List of sultans of Brunei

The Sultan of Brunei is the monarchial head of state of Brunei and head of government in his capacity as Prime Minister of Brunei. Since independence from the British in 1984, only one Sultan has reigned, though the royal institution dates back to the 14th century; the Sultan of Brunei can be thought of as synonymous with the ruling House of Bolkiah, with generations being traced from the first sultan, temporarily interrupted by the 13th Sultan, Abdul Hakkul Mubin, who in turn was deposed by a member of the House of Bolkiah. The Sultan's full title is: Yang Di-Pertuan of Brunei Darussalam; the earliest historical record of the Sultans of Brunei is not known due to the poor early documentation of Brunei's history. Many elder members of the House of Bolkiah claim that their ancestors were the BaHassan and BaAlawi Saadah from Tarim and Hadhramawt in Yemen. In addition there has been an effort to Islamise the history, with the "official history" not matching up with verifiable foreign sources; the Batu Tarsilah, the genealogical record of the kings of Brunei, was not started until 1807 CE.

House of Bolkiah Line of succession to the Bruneian throne Malay styles and titles


Supraethnicity is a scholarly neologism, used in social sciences as a formal designation for a particular structural category that lies "above" the basic level of ethnicity. It is paired with subethnicity, a similar technical term with the exact opposite meaning designating a particular structural category, but that which lies "under" the level of ethnicity. Both terms are used in ethnic studies in order to describe structural and functional relations between basic form of ethnic identity and various related phenomena that are classified as belonging to "higher" or "lower" levels. Formally, both categories are designating levels, not the contents. For example, there are several distinctive phenomena that are manifested on the supraethnic level, like: metaethnicity, panethnicity, polyethnicity, or transethnicity, each of them having their own distinctive contents, but all of them sharing the same structural "supraethnic" level. There have been attempts to define some common, not only structural but functional properties of supraethnicity, but such attempts were challenged by the present state of terminological diversity and inconsistency within the ethnic studies

Bernardine Monastery, Iziaslav

The church of St. Michael and Bernardine monastery is a beautiful piece of baroque sacral architecture in Iziaslav, Ukraine, it was a Roman Catholic monastery complex grounded in the early 17th century. Between 1797 and 1815, it was the main residence of the Ruthenian province of the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary Bernardine. Located in the Old Town, on the high left bank of the Horyn River; the complex of buildings included a stone church and a monastery, a bell tower, chapels and more. In the northwestern part of the monastery ground, there was a cemetery and a garden, in the north-east - pond and a garden; the monastery complex was surrounded by a high defensive wall with gates. Nowadays, it is a prison "Zamkova Correctional Colony № 58"; the silhouette of the Bernardine monastery is a characteristic element of the panorama of Izyaslav The church and monastery of the Order of the Bernardine Fathers in Izyaslav is located in the northeast part of the Old Town on the high left bank of the Horyn River.

It is now restricted from the city by Bernardine and Gagarina streets. The Bernardine monastery complex formed the defensive ring of the former city, its image from New Zaslav and its surroundings; the complex, together with the Church of St. John the Baptist and the Cathedral of the Nativity, forms the central square of the Old Town and is the largest in terms of interior and exterior dimensions of the Izyaslav architectural heritage, it dominates other structures. Due to the fact that the city is divided by the valley and the floodplain of the Horyn River, which increases its visibility, the ensemble of Bernardine monasteries played and continues to play an important role in the silhouette of Izyaslav and its urban composition; the period between 1550 and 1650 is considered the "Golden Age" of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. It was a period of economic prosperity due to the grain trade. Foreign trade in grain occupied a key position in the trade conjuncture of the Zaslav region, the leading role in the market held by the owners of the property princes Zaslavsky.

The grain collected from the Volyn holdings was transported to Danzig or another port from where it was sold to the Netherlands, France and Spain. The construction of the monastery complex in Zaslav was taking place at the same time as the implementation of another rather costly project - the construction of the church of John the Baptist, it was a time of religious tolerance as a result of the decisions of the Warsaw Confederation, but the time of Catholic counter-reformation. At the time of the allotment of the land for the construction of the Bernardine monastery, Prince Janusz Zaslawski professed Calvinism, his wife, Alexandra Sangushkivna, belonged to the anti-Trinitarians, their son Prince Alexander Zaslavsky, a Catholic, who had a conflict with the Bernardines, completed the construction of the monastery. Zaslav was a multi-denominational city. During this period, new trends in architecture and urban planning were introduced on the Ukrainian lands, introduced by visiting European construction workers Italians.

The erection of the complex of the monastery in the newest style of Mannerism and Late Renaissance lights is associated with the construction activity in the exile area of architect Jakub Madeline, originating from Graubünden, land on the Italian-Swiss border. According to a Roman Catholic source, Prince Janusz Janusziewicz Zaslavsky in 1602 under the construction of a monastery of the beggarly Order of Bernardines. "abandoned Orthodox Chapel" of the Baptist Church " which "from ancient times" belonged to the treasure of Princes Zaslavsky. Most it was about the construction of a Roman Catholic shrine on the site of a former Orthodox monastery, the Holy Trinity Monastery, in decline by the time of unknown life changes; the information about the construction of the monastery and its church was not preserved, at least, this information is not known to modern researchers. The mention of July 15, 1622 informs us that the building of St. Michael's Church has just begun to be vaulted. Therefore, we can assume that from the time of the fundus, by the time the walls of the church were extinct, had been 18 years.

It took so long to build, in particular to architect Jakub Madeline, to first prepare and undertake such grand construction. In general, the construction of the complex lasted until 1630, since the construction of the monastery was included in the city defense system of Old Zaslav on the ground side, it is during this period that historians date the western facade of the monastery building with its attic and typical Mannerist pediments preserved to this day. It is that architect Bernard Avelides was involved in the planning of these forceps. In addition, the modern appearance of the monastery can be seen on the map from the 18th century, where the four-tiered tower draws special attention. With the beginning of the Cossack rebel under the leadership of Hetman Bohdan Khmelnytsky, the icon of the Zaslav Mother of God was evacuated to the Bernardine monastery in Rzeszow. Meanwhile, the Cossacks and kholops, having seized the city and destroyed the monastery, which in a deplorable state lasted for 80 years.

With the help of Paul Karl Sangush in 1727 the revival of the monastery