Galicia is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law. Located in the north-west of the Iberian Peninsula, it comprises the provinces of A Coruña, Lugo and Pontevedra, being bordered by Portugal to the south, the Spanish autonomous communities of Castile and León and Asturias to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Cantabrian Sea to the north, it had a population of 2,718,525 in 2016 and has a total area of 29,574 km2. Galicia has over 1,660 km of coastline, including its offshore islands and islets, among them Cíes Islands, Ons, Sálvora, and—the largest and most populated—A Illa de Arousa; the area now called Galicia was first inhabited by humans during the Middle Paleolithic period, it takes its name from the Gallaeci, the Celtic people living north of the Douro River during the last millennium BC, in a region coincidental with that of the Iron Age local Castro culture. Galicia was incorporated into the Roman Empire at the end of the Cantabrian Wars in 19 BC, was made a Roman province in the 3rd century AD.
In 410, the Germanic Suebi established a kingdom with its capital in Braga. In 711, the Islamic Umayyad Caliphate invaded the Iberian Peninsula conquering the Visigoth kingdom of Hispania by 718, but soon Galicia was incorporated into the Christian kingdom of Asturias by 740. During the Middle Ages, the kingdom of Galicia was ruled by its own kings, but most of the time it was leagued to the kingdom of Leon and to that of Castile, while maintaining its own legal and customary practices and culture. From the 13th century on, the kings of Castile, as kings of Galicia, appointed an Adiantado-mór, whose attributions passed to the Governor and Captain General of the Kingdom of Galiza from the last years of the 15th century; the Governor presided the Real Audiencia do Reino de Galicia, a royal tribunal and government body. From the 16th century, the representation and voice of the kingdom was held by an assembly of deputies and representatives of the cities of the kingdom, the Cortes or Junta of the Kingdom of Galicia.
This institution was forcibly discontinued in 1833 when the kingdom was divided into four administrative provinces with no legal mutual links. During the 19th and 20th centuries, demand grew for self-government and for the recognition of the culture of Galicia; this resulted in the Statute of Autonomy of 1936, soon frustrated by Franco's coup d'etat and subsequent long dictatorship. After democracy was restored the legislature passed the Statute of Autonomy of 1981, approved in referendum and in force, providing Galicia with self-government; the interior of Galicia is characterized by a hilly landscape. The coastal areas are an alternate series of rías and cliffs; the climate of Galicia is temperate and rainy, with markedly drier summers. Its topographic and climatic conditions have made animal husbandry and farming the primary source of Galicia's wealth for most of its history, allowing for a relative high density of population. With the exception of shipbuilding and food processing, Galicia was based on a farming and fishing economy until after the mid-20th century, when it began to industrialize.
In 2012, the gross domestic product at purchasing power parity was €56,000 million, with a nominal GDP per capita of €20,700. The population is concentrated in two main areas: from Ferrol to A Coruña in the northern coast, in the Rías Baixas region in the southwest, including the cities of Vigo and the interior city of Santiago de Compostela. There are smaller populations around the interior cities of Ourense; the political capital is Santiago de Compostela, in the province of A Coruña. Vigo, in the province of Pontevedra, is the most populous municipality, with 292,817, while A Coruña is the most populous city, with 215,227. Two languages are official and used today in Galicia: Galician and Spanish. Galician is a Romance language related to Portuguese, with which it shares Galician-Portuguese medieval literature, Spanish, sometimes referred to as Castilian, used throughout the country. Spanish is spoken fluently by all in Galicia, in 2013 it was reported that 51% of the Galician population used more Galician on a day-to-day, 48% used more Spanish.
The name Galicia derives from the Latin toponym Callaecia Gallaecia, related to the name of an ancient Celtic tribe that resided north of the Douro river, the Gallaeci or Callaeci in Latin, or Καλλαϊκoί in Greek. These Callaeci were the first tribe in the area to help the Lusitanians against the invading Romans; the Romans applied their name to all the other tribes in the northwest who spoke the same language and lived the same life. The etymology of the name has been studied since the 7th century by authors such as Isidore of Seville, who wrote that "Galicians are called so, because of their fair skin, as the Gauls", relating the name to the Greek word for milk. In the 21st century, some scholars have derived the name of the ancient Callaeci either from Proto-Indo-European *kal-n-eH2'hill', through a local relational suffix -aik-, so meaning'the hill'. In any case, being per se a derivation of the ethnic name Kallaikói, means'the land of the Galicians'; the most recent proposal comes from linguist Francesco Benozzo afte
Region of Murcia
The Region of Murcia, is an autonomous community of Spain located in the southeast of the state, between Andalusia and Valencian Community, on the Mediterranean coast. The autonomous community consists of a single province, unlike most autonomous communities, which have several provinces within the same territory; because of this, the autonomous community and the province are operated as one unit of government. The city of Murcia is the capital of the region and seat of government organs, except for the parliament, the Regional Assembly of Murcia, located in Cartagena; the autonomous community and province is subdivided into municipalities. The Region of Murcia is bordered by Andalusia, Castile–La Mancha, the Valencian Community, the Mediterranean Sea; the community has a population of 1.4 million. About one-third of its population lives in the capital, its highest mountain is Los Obispos. The region is a major producer of fruits and flowers for the rest of Spain and Europe. Wineries have developed near the towns of Bullas and Jumilla, as well as olive oil near Moratalla.
Murcia is a warm region which has made it suitable for agriculture. However the precipitation level is low and water supply is a hot subject today since, in addition to the traditional water demand for crops, there is now a demand of water for the booming tourist developments. Water is supplied by the Segura River and, since the 1970s, by the Tajo transvasement, a major civil engineering project which, under some environmental and sustainability restraints, brings water from the Tajo into the Segura; the region is located in the eastern part of the Cordilleras Béticas mountains and it is influenced by their orography. These mountain ranges are divided as well in the Prebética, Subbética and Penibética mountain ranges. Traditionally it has been considered that the peak of Revolcadores, in the range of the same name, was the highest point in the Region of Murcia, with a height of 2,027 meters. 27% of the Murcian territory can be described as mountainous, 38% as intramountainous depressions and running valleys, the remaining 35% as flat lands and plateaux.
The Region of Murcia enjoys a Mediterranean climate of semi-arid type, with mild winters and warm summers. The average annual temperature is 18 °C. With little precipitation of about 300 to 350 mm per year, the region has between 120 and 150 days in the year where the sky is clear. April and October are the months with the most precipitation, there being frequent heavy downpours in a single day; the distance to the sea and the relief causes a thermal difference between the coast and the interior, specially in winter, when the temperature descends below 10 °C on the coast, while in the interior regions the minimum does not rise above 6 °C and the precipitation level is higher. The city of Murcia holds the record temperature of the 20th century in Spain, it reached 46.1 °C on July 4, 1994. The winter of 2005 was the coldest in a long time, with snow falling on the Murcian coast; the hydrographic network of the region is made up of the Segura river and its affluents: Mundo, it is the one that contributes to the Segura with the greatest volume.
Alhárabe and its affluent, the Benamor. Mula river. Guadalentín, Sangonera or Reguerón. Due to the water supplying incapacity of the Segura river basin, contributions to this river basin are made, originated from the basin of the Tajo river, by means of the Tajo-Segura transvasement; the greatest natural lake of Spain can be found in the region: the Mar Menor lagoon. It is a salt water lagoon, adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea, its special ecological and natural characteristics make the Mar Menor a unique natural place and the largest saltwater lake in Europe. With a semicircular shape, it is separated from the Mediterranean Sea by a sand strip 22 km in length and between 100 and 1200 m wide, known as La Manga del Mar Menor; the lagoon has been designated by the United Nations as a Specially Protected Zone of Importance for the Mediterranean. Its coastal perimeter accounts for 73 km of coast in which beaches follow one another with crystal clear shallow water; the lake has an area of 170 square kilometers.
The Carthaginians established a permanent trading port on the coast at Cartagena, which the Romans called Carthago Nova. For the Carthaginian traders, the mountainous territory was the Iberian hinterland of their seacoast empire. During The Roman period Murcia did not exist but its current borders could have been inside of the province of Hispania Carthaginensis. Under the Moors, who introduced the large-scale irrigation on which Murcian agriculture depends, the province was known as Todmir; the Kingdom of Murcia became independent as a taifa centered on the Moorish city of Murcia after the fall of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba. Moorish Taifa of Murcia included Albacete and part of Almería
Melilla is a Spanish autonomous city located on the north coast of Africa, sharing a border with Morocco, with an area of 12.3 km2. Melilla is one of two permanently inhabited Spanish cities in mainland Africa, the other being Ceuta, it was part of the Province of Málaga until 14 March 1995, when the city's Statute of Autonomy was passed. Melilla, like Ceuta, was a free port. In 2011 it had a population of 78,476, made up of Catholics of Iberian origin, ethnic Riffian Berbers and a small number of Sephardic Jews and Sindhi Hindus. Spanish and Riffian-Berber are the two most spoken languages, with Spanish as the only official language. Melilla, like Ceuta, is claimed by Morocco; the current Berber name of Melilla is Mřič or Mlilt, which means the "white one". Melilla was an ancient Berber village and a Phoenician and Punic trade establishment under the name of Rusadir, it became a part of the Roman province of Mauretania Tingitana. Rusaddir is mentioned by Ptolemy and Pliny who called it "oppidum et portus" cited by Mela as Rusicada, by the Itinerarium Antonini.
Rusaddir was supposed to have once been the seat of a bishop, but there is no record of any bishop of the supposed see, not included in the Catholic Church's list of titular sees. As centuries passed, it went through Vandal and Hispano-Visigothic hands; the political history is similar to that of towns in the region of the Moroccan Rif and southern Spain. Local rule passed through Amazigh, Punic, Umayyad, Almoravid, Almohad and Wattasid rulers. During the Middle Ages, it was the Berber city of Mlila, it was part of the Kingdom of Fez when the Catholic Monarchs, Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon requested Juan Alfonso Pérez de Guzmán, 3rd Duke of Medina Sidonia, to take the city. In the Conquest of Melilla, the duke sent Pedro Estopiñán, who conquered the city without a fight in 1497, a few years after Castile had taken control of the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada, the last remnant of Al-Andalus, in 1492. Melilla was threatened with reconquest and was besieged during 1694–1696 and 1774–1775.
One Spanish officer reflected, "an hour in Melilla, from the point of view of merit, was worth more than thirty years of service to Spain."The current limits of the Spanish territory around the fortress were fixed by treaties with Morocco in 1859, 1860, 1861, 1894. In the late 19th century, as Spanish influence expanded, Melilla became the only authorized centre of trade on the Rif coast between Tetuan and the Algerian frontier; the value of trade increased, goat skins and beeswax being the principal exports, cotton goods, tea and candles being the chief imports. In 1893, the Rif Berbers launched the First Melillan campaign and 25,000 Spanish soldiers had to be dispatched against them; the conflict was known as the Margallo War, after the Governor of Melilla and Spanish General Juan García y Margallo, killed in the battle. In 1908 two companies, under the protection of Bou Hmara, a chieftain ruling the Rif region, started mining lead and iron some 20 kilometers from Melilla. A railway to the mines was begun.
In October of that year the Bou Hmara's vassals revolted against him and raided the mines, which remained closed until June 1909. By July the workmen were again attacked and several of them killed. Severe fighting between the Spaniards and the tribesmen followed, in the Second Melillan campaign. In 1910, with the Rif having submitted, the Spaniards restarted the mines and undertook harbor works at Mar Chica, but hostilities broke out again in 1911. In 1921 the Berbers under the leadership of Abd el Krim inflicted a grave defeat on the Spanish, were not defeated until 1926, when the Spanish Protectorate managed to control the area again. General Francisco Franco used the city as one of his staging grounds for his Nationalist rebellion in 1936, starting the Spanish Civil War. A statue of him – the last statue of Franco in Spain – is still prominently featured. On 6 November 2007, King Juan Carlos I and Queen Sofia visited the city, which caused a massive demonstration of support; the visit sparked protests from the Moroccan government.
It was the first time. Melilla have declared the Muslim holiday of Eid al-Adha or Feast of the Sacrifice, as an official public holiday from 2010 onward, it is the first time a non-Christian religious festival is celebrated in Spain since the Reconquista. Melilla is located in the northwest of the African continent, next to the Alboran Sea and across the sea from the Spanish provinces of Granada and Almería; the city layout is arranged in a wide semicircle around the beach and the Port of Melilla, on the eastern side of the peninsula of Cape Tres Forcas, at the foot of Mount Gurugú and the mouth of the Río de Oro, 1 meter above sea level. The urban nucleus was a fortress, Melilla la Vieja, built on a peninsular mound about 30 meters in height; the Moroccan settlement of Beni Ansar lies south of Melilla. The nearest Moroccan city is Nador, the ports of Melilla and Nador are both within the same bay. Since its Statute of Autonomy in 1995, the legislature has been called the Assembly and its leader the Mayor-President.
In the most recent election in 2011, the People's Party won 15 seats, maintaining the role
Province of Valencia
Valencia or València is a province of Spain, in the central part of the Valencian Community. Of the province's 2,547,986 people, one-third live in the capital, the capital of the autonomous community and the 3rd biggest city in Spain, with a metropolitan area of 2,522,383 it's one of the most populated cities of Southern Europe. There are 265 municipalities in the province. Although the Spanish Constitution of 1812 loosely created the province of València, a stable administrative entity does not arise until the territorial division of Spain in 1833, remaining today without major changes; the Provincial Council of Valencia dates from that period. After the Valencian Statute of Autonomy of 1982, the province became part of the Valencian Community. Together with Spanish, Valencian is the co-official language, it is bordered by the provinces of Alicante, Cuenca, Castellón, the Mediterranean Sea. The northwestern side of the province is in the mountainous Sistema Ibérico area. Part of its territory, the Rincón de Ademuz, is an exclave sandwiched between the provinces of Cuenca and Teruel.
The province is subdivided into the comarques of Camp de Túria, Camp de Morvedre, Canal de Navarrés, Hoya de Buñol, Horta de València, Horta Nord, Horta Oest, Horta Sud, Requena-Utiel, Rincón de Ademuz, Ribera Alta, Ribera Baixa, Los Serranos, Vall d'Albaida and Valle de Cofrentes. The province of Valencia, like the rest of the region, is mountainous in the interior in the north and west, with the Sistema Central running from north to south and the foothills of Andalusia from west to east; this mountainous interior features deep and steep valleys formed by the major rivers running through it. The plain of Valencia, is the second largest coastal plain of the country, located in the low region between the Júcar and Turia river valleys, it is twenty wide. In 1843 it was cited as "one of the most fertile and best cultivated spots in Europe"; the other main rivers include the Serpis. The Altiplano de Requena-Utiel range, in the interior of the Valencia region, has an average height of about 750 m.
The principal mountains in the province are Cerro Calderón, Sierra del Caroche, Sierra del Benicadell, Serra Calderona, Sierra Martés, Sierra de Utiel, Sierra de Enguera, the Sierra de Mondúver. The València plains are known for their olive, ilex, algaroba and palm trees, with the appearance of an "immense garden"; such is the fertility of the soil, that two and three crops in the year are obtained, the greater part of the land returns eight per cent. The rice crops are the most valuable, are chiefly produced in the tract, irrigated by the Albufera, a large lake in the neighbourhood of València. Rice being the principal food of the lower classes, the crop is consumed in the province, with the exception of a small quantity which finds its way into Castile and Andalusia; the other chief product is the white mulberry, once the source of great wealth: it was worked in the silk-factories of València. In 1828, the produce of silk from the vega of València amounted to one million of pounds yearly, the greater part of, exported in its raw state, but the produce has increased since, owing to demands from the manufacturers of Lyon and other towns in the south of France.
The province of València is a notable producer of satins, silk ribbons, velvets. The export of fruit from Valencia is considerable of raisins; the raisins are of two kinds, the muscatel, an inferior and smaller raisin, called pasa de legia. The export of figs and wine from the province and ports of València is considerable, with a wine known as Beni Carlo, which as of 1843 was shipped to Cette. Mercury, sulphur, argentiferous lead, coal, etc. are among the mineral products, but they are procured only in small quantities. Today, tourism is a major source of income, with the city of Valencia and the resort towns along the coast being the primary earners during the summer months; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, by C. Knight
Province of Las Palmas
The Province of Las Palmas is a province of Spain, consisting of the eastern part of the autonomous community of the Canary Islands. In 1927, the Province of Canary Islands was split into two provinces: Las Palmas and Santa Cruz de Tenerife. In 1982, both provinces became part of the newly founded autonomous community of the Canary Islands, it consists of about half of the Atlantic archipelago, including the islands of Gran Canaria and Lanzarote, as well as another six minor isles. Their total land area is 4,065.78 km ². Its capital is the city of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, on the island of Gran Canaria, one of the capitals of the autonomous community. About 38.5% of the provincial population of 1,109,175 live in the capital. The name "Las Palmas" is used to refer to both the city and the province. There are 34 municipalities in the province. Las Palmas contains the Parque Nacional Timanfaya on the island of Lanzarote. License plates in the province used to start with "GC", which referred to the island of Gran Canaria, although the same plates were issued in Lanzarote and Fuerteventura.
Media related to Province of Las Palmas at Wikimedia Commons Government of the Canary Islands
The Valencian Community is an autonomous community of Spain. It is the fourth most populous autonomous community after Andalusia and Madrid with more than 4.9 million inhabitants. Its homonymous capital Valencia is metropolitan area in Spain, it is located along the Mediterranean coast on the east side of the Iberian peninsula. It borders with Catalonia to the north and Castilla–La Mancha to the west, Murcia to the south; the Valencian Community consists of three provinces which are Valencia and Alicante. According to its Statute of Autonomy, the Valencian people are a nationality, their origins date back to the Aragonese reconquest of the Moorish Taifa of Valencia, taken by James I of Aragon in 1238 during the Reconquista. The newly founded Kingdom of Valencia was granted wide self-government under the Crown of Aragon. Valencia experienced its golden age in the 15th century. Self-government continued after the unification of the Spanish Kingdom, but was suspended in 1707 by Phillip V of Spain as a result of the Spanish War of Succession.
Valencian nationalism resurged towards the end of the 19th century, which led to the modern conception of the Valencian Country. Self-government under the Generalitat Valenciana was reestablished in 1982 after Spanish transition to democracy. Many Valencian people speak Valencian, the region's own co-official language, a southwestern dialect of Catalan standardised by the Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua. Valencian is a diglossic language, repressed during Franco's dictatorship in favour of Spanish. Since it regained official status in 1982 in the Valencian Estatut d'Autonomia. Valencian has been implemented in public administration and the education system leading to an exponential increase in knowledge of its formal standard. Valencian is understood by more than half of the population living within the Valencian Community. Valencia was founded by the Romans under the name of "Valentia Edetanorum", which translates to'Valiance of the Land of the Lamb'. With the establishment of the Taifa of Valencia, the name developed to بلنسية, which became Valencia after the expulsion of the Moors.
"Valencian Community" is the standard translation of the official name in Valencian recognized by the Statute of Autonomy of 1982. This is the name most used in public administration, the media and Spanish written language. However, the variant of "Valencian Country" that emphasizes the nationality status of the Valencian people is still the preferred one by left-wing parties, civil associations, Catalan written language and major academic institutions like the University of Valencia. "Valencian Community" is a neologism, adopted after democratic transition in order to solve the conflict between two competing names: "Valencian Country" and "Former Kingdom of Valencia". On one hand, "Valencian Country" represented the modern conception of nationality that resurged in the 19th century, it became well-established during the Second Spanish Republic and on with the works of Joan Fuster in the 1960s, implying the existence of the "Catalan Countries". This nationalist subtext was opposed by anti-Catalan blaverists, who proposed "Former Kingdom of Valencia" instead in order to emphasize Valencian independence from Catalonia.
Blaverists have accepted the official denomination. The autonomous community can be homonymously identified with its capital "Valencia". However, this could be disregarding of the provinces of Castellón. Other more anecdotal translations have included "Land of Valencia", "Region of Valencia" and "Valencian Region"; the term "Region", carries negative connotations among many Valencians because it could deny their nationality status. The Pre-Roman autochthonous people of the Valencian Community were the Iberians, who were divided in several groups; the Greeks established colonies in the coastal towns of Saguntum and Dénia beginning in the 5th century BC, where they traded and mixed with the local Iberian populations. After the end of the First Punic War between Carthage and Rome in 241 BC, which established their limits of influence in the Ebro river, the Carthaginians occupied the whole region; the dispute over the hegemony of Saguntum, a Hellenized Iberian coastal city with diplomatic contacts with Rome, destroyed by Hannibal in 219 BC, ignited the Second Punic War, which ended with the incorporation of the region to the Roman Empire.
The Romans founded the city of Valentia in 138 BC, over the centuries overtook Saguntum in importance. After the Fall of the Western Roman Empire, during the Barbarian Invasions in the 5th century AD, the region was first invaded by the Alans and ruled by the Visigoths, until the arrival of the Arabs in 711, which left a broad impact in the region, still visible in today's Valencian landscape and culture. After the fall of the Caliphate of Cordoba, two main independent taifas were established at the region, Balansiya and Dénia, along with the small and short living taifas of Orihuela, Alpuente, Jérica and Sagunt and the short Christian conquest of Valencia by El Cid. However, the origins of present-day Valencia date back to the Kingdom of Valencia, which came into existence in the 13th century. James I of Aragon led the Christian conquest and colonization of the existing Islamic taifas with Aragonese and Catalan colonizers in 1208; the kingdom developed intensively in the 14th and 15th centuries, which are con
Province of A Coruña
The province of A Coruña is the most North-western Atlantic-facing province of Spain, one of the four provinces which constitute the autonomous community of Galicia. This province is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the West and North, Pontevedra Province to the South and the Lugo Province to the East; the history of this province starts at the end of the Middle Ages during the reign of the Catholic Monarchs of Spain. During those years this province was far smaller than today; this is because in the 1833 territorial division of Spain the entire Province of Betanzos together with half of the Mondoñedo were amalgamated into one single province with its capital city in A Coruña. Since 1833, the province has always been the one with largest coast; until the second half of the 20th century, this province was both the religious and cultural centre of the entire region. The University of Santiago de Compostela was the only university in North-western Spain until the arrival of democracy after the death of General Francisco Franco.
The cathedral of Santiago de Compostela is the destination of the Way of St. James, a major historical pilgrimage route since the Middle Ages which still gathers thousands of pilgrims each year from all over the world. Atlantic Islands of Galicia National Park is the only National Park in Galicia, it is shared between the Provinces of A Pontevedra. The "Fragas" of the River Eume Natural Park extends itself throughout the Eume and Ferrol regions of Ferrolterra; the Dunes of Corrubedo Natural Park is a beach park at the end of the Barbanza Peninsula. Aeroporto da Lavacolla in Santiago de Compostela Aeroporto de Alvedro in the City of A Coruña Heliporto da Graña in the Naval Base of A Graña Heliporto de Narón in Naron Spanish National Railway Network Linking every major city: Ferrol, Betanzos, A Coruña and Santiago de Compostela Spanish Narrow-Gauge Railways Linking the City of Ferrol with different towns of Ferrol and Ortegal; this line is known as Ferrol-Irun Spanish High Speed Railway Network Linking most major cities of the province with Lisbon and Madrid is under construction.
A Coruña – Major Commercial Port – Costa da Morte Malpica – Fishing Port – Costa da Morte Camariñas – Fishing Port – Costa da Morte Fisterra – Fishing Port – Costa da Morte Ferrol – Major Commercial Ports – Rias altas Cariño – Fishing Port – Rias altas Espasante – Fishing Port – Rias altas Cedeira – Fishing Port – Rias altas Deportivo de La Coruña Spanish first division team from the City of A Coruña. Racing Club de Ferrol Spanish Segunda Division team from the City of Ferrol. SD Compostela Spanish Tercera Division team from the City of Santiago de Compostela. Atlético Arteixo Spanish Segunda Division team from the Municipality of Arteixo. Bergantiños FC Spanish Tercera Division team from the Municipality of Carballo. SD Negreira Spanish Tercera Division team from the Municipality of Negreira. Autos Lobelle de Santiago FS Spanish División de Honor of Futsal team from the City of Santiago de Compostela. List of municipalities in A Coruña