Shimao International Plaza
Shimao International Plaza is a 333.3 m tall skyscraper of 60 stories in Shanghai's Huangpu District. It was completed in 2006 under the design of Ingenhoven, Overdiek und Partner, East China Architecture and Design Institute. Shimao International Plaza has two spires on its top, which make its total construction height to 333.3 metres. Most of the building houses the Le Royal Méridien Shanghai hotel with 770 rooms; the building includes a 9 floor shopping mall and 3 floors of exclusive clubs. Shanghai Shimao Group bought the original developer of the tower, Wan Xiang Group, in 2001 and the name of the building was changed. List of tallest buildings in Shanghai "Shimao International Plaza". CTBUH Skyscraper Center. Shimao International Plaza at Emporis "Shimao International Plaza". SkyscraperPage
Shun Hing Square
Shun Hing Square known as "Di Wang Tower" is a 384-metre-tall skyscraper in Shenzhen, Guangdong province, China. The building was built at a pace of four floors in nine days; the main tower is office space, car park and a 5-storey shopping arcade complex with four sets of escalators, five passenger lifts and two service lifts, a floor area ranging from 3450 m2 to 4900 m2. On the top floor is the Meridian View Centre, an observation deck, its common nickname "Diwang Building" derives from the auction price for the piece of land it stands being the most expensive in Shenzhen at the time. 24,500 tonnes of steel were used in construction. The building is The third tallest in Shenzhen 15th tallest building in mainland China 28th tallest in the world The tallest building in the world with fewer than 70 floors The tallest all-steel building in China; the tallest building in China from 1996 to the completion of CITIC Plaza in Guangzhou in 1997. The first skyscraper in China to be one of the ten tallest in the world.
Tallest building constructed in Shenzhen in the 1990s. Tallest building in Shenzhen from 1996 to September 2011 until surpassed by the nearby 441.8-metre-tall Kingkey 100. List of tallest buildings in the world List of tallest buildings and structures in the People's Republic of China List of tallest buildings in Shenzhen Shun Hing Square on CTBUH Skyscraper Center Meridian View Centre observation deck video Geographic data related to Shun Hing Square at OpenStreetMap
Shenzhen is a major city in Guangdong Province, China. It holds sub-provincial administrative status, with powers less than those of a province. Shenzhen, which follows the administrative boundaries of Bao'an County became a city in 1979, taking its name from the former county town, whose train station was the last stop on the Mainland Chinese section of the railway between Canton and Kowloon. In 1980, Shenzhen was established as China's first special economic zone. Shenzhen's registered population as of 2017 was estimated at 12,905,000. However, the Shenzhen Municipal Party Committee estimates that the population of Shenzhen is about 20 million, due to the large unregistered floating migrant population living in the city. Shenzhen was one of the fastest-growing cities in the world in the 1990s and the 2000s and has been ranked second on the list of ‘top 10 cities to visit in 2019 by Lonely Planet. Shenzhen's cityscape results from its vibrant economy - made possible by rapid foreign investment following the institution of the policy of "reform and opening-up" in 1979.
The city is a leading global technology hub, dubbed by media as the next Silicon Valley. Shenzhen hosts the Shenzhen Stock Exchange as well as the headquarters of numerous multinational companies such as JXD, Hytera, CIMC, SF Express, Shenzhen Airlines, Hasee, Ping An Bank, Ping An Insurance, China Merchants Bank, Tencent, ZTE, Huawei, DJI and BYD. Shenzhen ranks 14th in the 2019 Global Financial Centres Index, it has one of the busiest container ports in the world. The earliest known recorded mention of the name Shenzhen could date from 1410, during the Ming Dynasty. Local Hakka people call the drains in paddy fields “zhen”. Shenzhen means “deep drains” as the area was once crisscrossed with rivers and streams, with deep drains within the paddy fields; the character 圳 is limited in distribution to an area of South China with its most northerly examples in Zhejiang Province which suggests an association with southwards migration during the Southern Song Dynasty. Due to the city's growing economy in the technological industry, the city has been referred by media as "China's Silicon Valley".
The earliest archaeological remains so far unearthed in the Shenzhen area are shards from a site at Xiantouling on Dapeng Bay, dating back to 5000 BC. From the Han dynasty onwards, the area around Shenzhen was a center of the salt monopoly, thus meriting special imperial protection. Salt pans are still visible around the Pearl River area to the west of the city and are commemorated in the name of Yantian District; the settlement at Nantou was the political center of the area from early antiquity. In the year 331 AD, six counties covering most of modern southeastern Guangdong were merged into one province or "jun" named Dongguan with its administrative center at Nantou; as well as being a center of the politically and fiscally critical salt trade, the area had strategic importance as a stopping off point for international trade. The main shipping route to India and the Byzantine Empire started at Guangzhou; as early as the eighth century, chronicles recorded the Nantou area as being a major commercial center, reported that all foreign ships in the Guangzhou trade would stop there.
It was as a naval defense center guarding the southern approaches to the Pearl River. Nantou was a major naval center at the mouth of the Pearl River in the Ming Dynasty. In this capacity it was involved in 1521 in the successful Chinese action against the Portuguese Fleet under Fernão Pires de Andrade; this battle, called the Battle of Tunmen, was fought in the straits between Shekou and Nei Lingding Island. This area was involved in the events surrounding the end of the Southern Song dynasty; the imperial court, fleeing Kublai Khan’s forces, established itself in the Shenzhen area. Lu Xiufu, the then-chief minister, realized all was lost and knew the Mongolian forces would soon take over the area, he preferred suicide instead of the emperor being captured which might have brought shame to the dynasty, he jumped off a cliff with Emperor Bing, aged 7, the last emperor of the Southern Song Dynasty strapped to his back, killing both. In the late 19th century the Chiu or Zhao clan in Hong Kong identified that Chiwan, an area near Shekou as the final resting place of the Emperor and built a tomb for him.
The tomb, since restored, is still at the same location. Contrary to a common misconception of Shenzhen being a fishing village prior to becoming a city, Shenzhen was a regional market town, the county town of Bao'an since 1953. In November 1979, Bao'an County was promoted to prefecture level, directly governed by Guangdong province, it was renamed Shenzhen, after Shenzhen town. The administrative centre of the county stood around present location of the Dongmen. Shenzhen was singled out to be the first of the five Special Economic Zones in May 1980; the SEZ comprised an area of only 327.5 km2 of southern Shenzhen, covering the current Luohu, Futian and Yantian districts. The SEZ was promoted by Deng Xiaoping and created to be an experimental ground for the practice of market capitalism within a community guided by the ideals of "socialism with Chinese characteristics". In 1982 Bao'an County was re-established; the county was converted to become Bao'an District, out of the Special Economic Zone.
Shenzhen was promoted to a Sub-provincial City in March 1983 and w
Macau Tower Convention & Entertainment Centre known as Macau Tower, is a tower located in Sé, Macau. The tower measures 338 m in height from ground level to the highest point, its observation deck features panoramic views, theaters, shopping malls and the Skywalk X, a thrilling walking tour around the outer rim. It offers the best view of Macau and in recent years has been used for a variety of adventurous activities. At 233 metres, the Macau Tower's tethered "skyjump" and Bungee jump by AJ Hackett from the tower's outer rim, is the highest commercial skyjump in the world, the second highest commercial decelerator descent facility in the world, after Vegas' Stratosphere skyjump at 252 metres; the tower was created by the architecture firm of Moller Architects. The tower is one of the members of the World Federation of Great Towers. Besides being used for observation and entertainment, the tower is used for telecommunications and broadcasting, it and the Grand Lisboa hotel are the most recognizable landmarks in the Macau skyline.
On a visit to Auckland, New Zealand, Hong Kong casino billionaire Stanley Ho Hung-Sun was so impressed by the Sky Tower in Auckland that he commissioned a similar one to be built in Macau. The tower was designed by New Zealand engineering firm Beca Group and Gordon Moller of Moller Architects for Sociedade de Turismo e Diversões de Macau. Construction work of the tower started in 1998, the tower was opened on December 19, 2001. Project Architect: Les Dykstra On December 17, 2006, the father of contemporary bungee jumping, A J Hackett, popular artist Edison Chen broke two Guinness World Records at the Macau Tower. A J Hackett, broke his own Guinness World Record of "The Highest Bungee Jump from a Building" achieved in 1987 from the Eiffel Tower. Edison Chen represented Macau Tower in the inaugural jump to bid for "The World's Highest Bungee Jump Facility". Jack Osbourne has bungee-jumped off the tower as well, as part of the third series of Jack Osbourne: Adrenaline Junkie. Anthony Bourdain bungee-jumped from the top floor of the building in an episode of Anthony Bourdain: No Reservations.
It served as the venue of photoshoot of Episode 10, America's Next Top Model Cycle 18: British Invasion. The tower was featured in the third episode of An Idiot Abroad 3, where Karl Pilkington and Warwick Davis perform the Skywalk which involves walking around the perimeter of one of the highest floors. Davis proceeded to take a controlled descent to the ground, it was used on the South Korean variety show Running Man for episode 133. The cast and their guests, Lee Dong-wook and Han Hye-jin, were given three missions - sky jump, mast climb, sky walk - to be completed on the tower to acquire the three characters they needed to continue onto the next mission; the tower was used as a "roadblock" in an episode of US version The Amazing Race: All-Stars that aired on April 22, 2007, on CBS as well as a roadblock in the Amazing Race Canada 2 in 2014. The tower appeared in one roadblock each on two episodes of The Amazing Race Asia 3, it was used on the Chinese variety show Up Idol for episode 1. The two team captains, Wang Han and Yuan Hong, with their members, were given a mission - sky relay - to be completed on the tower as short a time as possible.
Yuan Hong's team won the game, Wang Han's team was given a punishment, Karen Mok and Ming Xi were going to bungee-jump off the tover. Xie Na and Joe Chen replaced them to accept the punishment at last. List of towers List of tallest freestanding structures in the world Sky Tower, the tower which Macau Tower was based on. Official website Macau Tower at Structurae
The Canton Tower, formally Guangzhou TV Astronomical and Sightseeing Tower, is a 604 metres tall multi-purpose observation tower in the Haizhu District of the city of Guangzhou. The tower was topped out in 2009 and it became operational on 29 September 2010 for the 2010 Asian Games; the tower held the title of tallest tower in the world, replacing the CN Tower, before being surpassed by the Tokyo Skytree. It was the tallest structure in China prior to the topping out of Shanghai Tower on 3 August 2013, it is now the fourth-tallest freestanding structure in the world. There had been a long discussion about the naming of the Canton Tower since the commencement of its construction in 2005 after the groundbreaking ceremony. In September 2009, at the request of the tower's investor, Guangzhou Daily launched a contest for naming proposals; the contest attracted over 180,000 valid entries, among which "Haixin Tower" was awarded the first prize. The name alluded to the city's historical setting as the start of the Maritime Silk Road and the tower's geographical proximity to Haixinsha Island.
However, this name was considered obscure to people unfamiliar with the history of the city. Local residents continued to refer to the tower by various nicknames including "Slim Waist", "Twisted Firewood" and "Yangdianfeng"; the naming was reconsidered in 2010. After surveying a broad range of public opinions, "Canton Tower" was decided as the official name and announced at the end of September 2010; the new English name, alluded to the city's prosperous past, was considered the most identifying and least ambiguous among the multitude of proposals. Canton Tower was constructed by Guangzhou New Television Tower Group, it is designed by the Dutch architects Mark Hemel and Barbara Kuit of Information Based Architecture, together with Arup, the international design and business consulting firm headquartered in London, United Kingdom. In 2004, Information Based Architecture and Arup won the international competition, in which many internationally large architectural offices participated; the same year the IBA – Arup team in Amsterdam, developed the tower's concept design.
In stages, IBA cooperated with the local Chinese office of Arup and a Local Design Institute. Subsequently, in 2005, the groundbreaking of the Canton Tower took place; the tower, although not completed, opened to the public on 1 October 2010 in time for the 16th Asian Games, hosted by Guangzhou in November 2010. The rooftop observatory received its official opening in December 2011; the Canton tower's twisted shape or hyperboloid structure corresponds to the Russian Empire patent No. 1896, dated 12 March 1899 received by the Russian engineer and architect. The structure is similar to the Adziogol Lighthouse in Ukraine's Dnepr delta; the tower was designed by Arup. The Arup team led by structural engineer Prof. Dr. Joop Paul introduced near mass customisation to the joint design, in combination with parametric design methods, applied a simple structural concept of three elements: columns and braces, to this more complex geometry; the waist of the tower contains a 180 m open-air skywalk where visitors can physically climb the tower.
There are outdoor gardens set within the structure, at the top, just above 450 m, a large open-air observation deck. The interior of the tower is subdivided into programmatic zones with various functions, including TV and radio transmission facilities, observatory decks, revolving restaurants, computer gaming, exhibition spaces, conference rooms, 4D cinemas. A deck at the base of the tower hides the tower's functional workings. All infrastructural connections – metro and bus stations – are situated underground; this level includes exhibition spaces, a food court, a commercial space, a parking area for cars and coaches. There are two types of slow-speed panoramic and high-speed double-decker; the zone from 80 to 170 m consists of a 4D cinema, a play-hall area, coffee shops and outdoor gardens with teahouses. The highest and longest open-air staircase in the world, the Skywalk, starts at the height of 170 m and spirals 170 m higher, all the way through the waist. Parts of the skywalk's floors are laid with transparent glass.
The top zone of the tower begins above the stairway, housing various technical functions as well as a two-storey rotating restaurant, a tuned mass damper and the upper observation levels. From the upper observation levels it is possible to ascend higher, via a further set of the stairs, to a terraced observation square rising above the tower's top ring; the form and structure of the towers is generated by two ellipses, one at foundation level and the other at a horizontal plane at 450 m. These two ellipses are rotated relative to another; the tightening caused by the rotation between the two ellipses forms a "waist" and a densification of material halfway up the tower. This means that the lattice structure, which at the bottom of the tower is porous and spacious, becomes denser at waist level; the waist itself becomes tight, like a twisted rope. Further up the tower the lattice opens again, accentuated here by the tapering of the structural column-tubes; the indoor public observatory is 449 m above the ground, which takes the form of a terraced
The KK100 known as Kingkey 100 and Kingkey Finance Tower, is a supertall skyscraper in Shenzhen, Guangdong. It is located on Shennan East Road and within Caiwuwei, an area described as the'financial district' of Shenzhen, it belongs to Shenzhen's Luohu District and is situated east of Lizhi Park one kilometer north of the border between mainland China and Hong Kong. The mixed-use building contains 100 floors for office space and a hotel. Out of those 100 floors, 74 are used for 173,000 square metres of Class A office space, 26 stories for a 35,000 square metres six-star business hotel and the top four floors of the skyscraper hold a garden and several restaurants. Adjacent to KK100 is the KK Mall, which opened its doors November 26, 2010, contains luxury brand stores, restaurants and a supermarket; the KK Mall hosts Shenzhen's first IMAX cinema. The St. Regis Hotel occupies floors 75 to 100 of the main tower, which opened in September 2011; the lobby of the St. Regis Hotel is in 96th floor of this building.
There are 4 elevators ride between 96th floor. These 4 elevators are made by Mitsubishi which can ride to 9m/s It is the second tallest building in Shenzhen as well as being the 14th tallest building in the world, it is the tallest building designed by a British architect. There is a water fountain in front of the building, an observation deck near the top. In December 2011, the Emporis Skyscraper Award awarded the building a fourth place; the building has a height-width ratio of 9.5:1, thus becoming one of China's slimmest buildings. List of tallest buildings in Shenzhen List of tallest buildings in the People's Republic of China List of buildings with 100 floors or more Kingkey 100 on CTBUH Skyscraper Center
A transmission tower or power tower is a tall structure a steel lattice tower, used to support an overhead power line. They are used in high-voltage AC and DC systems, come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes. Typical height ranges from 15 to 55 m, though the tallest are the 370 m towers of a 2,700 m span of Zhoushan Island Overhead Powerline Tie. In addition to steel, other materials may be used, including wood. There are four major categories of transmission towers: suspension, terminal and transposition; some transmission towers combine these basic functions. Transmission towers and their overhead power lines are considered to be a form of visual pollution. Methods to reduce the visual effect include undergrounding. "Transmission tower" is the name for the structure used in the industry in the United States, some other English-speaking countries. The term "pylon" comes from the basic shape of the structure, an obelisk-like structure which tapers toward the top, the name is used in the United Kingdom and parts of Europe in everyday colloquial speech.
This term is used infrequently in the United States, as the word "pylon" is used for many other things for traffic cones. Three-phase electric power systems are used for high voltage and extra-high voltage AC transmission lines; the towers must be designed to carry three conductors. The towers are steel lattices or trusses and the insulators are either glass or porcelain discs or composite insulators using silicone rubber or EPDM rubber material assembled in strings or long rods whose lengths are dependent on the line voltage and environmental conditions. One or two ground wires called "guard" wires, are placed on top to intercept lightning and harmlessly divert it to ground. Towers for high- and extra-high voltage are designed to carry two or more electric circuits. If a line is constructed using towers designed to carry several circuits, it is not necessary to install all the circuits at the time of construction. Indeed, for economic reasons, some transmission lines are designed for three circuits, but only two circuits are installed.
Some high voltage circuits are erected on the same tower as 110 kV lines. Paralleling circuits of 380 kV, 220 kV and 110 kV-lines on the same towers is common. Sometimes with 110 kV circuits, a parallel circuit carries traction lines for railway electrification. High-voltage direct current transmission lines are bipolar systems. With bipolar systems, a conductor arrangement with one conductor on each side of the tower is used. On some schemes, the ground conductor is used as electrode ground return. In this case, it had to be installed with insulators equipped with surge arrestors on the pylons in order to prevent electrochemical corrosion of the pylons. For single-pole HVDC transmission with ground return, towers with only one conductor can be used. In many cases, the towers are designed for conversion to a two-pole system. In these cases conductors on both sides of the tower are installed for mechanical reasons; until the second pole is needed, it is either used as electrode line or joined in parallel with the pole in use.
In the latter case, the line from the converter station to the earthing electrode is built as underground cable, as overhead line on a separate right of way or by using the ground conductors. Electrode line towers are used in some HVDC schemes to carry the power line from the converter station to the grounding electrode, they are similar to structures used for lines with voltages of 10–30 kV, but carry only one or two conductors. Towers used for single-phase AC railway traction lines are similar in construction to those towers used for 110 kV three-phase lines. Steel tube or concrete poles are often used for these lines. However, railway traction current systems are two-pole AC systems, so traction lines are designed for two conductors; these are arranged on one level, whereby each circuit occupies one half of the cross arm. For four traction circuits, the arrangement of the conductors is in two levels and for six electric circuits, the arrangement of the conductors is in three levels. AC circuits of different frequency and phase-count, or AC and DC circuits, may be installed on the same tower.
All circuits of such lines have voltages of 50 kV and more. However, there are some lines of this type for lower voltages. For example, towers used by both railway traction power circuits and the general three-phase AC grid. Two short sections of line carry both AC and DC power circuits. One set of such towers is near the terminal of HVDC Volgograd-Donbass on Volga Hydroelectric Power Station; the other are two towers south of Stenkullen, which carry one circuit of HVDC Konti-Skan and üne circuit of the three-phase AC line Stenkullen-Holmbakullen. Towers carrying AC circuits and DC electrode lines exist in a section of the powerline between Adalph Static Inverter Plant and Brookston the pylons carry the electrode line of HVDC Square Butte; the electrode line of HVDC CU at the converter station at Coal Creek Station uses on a short section the towers of two AC lines as support. The overhead section of the electrode line of Pacific DC Intertie from Sylmar Converter Station to the ground