Rapid City, South Dakota
Rapid City is the second most populous city in South Dakota and the county seat of Pennington County. Named after Rapid Creek, on which the city is established, it is set against the eastern slope of the Black Hills mountain range; the population was 67,956 as of the 2010 Census. Known as the "Gateway to the Black Hills" due to its location and the "City of Presidents" because of the life-size bronze president statues located downtown. Rapid City is split by a low mountain ridge that divides the eastern parts of the city. Ellsworth Air Force Base is located on the outskirts of the city. Camp Rapid, a part of the South Dakota Army National Guard, is located in the western part of the city. Rapid City is home to popular attractions like Art Alley, Dinosaur Park, the City of Presidents walking tour, Chapel in the Hills, Storybook Island, Main Street Square and more; the historic "Old West" town of Deadwood is nearby. In the neighboring Black Hills are the popular tourist attractions of Mount Rushmore, the Crazy Horse Memorial, Custer State Park, Wind Cave National Park, Jewel Cave National Monument, the museum at the Black Hills Institute of Geological Research, to the east of the city is Badlands National Park.
The public discovery of gold in 1874 by the Black Hills Expedition brought a mass influx of settlers into the Black Hills region of South Dakota. Rapid City was founded, known as "Hay Camp", in 1876 by a group of disappointed miners, who promoted their new city as the "Gateway to the Black Hills", a nickname the city now shares with neighboring Box Elder. John Richard Brennan and Samuel Scott, with a small group of men, laid out the site of the present Rapid City in February 1876, named for the spring-fed Rapid Creek that flows through it. A square mile was measured off and the six blocks in the center were designated as a business section. Committees were appointed to bring in prospective merchants and their families to locate in the new settlement; the city soon began selling supplies to pioneers. Its location on the edge of the Plains and Hills and its large river valley made it the natural hub of railroads arriving in the late 1880s from both the south and east. By 1900, Rapid City had survived a boom and bust and was establishing itself as an important regional trade center for the upper midwest.
Although the Black Hills became a popular tourist destination in the late 1890s, it was a combination of local efforts, the popularity of the automobile, construction of improved highways that brought tourists to the Black Hills in large numbers after World War I. Gutzon Borglum a famous sculptor, began work on Mount Rushmore in 1927 and his son, Lincoln Borglum, continued the carving of the presidents' faces in rock following his father's death in 1941; the work was halted due to pressures leading to the US entry into World War II and the massive sculpture was declared complete in 1941. Although tourism sustained the city throughout the Great Depression of the 1930s, the gasoline rationing of World War II had a devastating effect on the tourist industry in the town, but this was more than made up for by the war-related growth. In 1930, the Rapid City Chamber of Commerce sent a letter inviting Al Capone to live in the Black Hills. South Dakota's governor did not support the idea, neither did Capone, as he declined to relocate to the area.
The city benefited from the opening of Rapid City Army Air Base Ellsworth Air Force Base, an Army Air Corps training base. As a result, the population of the area nearly doubled between 1940 and 1948, from 14,000 to nearly 27,000 people. Military families and civilian personnel soon took every available living space in town, mobile home parks proliferated. Rapid City businesses profited from the military payroll. During the Cold War, missile installations proliferated in the area: a series of Nike Air Defense sites were constructed around Ellsworth in the 1950s. In the early 60s the construction of three Titan missile launch sites containing a total of nine Titan I missiles in the general vicinity of Rapid City took place. Beginning in November 1963, the land for a hundred miles east and northwest of the city was dotted with 150 Minuteman missile silos and 15 launch command centers, all of which were deactivated in the early 1990s. In 1949, city officials envisioned the city as a retail and wholesale trade center for the region and designed a plan for growth that focused on a civic center, more downtown parking places, new schools, paved streets.
A construction boom continued into the 1950s. Growth slowed in the 1960s, but the worst natural disaster in South Dakota history, the Black Hills Flood of 1972, led to another building boom a decade later. On June 9, 1972, heavy rains caused massive flash flooding along the course of Rapid Creek through the city. 238 people lost more than $100 million in property was destroyed. The devastation of the flood and the outpouring of private donations and millions of dollars in federal aid led to the completion of one big part of the 1949 plan: clearing the area along the Rapid Creek and making it a public park. New homes and businesses were constructed to replace those, destroyed. Rushmore Plaza Civic Center and a new Central High School were built in part of the area, cleared; the new Central High School opened in 1978, with the graduating class in that year straddling both the original Central and the new Central. The rebuilding in part insulated Rapid City from the drop in automotive tourism caused by the Oil Embargo in 1974, but tourism was depressed for most of a decade.
In 1978, Rushmore Mall was built on the north edge of the city, adding to the city's position as a retail shoppin
Watertown, South Dakota
Watertown is a city in and the county seat of Codington County, South Dakota, United States. The population was 21,482 at the 2010 census, it is the fifth largest city in South Dakota. It is the principal city of the Watertown Micropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Codington and Hamlin counties. Watertown is home to the Redlin Art Center which houses many of the original art works produced by Terry Redlin, one of America's most popular wildlife artists. Watertown is home to the Bramble Park Zoo and the Watertown Regional Library; the Watertown Public Opinion is a six-day daily newspaper published in Watertown. Watertown's residential real estate is considered the most expensive in South Dakota for cities of its size. Watertown is located at 44°54′12″N 97°7′14″W, along the Big Sioux River. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 25.04 square miles, of which, 17.45 square miles is land and 7.59 square miles is water. Watertown sits on two major lakes, Pelican Lake and Lake Kampeska.
Most of Watertown sits upon a short plateau. Elevation at Watertown Regional Airport is 1,745 feet. Watertown has been assigned the ZIP code 57201 and the FIPS place code 69300. Watertown was founded in 1879 as a rail terminus when the Chicago & Northwestern Railroad reactivated part of a line it had constructed to Lake Kampeska. Despite the prominence of rivers and lakes in the area, the city was named after Watertown, New York, the hometown of brothers John E. Kemp and Oscar P. Kemp, two of the city's founders; the town's name was planned to be named Kampeska. During the 1880s, Watertown prospered as a transportation hub after the railroads had been extended farther west. Along with several other cities, Watertown had been a candidate as capital of the new state of South Dakota, although it lost out to the more centrally located Pierre; the city's current newspaper, the Watertown Public Opinion, began publishing in 1887. In the mid-20th century, Interstate 29 was constructed through eastern South Dakota.
The route included a slight bend to bring the interstate closer to Watertown. The interstate's construction has been a major economic benefit to the larger communities along its route, including Watertown; the per capita income for the city was $18,994. About 5.7% of families and 9.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 8.5% of those under age 18 and 11.0% of those age 65 or over. As of the census of 2010, there were 21,482 people, 9,278 households, 5,563 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,231.1 inhabitants per square mile. There were 10,050 housing units at an average density of 575.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.8% White, 0.4% African American, 2.4% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.5% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.6% of the population. There were 9,278 households of which 29.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.7% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 40.0% were non-families.
33.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.4% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.90. The median age in the city was 36.6 years. 24.2% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 49.2% male and 50.8% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 20,237 people, 8,385 households, 5,290 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,328.9 people per square mile. There were 9,193 housing units at an average density of 603.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.25% White, 0.14% African American, 1.65% Native American, 0.33% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.71% from other races, 0.90% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.28% of the population. 47.1 % were of 5.9 % Irish ancestry. 96.5 % spoke 1.7 % Spanish and 1.1 % German as their first language. There were 8,385 households out of which 31.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.6% were married couples living together, 8.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.9% were non-families.
30.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.98. In the city, the population was spread out with 25.9% under the age of 18, 11.3% from 18 to 24, 27.9% from 25 to 44, 19.9% from 45 to 64, 15.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females, there were 96.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.9 males. Watertown has two institutions providing post-secondary education. Lake Area Technical Institute is a public technical school classified as a community college, offering degrees in areas such as Agriculture and Welding. There is a satellite campus of Mount Marty College, a private Catholic school based in Yankton, South Dakota. Watertown has one public high school, Watertown High School, one private boarding school, Great Plains Lutheran High School, of the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod. Watertown is considered one of the best cities for secondary education within the state and is considered above-average for post-secondary education within the state.
Watertown Middle Sc
Mitchell, South Dakota
Mitchell is a city in and the county seat of Davison County, South Dakota, United States. The population was 15,254 at the 2010 census. Mitchell is the principal city of the Mitchell Micropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Davison and Hanson counties; the first settlement at Mitchell was made in 1879. Mitchell was incorporated in 1883, it was named for Milwaukee banker Alexander Mitchell, President of the Chicago, St. Paul Railroad. Mitchell is located at 43°42′50″N 98°1′35″W, on the James River. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 12.14 square miles, of which, 11.14 square miles is land and 1.00 square mile is water. Mitchell has been assigned the ZIP code 57301 and the FIPS place code 43100. Mitchell has a humid continental climate, like much of the Midwestern United States, with cold, sometimes snowy winters, hot, sometimes humid summers. Average daytime summer temperatures range from 86 °F during the day, 62 °F during the night, winter daytime temperatures average 26 °F during the day, 4 °F during the night.
Most of the precipitation falls during the summer months, the wettest month being June, with an average of 3.52 inches of rain, the driest month is January, with only 0.47 inches of rain. Mitchell is located in Tornado Alley, so thunderstorms spawning tornadoes, can be expected; the campus of Dakota Wesleyan University is located in southwest Mitchell. As of the census of 2010, there were 15,254 people, 6,696 households, 3,641 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,369.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 7,120 housing units at an average density of 639.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 93.6% White, 0.5% African American, 3.0% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 0.6% from other races, 1.8% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.7% of the population. There were 6,696 households of which 26.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.1% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 45.6% were non-families.
38.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.16 and the average family size was 2.88. The median age in the city was 36.8 years. 22.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.8% male and 51.2% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 14,558 people, 6,121 households, 3,599 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,475.7 people per square mile. There were 6,555 housing units at an average density of 664.4 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.63% White, 0.32% African American, 2.40% Native American, 0.45% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 0.29% from other races, 0.87% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.77% of the population. There were 6,121 households out of which 28.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.6% were married couples living together, 9.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.2% were non-families.
34.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.95. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.1% under the age of 18, 13.4% from 18 to 24, 25.3% from 25 to 44, 19.6% from 45 to 64, 17.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.4 males. As of 2000 the median income for a household in the city was $31,308, the median income for a family was $43,095. Males had a median income of $30,881 versus $20,794 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,888. About 8.8% of families and 12.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 12.7% of those under age 18 and 10.9% of those age 65 or over. Mitchell is home of the Corn Palace; the Corn Palace is decorated with several colors of dried corn and grains. The theme of the external murals is changed yearly at fall harvest.
The building itself is used for several purposes including a basketball arena, the local high school prom, trade shows, staged entertainment, the Shriner's Circus. Mitchell is the home of the Dakota Discovery Museum, whose mission is to present and preserve the history of the prairie and the people who settled it; the museum covers the time period from 1600, when the Native Americans were still undiscovered, to 1939, the end of the Great Depression. The museum holds one of the most complete and pristine collections of American Indian quill and bead-works; the Dakota Discovery Museum features artists such as Harvey Dunn, James Earle Fraser, Charles Hargens and Oscar Howe. In the village area behind the main building are four authentic historical buildings, including an 1885 one-room school house and the furnished 1886 Victorian-Italianate home of the co-founder of the Corn Palace, Louis Beckwith. Two new features of the museum are Discovery Land, a hands-on activity area for children ages five to ten, the Heritage Gardens Project, which brings indigenous plants to the gardens surrounding the museum and historical buildings.
The Mitchell Prehistoric India
Mobridge, South Dakota
Mobridge is a city in Walworth County, South Dakota, United States. The population was 3,465 according to a 2010 census. Located in territory that had long been occupied by the Lakota Sioux, Mobridge was founded by European Americans in 1906 following construction of the railroad through here; the town was named Mobridge for its railroad designation, a contracted form of Missouri Bridge, after the original railroad bridge over the Missouri River. The bridge was demolished by the Corps of Engineers in the early 1960s and replaced by a higher bridge due to the construction of the Oahe Dam. There are disputed claims that some or all of chief Sitting Bull's remains were moved by his surviving relatives and the Dakota Memorial Association on April 8, 1953 from Fort Yates, North Dakota, where he had been killed and buried, to Mobridge, near his birthplace; the Mobridge burial site is marked by a monument consisting of his bust on a granite pedestal. It was dedicated by the Dakota Memorial Association on April 11, 1953.
The Brown Palace Hotel in Mobridge is listed on the U. S. National Register of Historic Places. Artist Oscar Howe painted a mural for the town's auditorium. Mobridge is located at 45°32′23″N 100°26′05″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.89 square miles, all land. Mobridge has been assigned the ZIP code 57601 and the FIPS place code 43180; as of the census of 2010, there were 3,465 people, 1,514 households, 898 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,833.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,727 housing units at an average density of 913.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 75.7% White, 0.2% African American, 20.5% Native American, 0.4% Asian, 0.2% from other races, 3.1% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.8% of the population. There were 1,514 households of which 27.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.5% were married couples living together, 11.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 40.7% were non-families.
34.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.22 and the average family size was 2.86. The median age in the city was 44 years. 23.6% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 48.1% male and 51.9% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,574 people, 1,545 households, 948 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,009.4 people per square mile. There were 1,808 housing units at an average density of 1,016.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 79.52% White, 0.03% African American, 18.13% Native American, 0.22% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 0.08% from other races, 1.96% from two or more races. 0.84% of the population is Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 1,545 households out of which 26.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.5% were married couples living together, 11.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.6% were non-families.
35.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.88. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.3% under the age of 18, 7.4% from 18 to 24, 22.8% from 25 to 44, 23.2% from 45 to 64, 22.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.1 males. As of 2000 the median income for a household in the city was $25,583, the median income for a family was $31,026. Males had a median income of $22,727 versus $16,990 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,921. About 18.1% of families and 21.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.2% of those under age 18 and 15.4% of those age 65 or over. KPRY-TV Ch. 4 ABC KFYR-TV Ch. 5 NBC KQSD-TV Ch. 11 PBS KXMB-TV Ch. 12 CBS Mobridge Tribune James R. Carrigan, United State District Court judge and Colorado Supreme Court justice Bill Mott, National Museum of Racing and Hall of Fame thoroughbred trainer One World Direct Media related to Mobridge, South Dakota at Wikimedia Commons
South Dakota Public Broadcasting
South Dakota Public Broadcasting is a state network of non-commercial educational television and radio stations serving the U. S. state of South Dakota. The stations are operated by the South Dakota Bureau of Information and Telecommunication, an agency of the state government which holds the licenses for all of the Public Broadcasting Service and National Public Radio member stations licensed in South Dakota except KRSD in Sioux Falls, owned and run by Minnesota Public Radio, KAUR in Sioux Falls, owned by Augustana University and operated by MPR. SDPB's studios and offices are located in the Al Neuharth Media Center at 500 N. Dakota Avenue on the University of South Dakota campus in Vermillion. Educational broadcasting in South Dakota began in 1919 with experimental broadcasts at USD's College of Engineering. USD was granted a full license in 1922, went on the air that May 29 as WEAJ, it became KUSD in 1925. By 1952, the station settled at 690 AM at 1,000 watts, operating only during daylight hours to protect CBF in Montreal.
In 1967, it acquired an FM sister station, KUSD-FM at 89.7. In 1967, South Dakota State University in Brookings signed on KESD-FM; the three stations merged in 1982 as South Dakota Public Radio. On July 5, 1961, KUSD-TV signed on the air as the state's first educational television station. Seven more stations signed on from 1967 to 1975, extending its reach to parts of Iowa. South Dakota Public Radio merged with the State Board of Directors for Educational Television, which operated the television network, in 1985 to form South Dakota Public Broadcasting under the ownership of the Bureau of Information and Telecommunication. Between 1985 and 1991, five other stations joined the radio network. One of them was KCSD, which signed on in 1985 as part of a partnership between Sioux Falls College and the ETV Board in an effort to improve the network's reception in South Dakota's largest city; until 2013, KCSD's license was held by the University of Sioux Falls and operated by the state network under a management agreement.
The network bought KCSD outright in 2013. In 1992, a Chevrolet Suburban went on a joyride through the Vermillion Golf Course, where KUSD-AM's towers were located; the Suburban knocked it down. The insurance settlement was not large enough to restore full operations, KUSD-AM went off the air for good in 1994. KUSD-TV's signal had long been spotty in parts of Sioux Falls though the channel 2 analog signal traveled a long distance under normal conditions; some parts of the area didn't get a clear signal from KUSD-TV until cable gained more penetration in the 1980s. To solve this problem, KCSD-TV signed on in 1995 improving coverage in the state's largest city, it was that KCSD-TV would have been necessary in any event due to the digital transition, since FCC rules required a station's digital signal to cover at least 80 percent of its analog footprint. As of February 2017, SDPR now broadcasts the main network over the fifth subcarrier of the SDPB Television stations, classical music on the television stations' sixth subcarrier.
South Dakota Public Radio airs a mix of news and talk from NPR, Public Radio International, American Public Media, the BBC World Service and other sources. Stations in the lineup include: South Dakota Public Radio rebroadcasts on the following translator stations: In March 2007, South Dakota Public Radio started broadcasting on HD Radio. Television stations included in the state network are: The television programming from SDPB is rebroadcast on the following low-power translator stations: The digital signals of SDPB's TV stations are multiplexed: During 2009, in the lead-up to the analog-to-digital television transition that would occur on June 12, SDPB shut down the analog transmitters of its stations on a staggered basis. Listed below are the dates each analog transmitter ceased operations as well as their post-transition channel allocations: KUSD-TV shut down its analog signal, over VHF channel 2, on February 17, 2009, the original date in which full-power television stations in the United States were to transition from analog to digital broadcasts under federal mandate.
The station's digital signal remained on its pre-transition UHF channel 34. Through the use of PSIP, digital television receivers display the station's virtual channel as its former VHF analog channel 2. KBHE-TV shut down its analog signal, over VHF channel 9, on February 17, 2009; the station's digital signal remained on its pre-transition UHF channel 26. Through the use of PSIP, digital television receivers display the station's virtual channel as its former VHF analog channel 9. KCSD-TV shut down its analog signal, over UHF channel 23, on February 17, 2009; the station's digital signal remained on its pre-transition UHF channel 24. Through the use of PSIP, digital television receivers display the station's virtual channel as its former UHF analog channel 23. KDSD-TV shut down its analog signal, over UHF channel 16, on February 17, 2009; the station's digital signal remained on its pre-transition UHF channel 17. Through the use of PSIP, digital television receivers display the station's virtual channel as its former UHF analog channel 16.
KESD-TV shut down its analog signal, over VHF channel 8, on February 17, 2009. The station's digital signal relocated from its pre-transition UHF channel 18 to VHF channel 8 for post-transition operations. KPSD-TV shut down its analog signal, over VHF channel 13, on June 12, 2009, the official date in which full-power television stations in the United States transitioned from analog to digital broadcasts under
American Broadcasting Company
The American Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcast television network, a flagship property of Walt Disney Television, a subsidiary of the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company. The network is headquartered in Burbank, California on Riverside Drive, directly across the street from Walt Disney Studios and adjacent to the Roy E. Disney Animation Building, But the network's second corporate headquarters and News headquarters remains in New York City, New York at their broadcast center on 77 West 66th Street in Lincoln Square in Upper West Side Manhattan. Since 2007, when ABC Radio was sold to Citadel Broadcasting, ABC has reduced its broadcasting operations exclusively to television; the fifth-oldest major broadcasting network in the world and the youngest of the Big Three television networks, ABC is nicknamed as "The Alphabet Network", as its initialism represents the first three letters of the English alphabet, in order. ABC launched as a radio network on October 12, 1943, serving as the successor to the NBC Blue Network, purchased by Edward J. Noble.
It extended its operations to television in 1948, following in the footsteps of established broadcast networks CBS and NBC. In the mid-1950s, ABC merged with United Paramount Theatres, a chain of movie theaters that operated as a subsidiary of Paramount Pictures. Leonard Goldenson, the head of UPT, made the new television network profitable by helping develop and greenlight many successful series. In the 1980s, after purchasing an 80 percent interest in cable sports channel ESPN, the network's corporate parent, American Broadcasting Companies, Inc. merged with Capital Cities Communications, owner of several print publications, television and radio stations. In 1996, most of Capital Cities/ABC's assets were purchased by The Walt Disney Company; the television network has eight owned-and-operated and over 232 affiliated television stations throughout the United States and its territories. Some of the ABC-affiliated stations can be seen in Canada via pay-television providers, certain other affiliates can be received over-the-air in areas within the Canada–United States border.
ABC News provides news and features content for select radio stations owned by Citadel Broadcasting, which purchased the ABC Radio properties in 2007. In the 1930s, radio in the United States was dominated by three companies: the Columbia Broadcasting System, the Mutual Broadcasting System, the National Broadcasting Company; the last was owned by electronics manufacturer Radio Corporation of America, which owned two radio networks that each ran different varieties of programming, NBC Blue and NBC Red. The NBC Blue Network was created in 1927 for the primary purpose of testing new programs on markets of lesser importance than those served by NBC Red, which served the major cities, to test drama series. In 1934, Mutual filed a complaint with the Federal Communications Commission regarding its difficulties in establishing new stations, in a radio market, being saturated by NBC and CBS. In 1938, the FCC began a series of investigations into the practices of radio networks and published its report on the broadcasting of network radio programs in 1940.
The report recommended that RCA give up control of either NBC NBC Blue. At that time, the NBC Red Network was the principal radio network in the United States and, according to the FCC, RCA was using NBC Blue to eliminate any hint of competition. Having no power over the networks themselves, the FCC established a regulation forbidding licenses to be issued for radio stations if they were affiliated with a network which owned multiple networks that provided content of public interest. Once Mutual's appeals against the FCC were rejected, RCA decided to sell NBC Blue in 1941, gave the mandate to do so to Mark Woods. RCA converted the NBC Blue Network into an independent subsidiary, formally divorcing the operations of NBC Red and NBC Blue on January 8, 1942, with the Blue Network being referred to on-air as either "Blue" or "Blue Network"; the newly separated NBC Red and NBC Blue divided their respective corporate assets. Between 1942 and 1943, Woods offered to sell the entire NBC Blue Network, a package that included leases on landlines, three pending television licenses, 60 affiliates, four operations facilities, contracts with actors, the brand associated with the Blue Network.
Investment firm Dillon, Read & Co. offered $7.5 million to purchase the network, but the offer was rejected by Woods and RCA president David Sarnoff. Edward J. Noble, the owner of Life Savers candy, drugstore chain Rexall and New York City radio station WMCA, purchased the network for $8 million. Due to FCC ownership rules, the transaction, to include the purchase of three RCA stations by Noble, would require him to resell his station with the FCC's approval; the Commission authorized the transaction on October 12, 1943. Soon afterward, the Blue Network was purchased by the new company Noble founded, the American Broadcasting System. Noble subsequently acquired the rights to the American Broadcasting Company name from George B. Storer in 1944. Meanwhile, in August 1944, the West Coast division of the Blue Network, which owned San Francisco radio station KGO, bought Los Angeles station KECA f
Aberdeen, South Dakota
Aberdeen is a city in and the county seat of Brown County, South Dakota, United States, about 125 miles northeast of Pierre. The city population was 26,091 at the 2010 census, making it the third most populous city in the state after Sioux Falls and Rapid City. Aberdeen is the principal city of the Aberdeen Micropolitan Statistical Area, which includes all of Brown and Edmunds counties and has a population of 40,602 in 2010. Aberdeen is considered a college town, being the home of both Northern State University and Presentation College. Before Aberdeen or Brown County was inhabited by European settlers, it was inhabited by the Sioux Indians from 1700 to 1879. Europeans entered the region for business, founding fur trading posts during the 1820s; the first "settlers" of this region were the Arikara Indians, but they would be joined by others. The first group of Euro-American settlers to reach the area, now Brown County was a party of four people, three horses, two mules, fifteen cattle, two wagons.
This group of settlers was joined by another group the following spring, more settlers migrated toward this general area known as Columbia, South Dakota. This town was established on June 15, 1879; the town was settled in 1880, incorporated in 1882. Aberdeen, like many towns of the Midwest, was built around the newly developing railroad systems. Aberdeen was first plotted as a town site on January 3, 1881, by Charles Prior, the superintendent of the Minneapolis office of the Chicago, St. Paul Railroad, or the Milwaukee Road for short, presided over by Alexander Mitchell. Mitchell, Charles Prior's boss, was responsible for the choice of town names, was born in Aberdeen, after which the town of Aberdeen, South Dakota, was named. Aberdeen was founded on July 6, 1881, the date of the first arrival of a Milwaukee Railroad train. Aberdeen operated under a city charter granted by the Territorial Legislature in March 1883; as Aberdeen grew, many businesses and buildings were constructed along Aberdeen's Main Street.
However, this soon became a problem due to Aberdeen's periodic flooding, which led to it being referred to as "The Town in the Frog Pond". At first, this unique condition presented no problem to the newly constructed buildings because it had not rained much but, when heavy rains fell, the Pond reappeared and flooded the basements of every building on Main Street, causing many business owners and home owners much turmoil; when this flooding happened, the city had one steam-powered pump that had to be used to dry out the entire area, flooded, which would take days, if not weeks – and more than not, it would have rained again in this time period and caused more flooding in the basements, emptied of the water. When the water was gone from the basements, the city still had to deal with the mud that resulted from the heavy rains; the city decided in 1882 to build an artesian ditch to control the "Frog Pond" effects. The artesian well was designed by the city engineers to develop a water system. However, during the digging of the well, the water stream, found underground was too powerful to be contained.
The water came blasting out with violent force and had the entire Main Street submerged in up to four feet of water. The engineers realized the previous flaws of the artesian well plan and soon added a gate valve to the well to control the flow of water, giving Aberdeen its first working water supply. Aberdeen had four different railroad companies with depots built in the newly developing town. With these four railroads intersecting here, Aberdeen soon became known as the "Hub City of the Dakotas"; when looking down on Aberdeen from above, the railroad tracks converging in Aberdeen resembled the spokes of a wheel converging at a hub, hence the name "Hub City of the Dakotas". These four railroad companies are the reason why Aberdeen was able to flourish as it did; the only railroad still running through Aberdeen is the Burlington Northern Santa Fe. On October 25, 1999, a Learjet 35 carrying golfing star Payne Stewart crashed in a field near Mina, 10 miles west of Aberdeen. All on board died. Aberdeen is located in northeastern South Dakota, in the James River valley 11 miles west of the river.
The James River enters northeastern South Dakota in Brown County, where it is dammed to form two reservoirs northeast of Aberdeen. The city is bisected by Moccasin Creek, a slow-moving waterway which flows south and northeast to the James River. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 15.60 square miles, of which 15.50 square miles is land and 0.10 square miles is water. Aberdeen has been assigned the ZIP code range 57401−57402. Aberdeen experiences a humid continental climate influenced by its position far from moderating bodies of water; this brings four distinct seasons, a phenomenon, characterized by hot humid summers and cold, dry winters, it lies in USDA Hardiness Zone 4. The monthly daily average temperature ranges from 12.0 °F in January to 71.3 °F in July, while there are 13 days of 90 °F + highs and 37 days with sub-0 °F lows annually. Snowfall occurs in light to moderate amounts during the winter, totaling 38 inches. Precipitation, at 21.7 inches annually, is concentrated in the warmer months.
Extreme temperatures have ranged from −46 °F on January 12, 1912, F