vote for president and vice president of the United States, nor pay federal income tax on Puerto Rican income. Like other territories and the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico does not have U.
S. senators. Congress approved a local constitution in 1952, allowing U. S. citizens on the territory to elect a governor. Puerto Rico's future political status has been a matter of significant debate. In early 2017, the Puerto Rican government-debt crisis posed serious problems for the government; the outstanding bond debt had climbed to $70 billion at a time with 12.4% unemployment. The debt had been increasing during a decade long recession; this was the second major financial crisis to affect the island after the Great Depression when the U. S. government, in 1935, provided relief efforts through the Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration. On May 3, 2017, Puerto Rico's financial oversight board in the U. S. District Court for Puerto Rico filed the debt restructuring petition, made under Title III of PROMESA. By early August 2017, the debt was $72 billion with a 45% poverty rate. In late September 2017, Hurricane Maria made landfall in Puerto Rico; the island's electrical grid was destroyed, with repairs expected to take months to complete, provoking the largest power outage in American history.
Recovery efforts were somewhat slow in the first few months, over 200,000 residents had moved to the mainland State of Florida alone by late November 2017. Puerto Rico is Spanish for "rich port". Puerto Ricans call the island Borinquén – a derivation of Borikén, its indigenous Taíno name, which means "Land of the Valiant Lord"; the terms boricua and borincano derive from Borikén and Borinquen and are used to identify someone of Puerto Rican heritage. The island is popularly known in Spanish as la isla del encanto, meaning "the island of enchantment". Columbus named the island San Juan Bautista, in honor of Saint John the Baptist, while the capital city was named Ciudad de Puerto Rico. Traders and other maritime visitors came to refer to the entire island as Puerto Rico, while San Juan became the name used for the main trading/shipping port and the capital city; the island's name was changed to "Porto Rico" by the United States after the Treaty of Paris of 1898. The anglicized name was used by the U.
S. government and private enterprises. The name was changed back to Puerto Rico by a joint resolution in Congress introduced by Félix Córdova Dávila in 1931; the official name of the entity in Spanish is Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, while its official English name is Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. The ancient history of the archipelago, now Puerto Rico is not well known. Unlike other indigenous cultures in the New World which left behind abundant archeological and physical evidence of their societies, scant artifacts and evidence remain of the Puerto Rico's indigenous population. Scarce archaeological findings and early Spanish accounts from the colonial era constitute all, known about them; the first comprehensive book on the history of Puerto Rico was written by Fray Íñigo Abbad y Lasierra in 1786, nearly three centuries after the first Spaniards landed on the island. The first known settlers were the Ortoiroid people, an Archaic Period culture of Amerindian hunters and fishermen who migrated from the South American mainland.
Some scholars suggest their settlement dates back about 4,000 years. An archeological dig in 1990 on the island of Vieques found the remains of a man, designated as the "Puerto Ferro Man", dated to around 2000 BC; the Ortoiroid were displaced
Fernandina Beach, Florida
Fernandina Beach is a city in Nassau County, United States, on Amelia Island. It is the northernmost city on Florida's Atlantic coast, is one of the principal municipalities comprising Greater Jacksonville; the area was first inhabited by the Timucuan Indian tribe. Located on Amelia Island, known as the "Isle of 8 Flags", Fernandina has had the flags of the following nations flown over it since 1562: France, Great Britain, the Republic of Florida, the Green Cross of Florida, the Confederate States of America, the United States, it is the only municipality in the United States. According to the 2010 census, the city population was 11,487, it is the seat of Nassau County. Prior to the arrival of Europeans on what is now Amelia Island, Native Americans occupied the site of the original town of Fernandina. Native American bands associated with the Timucuan mound-building culture had settled on the island about A. D. 1000. They remained on the island until the early 18th century. French Huguenot explorer Jean Ribault became the first recorded European visitor to Napoyca in 1562, which he named Isle de Mai.
In 1565, Spanish forces led by Pedro Menéndez de Avilés drove the French from northeastern Florida, killing Ribault and 350 other French colonists. In 1573, Spanish Franciscans established the Santa Maria mission on the island, which they called Isla de Santa Maria; the mission was abandoned in 1680. British raids forced the relocation of the Santa Catalina de Guale mission on Georgia's St. Catherines Island, to the abandoned Santa Maria mission on the island in 1685. In 1702, this mission was again abandoned when South Carolina's colonial governor, James Moore, led a joint British-Indian invasion of Florida. Georgia's founder and colonial governor, James Oglethorpe, renamed the island "Amelia Island" in honor of Princess Amelia, King George II's daughter, although the island was still a Spanish possession. In 1736, James Oglethorpe, the governor of Georgia, ordered Fort Amelia to be built at the mouth of the St. Marys River to house a garrison of Scottish Highlanders. After establishing a small settlement on the northwestern edge of the island, Oglethorpe negotiated with Spanish colonial officials for a transfer of the island to British sovereignty.
Colonial officials agreed to the transfer. The Treaty of Paris in 1763 ratified Britain's victory over France in the Seven Years' War. Spain ceded Florida to Britain in exchange for Havana, nullifying all Spanish land grants in Florida; the Proclamation of 1763 established the St. Marys River as East Florida's northeastern boundary. Although not allied with the Americans during the Revolutionary War, Spain cooperated with them as co-belligerents against the British in some actions. In 1783, the Second Treaty of Paris ended hostilities, under its terms Great Britain ceded East and West Florida to Spain, all British inhabitants of the Floridas, including those on Amelia Island, had to leave within 18 months unless they swore allegiance to Spain and professed Catholicism. On January 1, 1811, Enrique White, governor of Spain's East Florida province, named the town of Fernandina, about a mile from the present city, in honor of King Ferdinand VII. On May 10 of that year, Fernandina became the last town platted under the Laws of the Indies in the Western hemisphere.
The town was intended as a bulwark against U. S. territorial expansion. In the following years, it was recaptured by a succession of renegades and privateers. At the beginning of the Patriot War, with the approval of President James Madison and Georgia Governor George Mathews on March 13, 1812, insurgents known as the "Patriots of Amelia Island" seized the island. After raising a Patriot flag, they replaced it with the United States flag. American gunboats under the command of Commodore Hugh Campbell maintained control of the island. On May 15, 1812, the British brig. Sappho fired on Gunboat no. 168, which had fired on the loyalist merchant vessel Fernando to prevent her leaving. Outgunned, the American gunboat withdrew. President Madison denounced the filibustering of George Mathews, however, on the grounds that Mathews had violated his instructions. Spanish pressure forced the American evacuation from the island in 1813. Spanish forces erected Fort San Carlos on the island in 1816. However, A Scottish soldier and adventurer named Gregor MacGregor with 55 musketeers seized Fort San Carlos in 1817, claiming the island on behalf of "the brethren of Mexico, Buenos Ayres, New Grenada and Venezuela".
MacGregor claimed to be Brigadier General of the armies of the United Provinces of New Grenada and Venezuela, General-in-Chief of the armies for the two Floridas, commissioned by the Supreme Director of Mexico. Spanish soldiers forced MacGregor's withdrawal, but their attempt to regain complete control was foiled by American irregulars organized by Ruggles Hubbard and former Pennsylvania congressman Jared Irwin. Hubbard and Irwin joined forces with the French-born pirate Louis Aury, who laid claim to the island on behalf of the Republic of Mexico. U. S. Navy forces drove Aury from the island, President James Monroe vowed to hold Amelia Island "in trust for Spain." In 1847 construction of Fort Clinch began in nearby present-day Fernandina. The Third System fort was named after General Duncan Lamont Clinch who fought in the War of 1812 and the Seminole Wars. Senator David Levy Yulee, founder of the Florida Railroad, wanted the eastern terminus of his railroad line to end in
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering 70,560,000 km2. It is bounded by Asia on the north, on the west by Africa, on the east by Australia, on the south by the Southern Ocean or, depending on definition, by Antarctica; the Indian Ocean is named after India. Called the Sindhu Mahasagara or the great sea of the Sindhu by the Ancient Indians, this ocean has been variously called Hindu Ocean, Indic Ocean, etc. in various languages. The Indian Ocean was known earlier as the Eastern Ocean; the term was still in use during the mid-18th century. The borders of the Indian Ocean, as delineated by the International Hydrographic Organization in 1953 included the Southern Ocean but not the marginal seas along the northern rim, but in 2000 the IHO delimited the Southern Ocean separately, which removed waters south of 60°S from the Indian Ocean, but included the northern marginal seas. Meridionally, the Indian Ocean is delimited from the Atlantic Ocean by the 20° east meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas, from the Pacific Ocean by the meridian of 146°49'E, running south from the southernmost point of Tasmania.
The northernmost extent of the Indian Ocean is 30° north in the Persian Gulf. The Indian Ocean covers 70,560,000 km2, including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf but excluding the Southern Ocean, or 19.5% of the world's oceans. The ocean's continental shelves are narrow. An exception is found off Australia's western coast; the average depth of the ocean is 3,890 m. Its deepest point is Sunda Trench at a depth of 7,450 m. North of 50° south latitude, 86% of the main basin is covered by pelagic sediments, of which more than half is globigerina ooze; the remaining 14% is layered with terrigenous sediments. Glacial outwash dominates the extreme southern latitudes; the major choke points include Bab el Mandeb, Strait of Hormuz, the Lombok Strait, the Strait of Malacca and the Palk Strait. Seas include the Gulf of Aden, Andaman Sea, Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, Great Australian Bight, Laccadive Sea, Gulf of Mannar, Mozambique Channel, Gulf of Oman, Persian Gulf, Red Sea and other tributary water bodies.
The Indian Ocean is artificially connected to the Mediterranean Sea through the Suez Canal, accessible via the Red Sea. All of the Indian Ocean is in the Eastern Hemisphere and the centre of the Eastern Hemisphere, the 90th meridian east, passes through the Ninety East Ridge. Marginal seas, gulfs and straits of the Indian Ocean include: Several features make the Indian Ocean unique, it constitutes the core of the large-scale Tropical Warm Pool which, when interacting with the atmosphere, affects the climate both regionally and globally. Asia prevents the ventilation of the Indian Ocean thermocline; that continent drives the Indian Ocean monsoon, the strongest on Earth, which causes large-scale seasonal variations in ocean currents, including the reversal of the Somali Current and Indian Monsoon Current. Because of the Indian Ocean Walker circulation there is no continuous equatorial easterlies. Upwelling occurs near the Horn of Africa and the Arabian Peninsula in the Northern Hemisphere and north of the trade winds in the Southern Hemisphere.
The Indonesian Throughflow is a unique Equatorial connection to the Pacific. The climate north of the equator is affected by a monsoon climate. Strong north-east winds blow from October until April. In the Arabian Sea the violent Monsoon brings rain to the Indian subcontinent. In the southern hemisphere, the winds are milder, but summer storms near Mauritius can be severe; when the monsoon winds change, cyclones sometimes strike the shores of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. The Indian Ocean is the warmest ocean in the world. Long-term ocean temperature records show a rapid, continuous warming in the Indian Ocean, at about 0.7–1.2 °C during 1901–2012. Indian Ocean warming is the largest among the tropical oceans, about 3 times faster than the warming observed in the Pacific. Research indicates that human induced greenhouse warming, changes in the frequency and magnitude of El Niño events are a trigger to this strong warming in the Indian Ocean. South of the Equator the Indian Ocean is gaining heat from June to October, during the austral winter, while it is losing heat from November to March, during the austral summer.
Among the few large rivers flowing into the Indian Ocean are the Zambezi and Jubba in Africa. The ocean's currents are controlled by the monsoon. Two large gyres, one in the northern hemisphere flowing clockwise and one south of the equator moving anticlockwise, constitute the dominant flow pattern. During the winter monsoon, circulation is reversed north of 30°S and winds are weakened during winter and the transitional periods between the monsoons. Deep water circulation is controlled by inflows from the Atlantic Ocean, the Red Sea, Antarctic currents. North of 20 ° south latitude the minimum surface temperature is 22 °C. Southward of 40° south latitude, temperatures
Hurricane Ida was the strongest landfalling tropical cyclone during the 2009 Atlantic hurricane season, crossing the coastline of Nicaragua with winds of 80 mph. The remnants of the storm became a powerful nor'easter that caused widespread damage along coastal areas of the Mid-Atlantic States. Ida formed on November 4 in the southwestern Caribbean, within 24 hours struck the Nicaragua coast with winds of 80 mph, it weakened over land, although it restrengthened in the Yucatán Channel to peak winds of 105 mph. Hurricane Ida weakened and became an extratropical cyclone in the northern Gulf of Mexico before spreading across the southeastern United States; the remnants of Ida contributed to the formation of a nor'easter that affected the eastern coast of the United States. Numerous watches and warnings were issued during the hurricane's existence. Areas from Panama to Maine were affected by either the nor'easter low. In Nicaragua, nearly 3,000 people evacuated coastal areas ahead of the storm. More extensive evacuations in Mexico relocated over tourists.
In the United States, several parishes in Louisiana and counties in Alabama and Florida declared a state of emergency because of fear of significant damage from the storm. Officials issued voluntary evacuations and most schools and non-emergency offices in the region closed. In Central America, Ida brought heavy rainfall to parts of Costa Rica and Honduras. Several people were reported missing in Nicaragua, however post-storm reports denied these claims. Thousands of buildings collapsed or sustained damage and 40,000 people were left homeless. Damages from Ida in Nicaragua amounted to at least 46 million córdoba. Aside from heavy rainfall in Mexico and Cuba, little impact from Ida was reported in either country. In the United States, the remnants caused substantial damage in the Mid-Atlantic States. One person was killed by Ida after drowning in rough seas, while six others lost their lives in various incidents related to the nor'easter. Widespread heavy rainfall led to numerous reports of flash flooding in areas from Mississippi to Maine.
Overall, the two systems caused nearly $300 million in damage throughout the country. Hurricane Ida originated from a weak tropical wave that reached the western Caribbean on November 1, 2009. By November 2, the system spawned an area of low pressure north of Panama which moved little over the following days; the low became organized within a favorable environment that allowed deep convection to develop. By November 4, the low had become sufficiently organized for the National Hurricane Center to classify it as Tropical Depression Eleven. At this time, the tropical depression was situated just southwest of San Andrés Island. Convective banding features became defined throughout the day, six hours after becoming a tropical depression, the system intensified into Tropical Storm Ida. Light wind shear allowed Ida to intensify as it tracked towards the Nicaraguan coastline. Late on November 4, microwave satellite imagery depicted an eye-like featured forming within the storm; the storm tracked west-northwestward in response to a weak ridge over the north-central Caribbean Sea and a weak trough over the southwestern Gulf of Mexico.
Early on November 5, the storm intensified into a Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson Hurricane Scale as it passed near the Corn Islands. At 1117 UTC, the center of Ida made landfall near Rio Grande, with winds of 80 mph. After the hurricane moved inland, the high mountains of Nicaragua caused the convection associated with the hurricane to diminish, resulting in rapid weakening. 18 hours after landfall, Ida weakened to a tropical depression as it turned northward over Honduras. Late on November 6, Ida re-emerged over water. Upon moving back over water, the storm began to redevelop, with convection increasing around the center of circulation. Early on November 7, Ida restrengthened into a tropical storm. Warm sea surface temperatures ahead of the system would have allowed for substantial intensification; that day, the storm turned northwestward in response to a strong trough over Mexico and a mid-level ridge extending from the Southeast United States to Hispaniola. As Ida neared the Yucatán Channel, an eye redeveloped and the storm intensified into a hurricane.
By the morning of November 8, the storm had attained Category 2 status with winds of 100 mph. Late on November 8, Ida attained its peak intensity with winds of 105 mph and a barometric pressure of 975 mbar. Shortly thereafter, increasing wind shear and forward speed caused the storm to weaken to a tropical storm. Only a small area of convection remained near the center by the morning of November 9. Despite the strong shear, the storm re-organized, attaining hurricane status for a third time during the afternoon. Based on readings from a nearby oil platform and reconnaissance data, it was determined that Ida attained its secondary peak intensity near the southeast coast of Louisiana with winds of 85 mph. However, this intensification was short-lived as a combination of increasing wind shear and decreasing sea-surface temperatures induced weakening to a tropical storm within three hours. By the morning of November 10, all of Ida's convection appeared displaced to the northeast and the forward motion of the storm slowed substantially.
Additionally, the storm h
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans, with an area of about 106,460,000 square kilometers. It covers 20 percent of the Earth's surface and about 29 percent of its water surface area, it separates the "Old World" from the "New World". The Atlantic Ocean occupies an elongated, S-shaped basin extending longitudinally between Europe and Africa to the east, the Americas to the west; as one component of the interconnected global ocean, it is connected in the north to the Arctic Ocean, to the Pacific Ocean in the southwest, the Indian Ocean in the southeast, the Southern Ocean in the south. The Equatorial Counter Current subdivides it into the North Atlantic Ocean and the South Atlantic Ocean at about 8°N. Scientific explorations of the Atlantic include the Challenger expedition, the German Meteor expedition, Columbia University's Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory and the United States Navy Hydrographic Office; the oldest known mentions of an "Atlantic" sea come from Stesichorus around mid-sixth century BC: Atlantikoi pelágei and in The Histories of Herodotus around 450 BC: Atlantis thalassa where the name refers to "the sea beyond the pillars of Heracles", said to be part of the sea that surrounds all land.
Thus, on one hand, the name refers to Atlas, the Titan in Greek mythology, who supported the heavens and who appeared as a frontispiece in Medieval maps and lent his name to modern atlases. On the other hand, to early Greek sailors and in Ancient Greek mythological literature such as the Iliad and the Odyssey, this all-encompassing ocean was instead known as Oceanus, the gigantic river that encircled the world. In contrast, the term "Atlantic" referred to the Atlas Mountains in Morocco and the sea off the Strait of Gibraltar and the North African coast; the Greek word thalassa has been reused by scientists for the huge Panthalassa ocean that surrounded the supercontinent Pangaea hundreds of millions of years ago. The term "Aethiopian Ocean", derived from Ancient Ethiopia, was applied to the Southern Atlantic as late as the mid-19th century. During the Age of Discovery, the Atlantic was known to English cartographers as the Great Western Ocean; the term The Pond is used by British and American speakers in context to the Atlantic Ocean, as a form of meiosis, or sarcastic understatement.
The term dates to as early as 1640, first appearing in print in pamphlet released during the reign of Charles I, reproduced in 1869 in Nehemiah Wallington's Historical Notices of Events Occurring Chiefly in The Reign of Charles I, where "great Pond" is used in reference to the Atlantic Ocean by Francis Windebank, Charles I's Secretary of State. The International Hydrographic Organization defined the limits of the oceans and seas in 1953, but some of these definitions have been revised since and some are not used by various authorities and countries, see for example the CIA World Factbook. Correspondingly, the extent and number of oceans and seas varies; the Atlantic Ocean is bounded on the west by South America. It connects to the Arctic Ocean through the Denmark Strait, Greenland Sea, Norwegian Sea and Barents Sea. To the east, the boundaries of the ocean proper are Europe: the Strait of Africa. In the southeast, the Atlantic merges into the Indian Ocean; the 20° East meridian, running south from Cape Agulhas to Antarctica defines its border.
In the 1953 definition it extends south to Antarctica, while in maps it is bounded at the 60° parallel by the Southern Ocean. The Atlantic has irregular coasts indented by numerous bays and seas; these include the Baltic Sea, Black Sea, Caribbean Sea, Davis Strait, Denmark Strait, part of the Drake Passage, Gulf of Mexico, Labrador Sea, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Norwegian Sea all of the Scotia Sea, other tributary water bodies. Including these marginal seas the coast line of the Atlantic measures 111,866 km compared to 135,663 km for the Pacific. Including its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers an area of 106,460,000 km2 or 23.5% of the global ocean and has a volume of 310,410,900 km3 or 23.3% of the total volume of the earth's oceans. Excluding its marginal seas, the Atlantic covers 81,760,000 km2 and has a volume of 305,811,900 km3; the North Atlantic covers 41,490,000 km2 and the South Atlantic 40,270,000 km2. The average depth is 3,646 m and the maximum depth, the Milwaukee Deep in the Puerto Rico Trench, is 8,486 m.
The bathymetry of the Atlantic is dominated by a submarine mountain range called the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It runs from 87°N or 300 km south of the North Pole to the subantarctic Bouvet Island at 42°S; the MAR divides the Atlantic longitudinally into two halves, in each of which a series of basins are delimited by secondary, transverse ridges. The MAR reaches above 2,000 m along most of its length, but is interrupted by larger transform faults at two places: the Romanche Trench near the Equator and the Gibbs Fracture Zone at 53°N; the MAR is a barrier for bottom water, but at these two transform faults deep water currents can pass from one side to the othe
Cape Verde hurricane
A Cape Verde hurricane, or Cabo Verde hurricane is an Atlantic hurricane that originates at low-latitude in the deep tropics from a tropical wave that has passed over or near the Cape Verde islands after exiting the coast of West Africa. The average hurricane season has about two Cape Verde hurricanes, which are the largest and most intense storms of the season due to having plenty of warm open ocean over which to develop before encountering land or other factors prompting weakening. A good portion of Cape Verde storms are large, some, such as Hurricane Ivan and Hurricane Irma, have set various records. Most of the longest-lived tropical cyclones in the Atlantic basin are Cape Verde hurricanes. While many move harmlessly out to sea, some move across the Caribbean sea and into the Gulf of Mexico, becoming damaging storms for Caribbean nations, Central America, Bermuda, the United States, even Canada. Research projects. Prior to the early 1940s, the term Cape Verde hurricane referred to August and early September storms that formed to the east of the surface plotting charts in use at the time.
Cape Verde hurricanes develop from tropical waves which form in the African savanna during the wet season move into the African steppes. The disturbances move off the western coast of Africa and become tropical storms or tropical cyclones soon after moving off the coast, within 10 to 15 degrees latitude, or 1,100 kilometres to 1,600 kilometres, of the Cape Verde Islands. In the years since the phrase's coining, increasing detection has allowed meteorologists to determine that Cape Verde hurricanes have formed as early as July 3 or as late as October 10. A Cape Verde hurricane forms from a tropical depression or tropical wave which passed through or near the Cape Verde islands, strengthens into a named system in the mid-Atlantic; the initial track of a Cape Verde storm tends to be westward from Cape Verde, with a turn to the north at some stage in the track for most storms lasting more than a few days. Once the tropical cyclone begins approaching the 40th meridian west, a Cape Verde hurricane can take several basic tracks and from there diverge, become extra-tropical, or dissipate.
It can continue to the west, if it is far enough south, it will cross the Windward Islands into the Caribbean Sea affecting Venezuela to some degree. From there it will continue westward into Nicaragua, Honduras, or Belize. For example, Hurricane Joan–Miriam took this southerly route in 1988, causing severe flooding in South America, making landfall in Central America, continuing into the Pacific Basin, just as Hurricane Irene–Olivia did in 1971. A storm will make landfall in South America; some storms track towards the Yucatán Peninsula as they travel westward through the Caribbean, entering the Gulf of Mexico near its western extent. Hurricane Emily of 2005 struck the Yucatán Peninsula before entering the Gulf and continuing northwest, skirting the Bay of Campeche. Hurricane Ivan of 2004 began with a southerly route yet it made landfall far to the north in Alabama. Somewhere in the middle of these extremes, storms such as 1980s Hurricane Allen pass unabated into the Gulf of Mexico on their way to landfall in Texas or Mexico.
Many of these hurricanes strike Jamaica on their way to the Gulf, like the Galveston Hurricane of 1915 and Hurricane Gilbert of 1988. Hurricane Janet of 1955 is remembered as one of the deadliest and strongest storms to strike the Yucatán Peninsula of Mexico. If the storm is further north, it may travel into the Greater Antilles. In 1998, Hurricane Georges took a track of this nature. Further north, the storm will track through the Bahamas and into Florida in the manner of 1992s Hurricane Andrew. Many of these storms passing through the center of the Caribbean will strike the islands of Hispaniola and Cuba, like Hurricane David and Hurricane Frederic did, both in 1979; some storms on this track will turn to the west once in the Gulf, thereby make landfall in Texas, as the Galveston Hurricane of 1900 and Hurricane Ike of 2008 did. Hurricane Inez of 1966 followed a Caribbean track that took the storm into the Bahamas where it weakened, only to turn west and make a final landfall in Mexico. A more northerly storm will have its track affected by the high pressure that occurs over the eastern Atlantic in late summer.
As these storms pass north of the Antilles, their tracks begin to curve to the north and to the east of the Florida Peninsula sending them away from land. A few storms will track northwest, making landfall in South Carolina. Hurricane Hugo of 1989 and Hurricane Fran of 1996 are typical examples. Storms following this track can accelerate to the north and strike New England; the New England Hurricane of 1938 and Hurricane Gloria in 1985 were two such cases. When a storm tracks far north, its potential for landfall is much less; some of these storms will strike Bermuda before re-curving out to sea, such as the 1948 Bermuda–Newfoundland hurricane and Hurricane Fabian in 2003. The storm will track west-northwest to strike the Atlantic coast of the U. S. such as the 1933 Chesapeake–Potomac hurricane and Hurricane Isabel of 2003, which struck the mid-Atlantic, Hurricane Florence of 2018, which struck the Carolinas. Other Cape Verde storms make landfall in Canada, such as Hurricane Luis in 1995 and hurricanes Earl and Igor of 2010.
If the storm's track is affecte