It is named after the polar exploration vessel HMS Erebus which was used by James Clark Ross in 1841 to discover the Great Ice Barrier, now known as the Ross Ice Shelf. The rover was in the vicinity of the crater from approximately sol 550 to 750. This crater features two other minor named outcrops on the edges of this topographical depression and these include Payson Ridge and Olympia Ridge. Erebus is located roughly 2,500 metres south of the smaller crater Vostok. It is surrounded by scientists are describing as etched terrain. Erebus is about 350 metres wide, twice as large as the crater Endurance, however, it is very old and eroded, and is barely visible from the ground, it appears merely as a number of flat rocky outcrops encircling a region of dunes. Sedimentary textures formed by processes, Erebus crater, Meridiani Planum. Structure and Sedimentology of the Western Margin of Erebus Crater, Meridiani Planum, Mars Erebrus and Victoria by Mars Express HRSC + SRC
Fram is an impact crater located within the Meridiani Planum extraterrestrial plain, situated within the Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle region of the planet Mars. It was visited by the rover Opportunity on Sol 84, April 24,2004, Fram spans about 8 metres in diameter. Opportunity paused beside it while travelling from the landing site toward a larger crater. Fram is located about 450 metres east of the crater Eagle and it is named after the famous Norwegian polar exploration vessel the Fram, a ship used by many famous Norwegian explorers such as Fridtjof Nansen, Otto Sverdrup, Oscar Wisting, and Roald Amundsen. Geography of Mars List of craters on Mars Official Mars Rovers website Martian Concretions Near Fram Crater
Eagle (Meridiani Planum crater)
Eagle is a 22-metre long impact crater located on the Meridiani Planum extraterrestrial plain, situated within the Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle portion of the planet Mars. The Opportunity rover came to rest inside Eagle crater when it landed in 2004, scientists were delighted that the rover landed there, as the crater contains rocky outcroppings that helped prove that Meridiani was once an ocean floor. The third reference extended the golf metaphor begun with a description of landing in the crater as a hole in one and these concretions were found soon to be covering not just the outcrops in Eagle crater, but covered the plains beyond as well. The origin of the blueberries was quickly discovered and they appeared to be being eroded out of the outcrops by wind. Images from the rovers microscope discovered blueberries at several stages of this process, with most completely separated, a number of rocks and outcrops were investigated with Opportunitys Instrument Deployment Device. They were given names by mission scientists.
In Situ Evidence for an Ancient Aqueous Environment at Meridiani Planum, soils of Eagle Crater and Meridian Planum at the Opportunity Rover Landing Site. The Opportunity Rovers Athena Science Investigation at Meridiani Planum, geography of Mars List of craters on Mars Official Mars Rovers website Geology of Eagle Crater Lion King Panorama of Eagle Crater
It was located by the rover in images taken on sol 855,310 metres away. It is on the edge of the much larger ejecta blanket surrounding the crater Victoria and this impact crater was named in honor of HMS Beagle of the Royal Navy, ordered in February 1817. Opportunity spent seven sols looking at the Beagle crater and the surrounding areas, sol 872, Opportunity used its panoramic camera for some targeted investigations this sol, had a communication session with the Mars Odyssey orbiter. The rover completed a miniature thermal emission spectrometer sky and ground observation, sol 873, An attempt to cross a ripple to the southeast was prematurely halted because the rover appropriately determined that it was making too little progress over the ripple. Opportunity did a calibration of that instrument on this sol, sol 874, Opportunity used its panoramic camera to survey the ground, took a picture with its navigation camera to determine where to point the miniature thermal emission spectrometer. The miniature thermal emission spectrometer was used to observe the sky.
The panoramic camera took images of the sky. Sol 875, The rover successfully backed away from the ripple that saw 80 percent slip on sol 873, Opportunity used its panoramic camera and miniature thermal emission spectrometer on a distant potential meteorite, those instruments completed an observation of the sky and ground. The rover searched for clouds with its camera and observed the sky. Sol 877, Opportunity drove about 25 meters on a path towards Beagle Crater. The rover did a quick find attitude at the end of the drive, the rover supported a Mars Express overflight, and did remote sensing with its panoramic camera and miniature thermal emission spectrometer. Sol 878, The rover drove about 25 meters towards Beagle Crater, Opportunity performed elevation sky and ground surveys during the Mars Odyssey pass and miniature thermal emission spectrometer sky and ground stares in the morning. A panoramic camera survey in front of the rover will be conducted to help pick a target for this weekends robotic arm activity.
Geography of Mars List of craters on Mars Official Mars Rovers website Martian crater Beagle
Emma Dean (crater)
Emma Dean is a small impact crater in the Meridiani Planum extraterrestrial plain situated within the Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle region of the planet Mars. This geological feature was visited by the Opportunity rover from sols 929 to 943, the much larger crater Victoria lies about 100m to the east. Emma Dean lies directly on top of the blanket from Victoria. The crater is named after Emma Dean, John Wesley Powells wife, geography of Mars List of craters on Mars
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System, after Mercury. Named after the Roman god of war, it is referred to as the Red Planet because the iron oxide prevalent on its surface gives it a reddish appearance. Mars is a planet with a thin atmosphere, having surface features reminiscent both of the impact craters of the Moon and the valleys and polar ice caps of Earth. The rotational period and seasonal cycles of Mars are likewise similar to those of Earth, Mars is the site of Olympus Mons, the largest volcano and second-highest known mountain in the Solar System, and of Valles Marineris, one of the largest canyons in the Solar System. The smooth Borealis basin in the northern hemisphere covers 40% of the planet, Mars has two moons and Deimos, which are small and irregularly shaped. These may be captured asteroids, similar to 5261 Eureka, a Mars trojan, there are ongoing investigations assessing the past habitability potential of Mars, as well as the possibility of extant life.
Future astrobiology missions are planned, including the Mars 2020 and ExoMars rovers, liquid water cannot exist on the surface of Mars due to low atmospheric pressure, which is about 6⁄1000 that of the Earths, except at the lowest elevations for short periods. The two polar ice caps appear to be largely of water. The volume of ice in the south polar ice cap, if melted. On November 22,2016, NASA reported finding a large amount of ice in the Utopia Planitia region of Mars. The volume of water detected has been estimated to be equivalent to the volume of water in Lake Superior, Mars can easily be seen from Earth with the naked eye, as can its reddish coloring. Its apparent magnitude reaches −2.91, which is surpassed only by Jupiter, the Moon, optical ground-based telescopes are typically limited to resolving features about 300 kilometers across when Earth and Mars are closest because of Earths atmosphere. Mars is approximately half the diameter of Earth with an area only slightly less than the total area of Earths dry land.
Mars is less dense than Earth, having about 15% of Earths volume and 11% of Earths mass, the red-orange appearance of the Martian surface is caused by iron oxide, or rust. It can look like butterscotch, other common colors include golden, tan. Like Earth, Mars has differentiated into a metallic core overlaid by less dense materials. Current models of its interior imply a core with a radius of about 1,794 ±65 kilometers, consisting primarily of iron and this iron sulfide core is thought to be twice as rich in lighter elements than Earths. The core is surrounded by a mantle that formed many of the tectonic and volcanic features on the planet
Heat Shield Rock
Heat Shield Rock is a basketball-sized iron-nickel meteorite found on Mars by the Mars rover Opportunity in January 2005. The meteorite was formally named Meridiani Planum meteorite by the Meteoritical Society in October,2005, Opportunity encountered the meteorite entirely by chance, in the vicinity of its own discarded heat shield. Opportunity had been sent to examine the heat shield after exiting the crater Endurance and this was the first meteorite found on another planet and the third found on another Solar System body — two others, the millimeter-sized Bench Crater and Hadley Rille, were found on the Moon. The rock was identified as unusual in that it showed, from the analysis with the Mini-TES spectrometer. In-situ measurements of its composition were made using the APXS, showing the composition to be 93% Iron, 7% nickel. Mössbauer spectra show the iron to be primarily in form, confirming its identity as an iron-nickel meteorite. This is essentially identical to the composition of a typical IAB iron meteorite found on Earth, the surface of the rock shows the regmaglypts, or pits formed by the ablation of a meteorite during passage through the atmosphere, characteristic of meteorites.
No attempt was made to drill into the meteorite using the Rock Abrasion Tool, the RAT was designed to drill into ordinary rock, not into iron-nickel alloy. However no evidence suggests when it impacted, to survive impact largely undeformed it must have impacted at less than ~1.5 km/s. which sets boundaries on its entry dynamics and Mars atmosphere at the time it impacted. In any case, the meteorite does not show much sign of rust, in the absence of detailed knowledge of the Mars environment, it is not possible to conclude whether it fell recently or not. Following the identification of Heat Shield rock as a meteorite, five similar iron meteorites were discovered by Opportunity, two nickel-iron meteorites were identified by the Spirit rover. One nickel-iron meteorite was identified by the Curiosity rover, tagged Lebanon, in addition, several candidate stony meteorites have been identified on Mars