Founded in 1886 in Paris, Fauchon is a French gourmet food and delicatessen company. Fauchon is considered a major reference in contemporary French gourmet foods, has 76 outlets in around twenty countries as of 2016; the founder of the Fauchon brand, Auguste Fauchon, was born in Calvados in 1856. He moved to Paris in 1880, where he began to work as a street vendor, moving on to become a wine and spirits merchant. In 1886, at the age of 30, he opened a fine foods outlet on Place de la Madeleine in central Paris's 8th arrondissement; this first shop still exists, was renovated over a century of expansion and transformation. The quality of the products made by Fauchon and its numerous approved suppliers made it well-known internationally, it came to symbolise French-style luxury. In 1968, French radicals chose to distribute foie gras to the poor. During the Second World War and rationing made business difficult for the company. Auguste Fauchon died in 1945 and his children sold the company in 1952.
In 1952, Joseph Pilosoff, the former owner of "Chocolat Poulain", "Ciseaux d'argent" in Saint-Cloud and "Aux 100000 chemises" in Paris, took over Fauchon and built up a partnership with Air France. He expanded the name abroad, opening new Fauchon outlets including in Japan at Takashimaya department stores in 1972; when Joseph Pilosoff died in 1981, his daughter took over at the head of the company. However, she too died soon thereafter, in a fire on the company premises. In 1986, Joseph Pilosoff's granddaughter and her husband, Philippe Prémat, became the owners of Fauchon. Martine Prémat's management proved difficult. Turnover had been flat since the beginning of the decade at around 250 million French francs, with losses of FF5 million in 1991, FF4.7 million in 1993 and FF11.9 million in 1996, debt standing at FF73 million and a negative net equity of FF4.9 million. The company strategy to sell its products in mass-market superstore chains such as Carrefour and Auchan, was criticised, the management was reproached with running the risk of spoiling the company's image, making it commonplace, was criticised for making management errors.
Despite attempts to expand the group in the 1990s by opening shops in Geneva and Saudi Arabia – only to close them a few years – or by sponsoring the Paris Dakar rally, Martine Prémat sold the company to Laurent Adamowicz for FF240 million in March 1998, including the freehold of the buildings on Place de la Madeleine, sold the following year. Former investment banker, graduate of business school and experienced in the field of luxury products, Laurent Adamowicz positioned the brand on the gourmet foods market, he launched new products and ad campaigns, renovated points of sale, withdrew the brand from mass-market outlets and renovated the historical Tea Salon on Place de la Madeleine. He started a new partnership with Air France, promoted young pastry chefs, like Pierre Hermé, Sébastien Godard, Christophe Adam, Dominique Ansel; as soon as the year 2000, Fauchon became a growing and profitable company again, with 90 million Euros in sales and 5 million in EBIT for 2002, with a strong desire to conquer new markets.
Fauchon opened new stores in Japan, in South Korea, the Middle East, in the United States where it never had a store before, investing FF60 million in five years in the US market, with a diversified investor group that included Michel Deroy and Jean-Francois Toulouse, former owners and managers of Dock de France supermarkets, the investment fund Matignon Investissements et Gestion, the publicly listed UK fund Intermediate Capital Group, Barclays Capital Development France. Barclays Private Equity France, a subsidiary of the Barclays plc Group, backed Laurent Adamowicz in his takeover of Fauchon to participate in its development in France and abroad. In France, the acquisition of Flo Prestige delicatessens for €39 million increased the number of outlets in Paris by 12 stores. In 2003, the Fauchon network included 650 franchises, 16 of its own shops, of which three were in New York and 13 in Paris; the acquisition of the Flo outlets in Paris in 2002 and the opening of three shops in New York led to a sharp rise in income between 1998 and 2004, but a decline in Fauchon's net profits.
In Spring-Summer 2003, Fauchon endebted, was affected by the collapse of the tourism market with the combination of several events: the Iraq War and the fall of the Saddam Hussein regime in April 2003, followed in May 2003 with the epidemic of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome virus, the unprecedented heat wave in Europe that hit France hard with over 15,000 dead in August 2003. In January 2004, Laurent Adamowicz sold his interest in the company and left his CEO's office to Michel Ducros, one of the sons of Gilbert Ducros, the founder of the Ducros spice business. From 2004 onwards, Michel Ducros bought out most of the other shareholders and institutional, will acquire between 2005 and 2009 all of the shares held by the Barclays Group, the 36% stake owned by La Compagnie du Bois sauvage, the stake held by Matignon Investissement & Gestion, lastly the minority shareholdings. "I am an entrepreneur, I invest in the long term," he explained. In 2004, the new shareholders adopted a strategy that aimed to boost profits by selling off those assets they deemed to be non-strategic, closing stores in Russia and the United States, selling their ready-prepared meal tray business to the Fleury Michon group, selling the Fauchon Paris stores to the company's rival Lenôtre.
Within the space of 6 years, Fauchon cut back its workforce by 700 em
T2 (Australian company)
T2 is a chain of specialty tea shops established in Australia by Maryanne Shearer and Jan O'Connor in 1996 and was purchased by Unilever in 2013. T2 was co-founded by Jan O'Connor. In 1995, they registered a homewares company,'Contents Homeware', they changed their focus after identifying a gap in the tea shop market, chose the name'Tea two' to denote the two co-founders, but written as'Tea too'. The business has been credited as paving the way for the tea revival, transforming the tea industry in Australia by educating consumers and championing different flavours and types of tea. In 1996, Jan O'Connor and Maryanne Shearer each put in $50,000 to start the company as equal co-founders. In'T2: the book', Maryanne Shearer noted that her business relationship with O'Connor deteriorated when she returned to work in March 2000 after having her first child; as relations continued to be strained, an acrimonious legal battle ensued forcing O'Connor to leave the business. Bruce Crome, Shearer's partner, purchased O'Connor's share in the business at the end of October 2001.
In 2007, Maryanne Shearer and partner Bruce Crome sold 50 per cent of T2 to retail investors Jonathan Dan and Phillip Blanco. After disagreements about growth strategies and Crome bought 25 per cent back from Blanco, but Dan continued his investment. Multinational company Unilever acquired T2 from Maryanne Shearer and Bruce Crome in October 2013; as of 2015, Shearer was T2's Creative Director. In announcing the acquisition, Shearer highlighted Unilever's leading role in adopting sustainable agriculture practices for the tea industry as being a good values fit for T2. T2 had worked with Fairtrade since 2009 on the English breakfast tea blend; the Sydney Morning Herald noted that restaurant owner Michael Ryan reacted to the acquisition news with a tweet describing the company as "Unilever's Teas'r'Us". In 2017, writer Jayne D'Arcy used the term "Unilever-ed", to describe the company's shift from being locally Melbourne-owned; the purchase price was estimated to be less than $100 million, was disclosed as $60 million.
Legal services for T2 were provided by Baker & McKenzie and Harris Carlson, with financial advice from Deloitte. Legal services for Unilever were provided by Johnson Winter & Slattery, with financial advice from KPMG. On 1 July 1996, the first store was opened at Fitzroy. A second store was opened on Fitzroy Street, St Kilda, but it was closed after 12 months due to low patronage. However, the following year sales increased 20 %. In November 1999, a store was opened in Chadstone Shopping Centre, Australia's premier shopping centre; the store was a success, helping to increase T2's revenue beyond $1 million. In 2002, T2 expanded to Sydney with a store in Newtown. In 2004, there were six stores in the chain, by 2005 there were eight stores, fifty-five team members and a turnover of $4.4 million. In 2006 the turnover was $8 million. In 2008, they moved their operations from Fitzroy to a leased office in the Port Melbourne area. In August 2012, they leased a warehouse at 50 Cyanamid Street in Laverton North.
In September 2012, T2 leased a building at 35 Wellington Street in Collingwood, with the intention of relocating the head office to that location. In March 2012, Shearer declared that T2 were "being brave" in the difficult retail climate by continuing to expand their number of stores. In September 2012, the first Tasmanian T2 store was opened in Fiddle Arcade, Hobart. In May 2013, a T2 shop was opened at 269 Little Collins Street, after it was vacated by designer Bettina Liano due to rental costs; that same year, T2 opened a store in Cairns Central. In 2014, 18 new stores were opened. Three of the stores opened in one in New York City. A year a fourth London store was opened at 290 Regent Street, in the West End. In 2015, there were over seventy stores in four countries, around 1,000 team members. In 2017, the first T2 stores were opened in Scotland, in Singapore; as of November 2017, there are over 96 stores across Australia, New Zealand, the United States and Asia. Towards the end of 1996, O'Connor developed a custom tea blend for Geoff Lindsay's restaurant Stella.
The T2 ` Stella' blend was mentioned on the menu. After realising there was a huge opportunity supplying tea to restaurants, an untapped market, O'Connor created a wholesale division for T2. From mid-2000 T2 was supplying 300 restaurants in multiple states of Australia. By September that year the number had increased to 400 with a few international accounts. By mid 2001 the number of wholesale accounts had grown to 500. In 2015 there were 3000 wholesale accounts; the store design is focused on enjoyment in the rituals of tea-making, has been described as "...a modern version of an old wares store-cum-apothecary...". The first store had Chinese newspapers as wallpaper; the stores' interior design is moody, with orange and black as signature colours. T2's signature orange has been analysed as having vibrancy to appeal to a younger market while retaining simplicity for older tastes, to imply the colour of brewing tea without being murky or brown; the sensory experience includes tea tastings and "smelling table" product displays of the tea ingredients.
The design of the first T2 store in Scotland offered a tea "fountain" constructed from teaware. The ambience of the T2 stores inspired Sunshine Coast author Josephine Moon's debut 2014 novel The Tea Chest. T2's wide range of blends has been considered reflective of Australians' growing interest
TeaGschwendner is a chain of retail shops and European Bistros which sell loose leaf tea and tea accessories. The company started in Germany in 1978 and now operates in seven countries on four continents including three locations in the US; as it stands today, TeaGschwendner is the only owned tea merchant in the field of tea brokers. Coming out in the public markets in 2008 at the World Tea Expo, TeaGschwendner was the highest ranked tea merchant with 27/30 judged teas in a top three respective category; as of 2008, TeaGschwendner tea is being sold by independently owned small businesses, TeaHaus in Ann Arbor, MI. Known as: Tea Gschwendner and Der Teeladen. Company website
Bushells is Australia's first commercial tea company and is a coffee manufacturer. Bushells was founded by Alfred Bushell in 1883, his sons moved the enterprise to Sydney in 1899 and began selling tea commercially, founding Australia's first commercial tea seller. Bushells is produced by Unilever. Members of the Bushell family acquired the heritage-listed Sydney house, Carthona, in 1940. In 1998, Bushells was purchased by Unilever, is still owned by them as of 2014. In the 1980s the company diversified its Coffee manufacturing under the Bushells Coffee brand. In 1998, as part of an acquisition of coffee brands from Unilever, FreshFood Services Pty Ltd purchased the Bushells Coffee brand; the tea brand still remains with Unilever. The coffee continues to be produced at the Concord Factory. FreshFood purchased the New Zealand division of Bushells Coffee. FreshFood, the owner and operator of the Bushells Coffee Factory at 160 Burwood Road, has announced a long-term plan to close the existing Factory.
As of January 2018, planning is still in the early stages and the closure is at least 3-5 years away
History of tea in Japan
The history of tea in Japan began as early as the 9th century, when the first known references to tea were made in Japanese records. Tea became a drink of the religious classes in Japan when Japanese priests and envoys sent to China to learn about its culture brought tea to Japan; the Buddhist monks Saichō may have been the first to bring tea seeds to Japan. The first form of tea brought from China was brick tea. Tea became a drink of the royal classes when Emperor Saga, the Japanese emperor, encouraged the growth of tea plants. Seeds were imported from China, cultivation in Japan began. Tea consumption became popular among the gentry during the 12th century, after the publication of Eisai's Kissa Yōjōki. Uji, with its strategic location near the capital at Kyoto, became Japan's first major tea-producing region during this period. Beginning in the 13th and 14th centuries, Japanese tea culture developed the distinctive features for which it is known today, the Japanese tea ceremony emerged as a key component of that culture.
In the following centuries, production increased and tea became a staple of the general public. The development of sencha in the 18th century led to the creation of distinctive new styles of green tea which now dominate tea consumption in Japan. In the 19th and 20th centuries, industrialization and automation transformed the Japanese tea industry into a efficient operation, capable of producing large quantities of tea despite Japan's limited arable land area; the first Japanese contact with tea most occurred in the Nara period, when Japan sent several diplomatic missions to Chang'an, the capital of China's Tang dynasty. These early delegations brought back knowledge of Chinese culture and practices, as well as paintings and other artifacts; the Chakyō Shōsetsu indicates that Emperor Shōmu served powdered tea to a hundred monks in 729, but there is some uncertainty regarding the reliability of the text. In 804, the Buddhist monks Kūkai and Saichō arrived in China to study religion as part of a government-sponsored mission during the Heian period.
The Shōryōshū mentions. He returned to Japan in the year 806. Kūkai is the first to use the term chanoyu, which came to refer to the Japanese tea ceremony. Upon their return to Japan, Kūkai and Saichō founded the Shingon and Tendai schools of Buddhism, respectively. One or both of them are thought to have brought back the first tea seeds to Japan during this trip. Saichō, who returned in 805, is credited for being the first to plant tea seeds in Japan, although the documentary evidence is uncertain; the book Kuikū Kokushi records. This is the earliest reliable reference to tea drinking in Japan. Subsequently, the Emperor is said to have ordered the establishment of five tea plantations near the capital; the reign of Emperor Saga was characterized by his sinophilia. He was fond of Chinese poetry. Emperor Saga's poetry, that of others at his imperial court make references to the drinking of tea. Subsequent writings from the Heian period indicate that tea was cultivated and consumed on a small scale by Buddhist monks as part of their religious practice, that the imperial family and members of the nobility drank tea.
The practice, was not yet popular outside these circles. In the three centuries after Emperor Saga's death, interest in Tang Chinese culture declined, as did the practice of drinking tea. Records from this period continued to recognize its value as a medicinal beverage and stimulant, there are mentions of it being consumed with milk, a practice that subsequently died out; the form of tea consumed in Japan at this time was most brick tea, the standard form in China during the Tang dynasty. The world's first monograph on tea, Lu Yu's The Classic of Tea, was written a few decades before the time of Kūkai and Saichō. In it, Lu Yu describes the process for steaming and compressing the tea into bricks, as well as the process of grinding the tea into powder and stirring it to a froth in hot water prior to consumption; this procedure is thought to have evolved into the method of preparing powdered matcha that emerged in Japan. The Zen monk Eisai, founder of the Rinzai school of Buddhism, is credited for popularizing tea in Japan.
In 1191, Eisai returned from a trip to China and brought back tea seeds which he planted on the island of Hirado, in the mountains of Kyushu. He gave some seeds to the monk Myōe, abbot of the Kōzan-ji temple in Kyoto. Myōe planted these seeds in Toganoo and Uji, which became the sites of the first large scale cultivation of tea in Japan. At first, Toganoo tea was seen as the finest in Japan, was called "real tea", as opposed to "non-tea" produced elsewhere in Japan. By the 15th century, Uji tea surpassed that of Toganoo, the terms honcha and hicha came to refer to Uji tea and non-Uji tea, respectively. In 1211, Eisai wrote the first edition of the first Japanese treatise on tea; the Kissa Yōjōki promotes the drinking of tea for health purposes. It opens with the statement; the preface describes. Eisai subscribed to a theory that the five organs each preferred foods with different flavors, he concluded that because tea is bitter, "the heart loves bitter things", it would
Bewley's is an Irish hot beverage company, located in Dublin and founded in 1840, which operates internationally. Its primary business operations are the production of tea and the operations of cafés. Bewley's has operations in the UK and the United States; the Bewley family were Quakers who originated in Cumberland and moved to Ireland in the 17th century. They entered the tea trade, in 1835, Samuel Bewley and his son Charles landed 2,099 chests of tea shipped from Canton in China; the Bewley family subsequently expanded into the coffee trade and in the late 19th century, they opened cafes in South Great George's Street in 1894, Westmoreland Street in 1896. The flagship Grafton Street café was opened by Ernest Bewley in 1927; the Grafton Street building had once housed Whyte's Academy, a school whose pupils included the Duke of Wellington and Robert Emmet. By 1999, the company operated more than twenty cafes in six overseas. In 2010 they employed around 800 people worldwide, although 140 jobs were lost in early 2015 with the closure of the Bewley's Oriental Cafe on Grafton Street in Dublin.
In May 2018, Bewley's launched 100% recyclable cups. The company has operated a café on Dublin's Grafton Street since 1927. Sometimes described as a "Dublin landmark", this outlet closed in November 2004, before reopening in May 2005 after refurbishment and restoration. In 2007, its lease was challenged by the landlord, Ickendel Limited after extensive works were carried out to the historic building without landlord consent; the Grafton Street premises closed again for refurbishment in February 2015, with works that were expected to reduce the capacity of the café by half. By October of that year, Bewley's announced that the length of the closure would extend, by mid-2016, the date of reopening had been pushed back to the end of 2016. On 1 November 2017, Bewley's Grafton Street was reopened after the "1000 day" multimillion-euro refurbishment; the company acquired the Rebecca's Cafe chain in the Boston, Massachusetts area in 1997, expanded to the west coast in 2000 with the purchase of the Java City brand.
Bewley's entered the UK market in 2011 following the acquisition of speciality coffee supplier, Darlington's before acquiring Bolling Coffee in 2013 and UK foodservice distributor, Peros in 2015. Bewley's Hotels were a chain of hotels using the Bewley's trademark both in Ireland and in the United Kingdom; this brand licensing agreement ended by mid-2015. List of coffeehouse chains Coffee portal Official website
Zealong is a New Zealand tea company based in Hamilton, New Zealand, where local climate and lack of heavy frost aid in growing the camellia sinensis tea plant and encouraged initial propagation trials in 1996. It is the first commercial tea plantation in New Zealand, they specialise in high-quality loose teas, green and black, are organic or conversion organic certified, Halal certified, ISO 22000 / HACCP certified. In January 2010, the company opened a restaurant on Camellia Tea House; the same year, Zealong gift boxes have been voted world's best packaging by The Dieline, the world's #1 package design website. A successful export company and a Waikato icon cited for its innovative approach and support to local economy, Zealong has triggered overseas medias' curiosity in China and Taiwan, where this type of tea originates from. Popular New Zealand investigation programme Campbell live showcased Zealong in 2009 and case-studied the company as part of their subject on counterfeit products and the historical drought that hit the country in 2013.
In September 2016, Zealong signed an export agreement with German tea retailer TeeGschwendner. Official website