List of tallest towers

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This is a list of extant towers that fulfill the engineering definition of a tower: "a tall human structure, always taller than it is wide, for public or regular operational access by humans, but not for living in or office work, and are self-supporting or free-standing, which means no guy-wires for support."[1][2][3][failed verification] The definition means the exclusion from this list of continuously habitable buildings and skyscrapers as well as radio and TV masts; also excluded from this list because they are not designed for public or regular operational access are bridge towers or pylons, chimneys, transmission towers, sculptures and most large statues and obelisks.

Towers are most often built to use their height for various purposes and can stand alone or as part of a larger structure; some common purposes are for telecommunications, and as a viewing platform.

The Tokyo Skytree, completed in February 2012, is 634 m (2,080 ft), making it the tallest tower, and second-tallest free-standing structure in the world.[4][5][6]

Entirely self-supported towers[edit]

Towers taller than 250 metres[edit]

Rank Name Pinnacle height Year Structure Country City Remarks
1 Tokyo Skytree 634 m (2,080 ft) 2012 Steel  Japan Tokyo Became tallest tower in 2011, second-tallest freestanding structure in the world
2 Canton Tower 604 m (1,982 ft) 2010 Steel & concrete  China Guangzhou Tallest in the world 2009–11
3 CN Tower 553.33 m (1,815.4 ft) 1976 Concrete  Canada Toronto Tallest freestanding structure in the world 1975–2007, tallest in the western hemisphere
4 Ostankino Tower 540.1 m (1,772 ft) 1967  Russia Moscow Tallest freestanding structure in the world, 1967–75, tallest in Europe
5 Oriental Pearl Tower 468 m (1,535 ft) 1994  China Shanghai Tallest in China 1994–2007
6 Milad Tower 435 m (1,427 ft) 2008  Iran Tehran Tallest in the Middle East
7 KL Tower 421 m (1,381 ft) 1994  Malaysia Kuala Lumpur Tallest in South East Asia
8 Tianjin Radio and Television Tower 415.2 m (1,362 ft) 1991  China Tianjin Tallest in Asia 1991-1994,Tallest in North China
9 Central Radio and TV Tower 405 m (1,329 ft) 1992 Beijing
10 Zhongyuan Tower 388 m (1,273 ft) 2011 Steel Zhengzhou
11 Kiev TV Tower 385 m (1,263 ft) 1973  Ukraine Kiev
12 Tashkent Tower 374.9 m (1,230 ft) 1985  Uzbekistan Tashkent Tallest in Central Asia
13 Liberation Tower 372 m (1,220 ft) 1996 Concrete  Kuwait Kuwait City
14 Almaty Tower 371.5 m (1,219 ft) 1983 Steel  Kazakhstan Almaty
15 Riga Radio and TV Tower 368.5 m (1,209 ft) 1986  Latvia Riga Tallest in the European Union
16 Berliner Fernsehturm 368 m (1,207 ft) 1969 Concrete  Germany Berlin Tallest structure in Germany
17 Lotus Tower 356 m (1,168 ft) 2019  Sri Lanka Colombo Tallest structure in South Asia
18 Stratosphere Tower 350.2 m (1,149 ft) 1996  United States Las Vegas Tallest observation tower in the United States
19 West Pearl Tower 339 m (1,112 ft) 2004  China Chengdu
20 Macau Tower 338 m (1,109 ft) 2001 Macau
21 Dragon Tower 336 m (1,102 ft) 2000 Lattice Harbin
22 Europaturm 337.5 m (1,107 ft) 1979 Concrete  Germany Frankfurt
23 Tokyo Tower 332.6 m (1,091 ft) 1958 Steel Lattice  Japan Tokyo Tallest in the world 1958–67
24 Arqiva Tower 330.4 m (1,084 ft) 1971 Concrete  United Kingdom Kirklees Tallest freestanding structure in the United Kingdom
25 Sky Tower (Auckland) 328 m (1,076 ft) 1997  New Zealand Auckland Tallest freestanding structure in the Southern Hemisphere
26 Vilnius TV Tower 327 m (1,073 ft) 1980  Lithuania Vilnius
27 Saint Petersburg TV Tower 326 m (1,070 ft) 1962 Lattice  Russia Saint Petersburg
28 Eiffel Tower 324 m (1,063 ft) 1889 Steel Lattice  France Paris First to surpass 300 metres, tallest tower in the world 1889–1958, oldest in this list
29 Rameswaram TV Tower 323 m (1,060 ft) 1995 Concrete  India Rameswaram
30 Jiangsu Nanjing TV Tower 318.5 m (1,045 ft) 1996  China Nanjing
31 Tallinn TV Tower 314 m (1,030 ft) 1980  Estonia Tallinn
32 Yerevan TV Tower 311.7 m (1,023 ft) 1977 Steel Lattice  Armenia Yerevan [7]
33 Tortoise Mountain TV Tower 311.4 m (1,022 ft) 1986 Concrete  China Wuhan China's first self-supported TV tower
34 Baku TV Tower 310 m (1,020 ft) 1996  Azerbaijan Baku
35 Sydney Tower 309 m (1,014 ft) 1981  Australia Sydney
36 Liaoning Broadcast and TV Tower 305.5 m (1,002 ft) 1989  China Shenyang
37 Jaisalmer TV Tower 300 m (984 ft) 1993  India Jaisalmer
38 Samatra TV Tower 300 m (984 ft) 1999 Bhuj
39 VRT Toren 300 m (984 ft) 1996  Belgium Sint-Pieters-Leeuw
40 Zhuzhou Television Tower 293 m (961 ft) 1999  China Zhuzhou
41 Fernmeldeturm Nürnberg 292 m (958 ft) 1977  Germany Nuremberg
42 Olympiaturm 289.5 m (950 ft) 1968 Munich
43 Torre de Collserola 288 m (945 ft) 1992 Steel  Spain Barcelona
44 Telemax 282.2 m (926 ft) 1992 Concrete  Germany Hannover
45 Jalandhar TV Tower[citation needed] 280 m (920 ft) 2007  India Jalandhar
46 Heinrich-Hertz-Turm 279.7 m (918 ft) 1968  Germany Hamburg
47 Georgia Tbilisi TV Broadcasting Tower 274.5 m (901 ft) 1972 Steel  Georgia Tbilisi
48 Hillbrow Tower 269 m (883 ft) 1971 Concrete  South Africa Johannesburg Tallest in Africa
49 Kaifeng TV Tower 268 m (879 ft) 1995  China Kaifeng
50 Colonius 266 m (873 ft) 1981  Germany Cologne
51 Novorossiysk TV Tower 261.5 m (858 ft) 1996  Russia Novorossiysk
52 Daqing Radio and Television Tower 260 m (850 ft) 1989  China Daqing
53 Olympic Park Observation Tower 258 m (846 ft) 2014 Steel Beijing
54 Fernmeldeturm Kühkopf 255 m (837 ft) 1976 Concrete  Germany Koblenz
55 Donauturm 252 m (827 ft) 1964  Austria Vienna
56 Fernsehturm Dresden-Wachwitz 252 m (827 ft) 1969  Germany Dresden
57 Swisscom-Sendeturm St. Chrischona 250 m (820 ft) 1984   Switzerland St. Chrischona
58 Jeddah TV Tower 250 m (820 ft) 2007  Saudi Arabia Jeddah

Towers between 200 and 250 metres tall[edit]

Tower Year Country City Pinnacle height Remarks
Shaanxi Provincial TV Tower 1987  China Xi'an 245 m
Rheinturm Düsseldorf 1981  Germany Düsseldorf 240.5 m Was 234.2 m before another antenna was mounted in 2004
Pattaya Park Tower[citation needed] ?  Thailand Pattaya 240 m
N Seoul Tower 1975  South Korea Seoul 239.7 m
Menara TVRI[citation needed] 1994  Indonesia Jakarta 239 m
Foshan TV Tower[8] 1995  China Foshan 238 m
Sentech Tower 1962  South Africa Johannesburg 237 m
Endem TV Tower 2002  Turkey Istanbul 236 m
Bremen-Walle Telecommunication Tower 1986  Germany Bremen-Walle 235.7 m
Pitampura TV Tower 1988  India Delhi 235 m
Fukuoka Tower 1989  Japan Fukuoka 234 m
Qingdao TV Tower 1994  China Qingdao 232 m
Torrespaña 1982  Spain Madrid 231 m
Ryan Tower 1968  Canada Chelsea, Quebec 228.9 m
Tower of the Americas 1968  United States San Antonio, Texas 228.6 m
Torre Espacial 1980  Argentina Buenos Aires 228 m
Katanga TV Tower 1992  India Jabalpur 225 m
Brasilia TV Tower 1965  Brazil Brasilia 224 m
Buková hora TV Tower 1975  Czech Republic Bukova hora 223 m
Fernmeldeturm Münster 42 1986  Germany Münster 222.5 m
Florianturm 1959  Germany Dortmund 219.6 m
Ptv Tower Sahiwal 1970  Pakistan Sahiwal 219.4 m
Jilin Radio and TV Tower[9] 1997  China Jilin 218 m
Guangzhou TV Tower 1991 Guangzhou
Fernsehturm Stuttgart 1956  Germany Stuttgart-Degerloch 216.8 m World's first concrete TV tower
Prague - Žižkov Television Tower 1992  Czech Republic Prague 216 m
Fernmeldeturm Mannheim 1975  Germany Mannheim 212.8 m
Fernmeldeturm Berlin 1964  Germany Berlin 212 m
Turkmenistan Broadcasting Centre 2011  Turkmenistan Ashgabat 211 m
Minaret of Hassan II Mosque 1993  Morocco Casablanca 210 m
Transmitter Hornisgrinde 1972  Germany Hornisgrinde 206 m
Ujudvar TV Tower[10] 1972  Hungary Ujudvar 206 m
Baghdad Tower 1994  Iraq Baghdad 205 m Formerly International Saddam Tower
Donnersberg TV Tower[11] 1962  Germany Donnersberg 204.82 m
Avala TV Tower 1965  Serbia Avala, near Belgrade 204.5 m Destroyed in NATO bombing on April 29, 1999; reconstruction completed October 2009; tallest in the Balkans
Rousse TV Tower 1987  Bulgaria Rousse 204 m
TV tower Helpterberge[citation needed] 1981  Germany Helpterberge 203.2 m
Woobang Tower[12] 1992  South Korea Daegu 202 m

Towers between 100 and 200 metres tall[edit]

Tower Year Country City Pinnacle height Remarks
Xuzhou TV Tower 1990  China Xuzhou 199 m
KPN-Zendmast Waalhaven 1962  Netherlands Rotterdam-Waalhaven
Zendmast Roermond 1957 Roermond 197.7 m
KPN Tower Hilversum 1973 Hilversum 196 m
Bantiger TV Tower 1996   Switzerland Bolligen 196 m
Sky Tower Nishitōkyō 1988  Japan Nishitōkyō, Tokyo 195 m
Telstra Tower 1980  Australia Canberra
Kamzik TV Tower 1975  Slovakia Bratislava 194 m
Gateway Arch 1965  United States St. Louis 192 m
Orissaare TV Tower 1965  Estonia Orissaare 191 m
Dalian Radio and TV Tower ?  China Dalian 190.5 m
Calgary Tower 1967  Canada Calgary 190 m
BT Tower 1964  United Kingdom London 188 m
Cairo Tower 1961  Egypt Cairo
Telecom Italia Tower Rozzano 1990  Italy Rozzano - Milan 187 m
Kuwait Towers 1979  Kuwait Kuwait City
Vitosha Mountain TV Tower 1985  Bulgaria Vitosha Mountain 186 m
Euromast 1962  Netherlands Rotterdam 186 m
TV tower Decquede 1959  Germany Dequede 184.5 m
Space Needle 1962  United States Seattle 184 m
Brasilia Digital TV Tower 2012  Brazil Brasília, DF 182 m
Nagoya TV Tower 1954  Japan Nagoya 180 m
PL Peace Tower 1970 Tondabayashi
Hošťálkovice transmitter 1979  Czech Republic Ostrava
Telecommunication Tower Bungsberg 1977  Germany Bungsberg 179 m
Löffelstelz Transmitter 2000  Germany Bad Mergentheim
Monte da Virgem Tower ?  Portugal Vila Nova de Gaia 177 m
Pécs TV Tower 1973  Hungary Pécs 176 m
Olympic Stadium tower
1987  Canada Montreal 175.3 m Highest inclined tower in the world, with its 45-degree angle.
Zendstation Markelo ?  Netherlands Markelo 174.4 m
San Jacinto Monument 1939  United States La Porte, Texas 172.92 m / 567.31 ft World's tallest monumental column
Reunion Tower 1978 Dallas 170.7 m
Iriški Venac TV Tower 1975  Serbia near Novi Sad 170 m
Juche Tower 1982  North Korea Pyongyang
Riyadh TV Tower 1981  Saudi Arabia Riyad
Spinnaker Tower 2005  United Kingdom Portsmouth
Washington Monument 1884  United States Washington, DC 169.3 m / 555 ft 5 in Observation level at 152 m
Zagreb TV Tower 1973  Croatia Zagreb 169 m
Fernmeldeturm Bödefeld ?  Germany Schmallenberg-Bödefeld 168.7 m
Näsinneula Observation Tower 1971  Finland Tampere 168 m Located at Särkänniemi amusement park
Menara Alor Star 1998  Malaysia Alor Star 165.5 m
Hünenburg Telecommunication Tower ?  Germany Bielefeld-Hühnenburg 165 m Also known as Fernmeldeturm Teutoburger Wald
Heubach Telecommunication Tower ? Heubach 164.8 m
Las Vegas Eiffel Tower 1999  United States Las Vegas 164.6 m Replica of Eiffel Tower
Praděd TV Tower 1983  Czech Republic Praděd Mountain 162 m
Ulm Münster 1377–1890  Germany Ulm 161.5 m Tallest church tower in the world
British Airways i360 2016  United Kingdom Brighton 161 m Thinnest tall tower in the world[13]
Osaka Tower 1966  Japan Osaka 160 m
Skylon Tower 1965  Canada Niagara Falls
Blackpool Tower 1894  United Kingdom Blackpool 158 m
Gold Tower 1988  Japan Utazu, Kagawa
Pylons of Cádiz 1960  Spain Cádiz Hyperboloid pylons
Cologne Cathedral 1248–1880  Germany Cologne 157.4 m Twin spires
Snejanka tower 1978  Bulgaria Pamporovo - Mount Snejanka 156 m Also known as Pamporovo TV Tower
Kaknästornet TV Tower 1964  Sweden Stockholm 155 m
Funkturm Arsenal ?  Austria Vienna
Kaikyo Yume Tower 1996  Japan Shimonoseki 153 m
BT Tower 1967  United Kingdom Birmingham 152 m
Rouen Cathedral 1145–1876  France Rouen 151 m
Cuyahoga Falls Cathedral Tower 1971  United States Cuyahoga Falls 150.57 m unfinished TV tower
SM Seaside City Cebu Tower 2016  Philippines Cebu City, Philippines 150 m Tallest observation tower in the Philippines
Funkturm Berlin 1926  Germany Berlin Only observation tower standing on insulators
Cruz de los Caídos 1956  Spain San Lorenzo de El Escorial Tallest cross in the world
Galaţi TV Tower 1978  Romania Galaţi
St. Nikolai, Hamburg 1846–77  Germany Hamburg 147.3 m Church ruin
Sapporo TV Tower 1957  Japan Sapporo 147.2 m
Dobrich TV Tower 1979  Bulgaria Dobrich 146 m
Fallturm Bremen 1990  Germany Bremen
Vasco da Gama Tower 1998  Portugal Lisboa 145 m
Strasbourg Cathedral 1176–1439  France Strasbourg 144 m
Nozema Tower Wormer 1968  Netherlands Wormer
Zigong TV Tower 1988  China Zigong 143.6 m
Jakobsberg Telecommunication Tower 1978  Germany Porta Westfalica-Jakobsberg 142 m
Monte Mario Tower ?  Italy Rome 140 m
Nozema Zendstation 1957  Netherlands Mierlo 139.5 m
Twin Arch 138 1995  Japan Ichinomiya 138 m
Goes TV Tower 1957  Netherlands Goes 137 m Also known as Nozema TV Tower Goes. Between 1957 and 2007 153 m tall.
Hohenstadt Transmission Tower ?  Germany Hohenstadt
Monas 1975  Indonesia Jakarta
St. Chrischona, old tower 1962   Switzerland St. Chrischona 136 m
Montjuic Communications Tower 1992  Spain Barcelona
Higashiyama Sky Tower 1989  Japan Nagoya 134 m
Radio City Tower 1969  United Kingdom Liverpool
KLIA2 Control Tower 2013  Malaysia Kuala Lumpur 133.8m Tallest air-traffic control tower in the world[14]
Mulleklenkes 1984  Germany Aachen 133 m Radio-DVB-T Transmission Tower de:Mulleklenkes
Nozema Zendstation The Hague 1965  Netherlands The Hague
BKK Control Tower 2006  Thailand Bang Phli 132.2 m Second-tallest air-traffic control tower in the world
Telefónica Chile Tower 1996  Chile Santiago 132 m
TV-toren Ittervoort ?  Netherlands Ittervoort
Telecommunication Tower Leipzig ?  Germany Leipzig
Kyoto Tower 1964  Japan Kyoto 131 m
1000 Islands SkyDeck 1965  Canada Hill Island, Ontario 130 m
TV Tower Nordhelle 1984  Germany Nordhelle
Telecommunication tower Großerlach 1985 Großerlach
Zendstation Loon op Zand 1986  Netherlands Loon op Zand
Shiraz Tower 2011  Iran Shiraz
KUL Control Tower 1998  Malaysia Kuala-Lumpur
Piątkowo transmitter, Tower 2 1993  Poland Poznań 128 m
Sanctuary of Our Lady of Licheń 2004 Licheń
Express Lift Tower 1980–82  United Kingdom Northampton 127.45 m
Torre Entel 1974  Chile Santiago 127.4 m
Glasgow Tower 2001  United Kingdom Glasgow 127 m
Aliant Tower 1971  Canada Moncton 127 m
Sender Inselsberg 1974  Germany Inselsberg Mountain + 126 m Was 43.31 when constructed in 1939
Dreamworld Tower 1997  Australia Dreamworld, Coomera 126.5m
Grobal Tower 1995  Japan Beppu 125 m
FMT 6 - Brackenheim ?  Germany Brackenheim
Chiba Port Tower 1986  Japan Chiba
Atakule Tower 1989  Turkey Ankara
Riga Radio Station ?  Latvia Riga
Gatlinburg Space Needle 1970  United States Gatlinburg 124 m
Tyholttårnet 1985  Norway Trondheim
Banharn-Jamsai Tower ?  Thailand Suphan Buri 123.25 m
Salisbury Cathedral 1220–1320  United Kingdom Salisbury 123 m
Sender Brocken 1937 &
1974
 Germany Brocken Mountain 95 m on original tower
Mont Pèlerin TV Tower 1974   Switzerland Mont Pèlerin 122.6 m
Pääskyvuoren linkkitorni 1964  Finland Turku 122 m
Ginosa Water Tower ?  Italy Ginosa
Zendstation Megen 1980  Netherlands Megen 121 m
Fernmeldeturm Duisburg  Germany Duisburg
Gibloux Radio Tower ?   Switzerland Sorens 118.7 m
Crossland Tower 1994  Japan Oyabe, Toyama 118 m
Silistra TV Tower 1979  Bulgaria Silistra 117 m
Lisebergstornet 1990  Sweden Göteborg 116.1 m
Observation tower of la Cité de l'Énergie ?  Canada Shawinigan, Quebec 115 m
Bernauer Birzel ?  Germany Bernau 115 m
Torrazzo of Cremona 1309  Italy Cremona 112.7 m
Domtoren 1328  Netherlands Utrecht 112.5 m Free-standing medieval church tower, see also list of tallest churches
Tiger Sky Tower 2004  Singapore Sentosa Island 110 m Tallest free-standing observation tower in Asia
Bytków TV Tower ?  Poland Siemianowice Śląskie
Taming Sari Tower 2008  Malaysia Melaka First revolving tower in Malaysia
Exelberg Telecommunication Tower  Austria Vienna 109 m
Torre Branca 1933  Italy Milan 108.6 m
Kobe Port Tower 1963  Japan Kobe 108 m
Tour Hertzienne TDF de Romainville 1984  France Paris-Romainville 108 m Also known as Tour Relais TDF
Goryokaku Tower 2006  Japan Hakodate 107 m
Perry's Victory and International Peace Memorial 1915  United States Put-in-Bay, Ohio World's most massive Doric column; fourth-tallest memorial in the U.S.
Torre Jaume I 1931  Spain Barcelona Connected with Torre Sant Sebastia by Port Vell Aerial Tramway
Bremerhaven Radar Tower 1965  Germany Bremerhaven 106.1 m
Yokohama Marine Tower 1961  Japan Yokohama 106 m
Borisova Gradina TV Tower 1959  Bulgaria Sofia
Tsutenkaku 1956  Japan Osaka 103 m
Scream 1992  Germany Soltau - Heidepark Gyro-Drop Tower
Total Tower 1994  United States Denver 102.4 m
Joseph Chamberlain Memorial Clock Tower 1908  United Kingdom Birmingham, England 100 m
Beppu Tower 1957  Japan Beppu
Hakata Port Tower 1964  Japan Fukuoka
Ještěd TV Tower 1968  Czech Republic Jested
Hokkaido Centennial Monument 1970  Japan Sapporo
Bazita Peak TV Tower 1975  Hungary Zalaegerszeg
Holstein Tower 1988  Germany Sierksdorf Additionally guyed Gyro-Tower
Faro de Moncloa 1992  Spain Madrid

Towers proposed or under construction[edit]

This is a list of towers that are proposed or under construction with a minimum height of 250m

Tower
Year
Country
City
Pinnacle height
Status
Function
Ref
Dubai Creek Tower 2021  United Arab Emirates Dubai 1345.5 m under construction observation [15]
Princesa Tower ?  Philippines Puerto Princessa 680 m proposed observation [16]
Hanoi Broadcast Tower 2021  Vietnam Hanoi 636 m observation / telecommunications [17]
Huanghe Landmark Tower ?  China Lanzhou 588 m [18]
Icon Siam Tower 2017  Thailand Bangkok 459 m [19]
Tower Infinity 2022  South Korea Incheon 453 m proposed observation / leisure / exhibition [20]
Holy Mosque Twin Minarets ?  Saudi Arabia Mecca 420 m under construction religious [21]
Hefei Feicui TV Tower ?  China Hefei 339 m under construction telecommunications [22]

Diagram[edit]

CN TowerTokyo sky treeCanton TowerOstankino TowerOriental Pearl TowerTallest towers in the world.svg
About this image

Timeline of tallest towers[edit]

From To Tower Country City Pinnacle height
280 BC 1180 AD Pharos Lighthouse  Egypt Alexandria 122 m (400 ft)
1180 1240 Malmesbury Abbey Tower  United Kingdom Malmesbury 131.3 m (431 ft)
1240 1311 Tower of Old St Paul's Cathedral London 150 m (490 ft)
1311 1549 Tower of Lincoln Cathedral Lincoln 159.7 m (524 ft)
1549 1647 Tower of St Mary's church  Germany Stralsund 151 m (495 ft)
1647 1874 Tower of Strasbourg Cathedral  France Strasbourg 142 m (466 ft)
1874 1876 Tower of St. Nikolai  Germany Hamburg 147 m (482 ft)
1876 1880 Tower of Rouen Cathedral  France Rouen 151 m (495 ft)
1880 1889 Tower of Cologne Cathedral  Germany Cologne 157.38 m (516.3 ft)
1889 1958 Eiffel Tower  France Paris 312.3 m (1,025 ft)
1958 1967 Tokyo Tower  Japan Tokyo 332.6 m (1,091 ft)
1967 1975 Ostankino Tower  Russia Moscow 540.1 m (1,772 ft)
1975 2009 CN Tower  Canada Toronto 553.33 m (1,815.4 ft)
2009 2011 Canton Tower  China Guangzhou 604 m (1,982 ft)
2011 present Tokyo Skytree  Japan Tokyo 634 m (2,080 ft)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ ctbuh. "CTBUH Criteria for Defining and Measuring Tall Buildings". www.ctbuh.org. Retrieved 2018-10-05.
  2. ^ Gerometta, Marshall. "Height: The History of Measuring Tall Buildings". Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat. CTBUH. Retrieved 30 August 2017.
  3. ^ "World's Tallest Tower Rises in Tokyo". 2011-11-29. Retrieved 2018-07-26.
  4. ^ "Tokyo Sky Tree construction ends: World's tallest tower prepares to open". Cable News Network. 1 March 2012. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
  5. ^ Danielle Demetriou (1 March 2012). "Tokyo unveils world's tallest communications tower". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 1 March 2012.
  6. ^ "Tokyo Skytree website" (in Japanese). Tobu Railway Co., Ltd. & Tobu Tower Skytree Co., Ltd. Retrieved 2011-03-08.
  7. ^ Skyscraper Center. CTBUH http://www.skyscrapercenter.com/building/yerevan-tv-tower/9412. Retrieved 15 October 2017. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  8. ^ TV-Tower at Emporis
  9. ^ Jilin Radio and TV Tower at Emporis
  10. ^ Ujudvar TV Tower at Emporis
  11. ^ Sender Donnersberg at Emporis
  12. ^ Woobang Tower at Emporis
  13. ^ "Duke of Edinburgh officially opens Brighton's i360 tower". BBC. 28 October 2016. Retrieved 27 March 2017.
  14. ^ "Tallest airport control tower". Retrieved 4 April 2017.
  15. ^ "Dubai Creek Tower - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2018-12-27.
  16. ^ "'Princesa Tower' to rise in Puerto Princesa". Palawan News. 18 September 2018. Retrieved 11 April 2019.
  17. ^ "Hanoi Broadcast Tower - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2018-10-25.
  18. ^ "Huanghe Landmark Tower - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2018-10-25.
  19. ^ "Icon Siam Tower - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2018-10-25.
  20. ^ "Cheongna City International Tower - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2018-10-25.
  21. ^ "Holy Mosque Twin Minaret 1 - The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2018-10-25.
  22. ^ "Hefei Feicui T.V. Tower -The Skyscraper Center". www.skyscrapercenter.com. Retrieved 2018-10-25.