Vantaa is a city and municipality in Finland. It is part of the core of the Finnish Capital Region along with Helsinki, Espoo. With a population of 215,813, Vantaa is the fourth most populated city of Finland. Vantaa is bordered by Helsinki, the Finnish capital, to the south, Espoo to the southwest, Nurmijärvi to the northwest and Tuusula to the north, the city encompasses 238.36 square kilometres, of which 1.97 km2 is water. The largest airport in Finland, and the airport and airline hub of Greater Helsinki. Companies with headquarters in Vantaa include Finnair, Air Finland, Blue1, R-kioski, Tikkurila Oyj, Veikkaus Oy, the city hosts a science center, Heureka. The city of Vantaa is bilingual, both Finnish and Swedish being official languages,88. 6% of the population are Finnish speakers, while 3% speak Swedish as their first language. 8. 4% of the population speak a language other than Finnish or Swedish. Prior to the name Vantaa being taken into use in 1974, the earliest record of the area is as Helsinge in 1351 when king Magnus II of Sweden granted salmon fishing rights on the river Vantaa to the Estonian Padise monastery.
The rapids of river Vantaa were known as Helsingfors, from which the current Swedish name of Helsinki derives, early settlement in Vantaa was centered around the river, and from it the citys current coat of arms derived its imagery. Since the 14th century, the road between Turku and Vyborg, Kings Road, has run through Vantaa, the road brought significant attention to the city, and its location on the salmon rich river led to a permanent population. Ore deposits in Helsingin Pitäjä had been discovered in the 1700s, ore extraction and processing lead to rapid industrialization in the area, with communities forming around locations like Tikkurila and Kerava. The industrial community in Tikkurila included an expeller pressing plant, which operates in the area as the paint manufacturer Tikkurila Oyj. In 1862, the railway between Helsinki and Hämeenlinna was constructed, and one of its seven stations was built in Tikkurila, the railway brought industry and induced population growth. Helsingin Pitäjä gained municipality rights in 1865, after which it was named Helsingin maalaiskunta, in 1952, the new international airport of Helsinki opened in Vantaa for the 1952 summer olympics.
In 1972, the municipality was renamed Vantaa and promoted to a köping, in 1974, the town got full city rights as Vantaan kaupunki/Vanda stad or City of Vantaa. The city grew rapidly starting from 1960s and a line was built to the western side of the city in 1970s. On October 112002, a bomb exploded in the mall of Myyrmanni in Myyrmäki district, killing 7, in 2015, an extension to the existing railway line, the Ring Rail Line opened, providing service to the airport and new residential and working districts
Tampere is a city in Pirkanmaa, southern Finland. It is the most populous city in any of the Nordic countries. The city has a population of 223,292 growing to 313,058 people in the urban area, Tampere is the second-largest urban area and third most-populous individual municipality in the country, after Helsinki and Espoo municipalities. Its the most populous Finnish city outside the Greater Helsinki area and inner Finlands major urban, Tampere is between two lakes, Näsijärvi and Pyhäjärvi. Since the two differ in level by 18 metres, the rapids linking them, have been an important power source throughout history. Tampere is dubbed the Manchester of Finland for its industrial past as the center of Finnish industry. Helsinki is approximately 160 kilometres south of Tampere, and can be reached in 1.5 hours by train and 2 hours by car, the distance to Turku is roughly the same. Tampere–Pirkkala Airport is Finlands third-busiest airport, with over 400,000 passengers annually, there have been many debates on the origin of the name Tampere.
One theory is that it comes from the Swedish word damber, other suggestions have been the Swedish tamper-dagar, fasting days, and the Finnish word tammi. Although the name Tampere or its Swedish counterparts Tammer- part cannot be completely confirmed, Tampere was founded as a market place on the banks of the Tammerkoski channel in 1775 by Gustav III of Sweden and four years later,1 October 1779, Tampere was granted full city rights. At this time, it was a small town, consisting of only a few square kilometres of land around the Tammerkoski. Tampere grew as a market town and industrial centre in the 19th century. The towns industrial nature in the 19th and 20th centuries gave it the nickname Manchester of the North, Tampere was the centre of many important political events of Finland in the early 20th century. On 1 November 1905, during the strike, the famous Red Declaration was proclaimed on the Keskustori. In 1918, when Finland had recently gained independence, Tampere played a major role, Tampere was a red stronghold during the war, with Hugo Salmela in command.
White forces captured the town after the Battle of Tampere, seizing about 10,000 Red prisoners on 6 April 1918, prevalent in Tamperes post-World War II municipal politics was the Brothers-in-Arms Axis. From 2007 on, Tampere switched to a new model of having a mayor and four deputy mayors, timo P. Nieminen was elected by the city council as the first mayor of Tampere for the years 2007–09. He was re-elected in 2009 and was succeeded by Anna-Kaisa Ikonen in 2013, after World War II, Tampere was enlarged by joining some neighbouring areas
Gothenburg is the second-largest city in Sweden and the fifth-largest in the Nordic countries. Situated by Kattegat, on the west coast of Sweden, the city has a population of approximately 550,000 in the urban area, Gothenburg was founded as a heavily fortified, primarily Dutch, trading colony, by royal charter in 1621 by King Gustavus Adolphus. At a key location at the mouth of the Göta älv, where Scandinavias largest drainage basin enters the sea. Gothenburg is home to students, as the city includes the University of Gothenburg. Volvo was founded in Gothenburg in 1927, the original, parent Volvo Group and the now separate Volvo Car Corporation are still headquartered on the island of Hisingen in the city. Other key companies are SKF and Astra Zeneca, Gothenburg is served by Göteborg Landvetter Airport 30 km southeast of the city center. The smaller Göteborg City Airport,15 km from the city center, was closed to airline traffic in 2015. The city hosts some of the largest annual events in Scandinavia, the Gothenburg Film Festival, held in January since 1979, is the leading Scandinavian film festival with over 155,000 visitors each year.
In summer, a variety of music festivals are held in the city, such as Way Out West. The city was named after the Geats, the inhabitants of Gothia, the river on which the city sits is the Göta älv or Gothia River. Göta borg Gothia Fortress is the fort on the Göta Älv, in Dutch and English, all languages with a long history in this trade and maritime-oriented city, the name Gothenburg is used for the city. The French form of the city name is Gothembourg, but in French texts, Gothenburg can be seen in some older English texts. In Spanish the city is called Gotemburgo and these traditional forms are sometimes replaced with the use of the Swedish Göteborg, for example by The Göteborg Opera and the Göteborg Ballet. However, Göteborgs universitet, previously designated as the Göteborg University in English, the Gothenburg municipality has reverted to the use of the English name in international contexts. Other old variations in Swedish are Götheborgh, and the more common Götheborg, one English text, written in the late 15th century, states the name as Guthaeborg.
In 2009, the city launched a new logotype for Gothenburg. Since the name Göteborg contains the Swedish letter ö the idea was to make the more international. As of 2015, the name is spelled Go, teborg on a number of signs in the city
Stavanger /stəˈvæŋər/ is a city and municipality in Norway. The city is the third-largest urban zone and metropolitan area in Norway, the municipality is the fourth most populous in Norway. Located on the Stavanger Peninsula in Southwest Norway, Stavanger counts its official founding year as 1125, Stavangers core is to a large degree 18th- and 19th-century wooden houses that are protected and considered part of the citys cultural heritage. The citys rapid growth in the late 20th century was primarily a result of Norways booming offshore oil industry. Today the oil industry is a key industry in the Stavanger region, the largest company in the Nordic region, Norwegian energy company Statoil is headquartered in Stavanger. Multiple educational institutions for education are located in Stavanger. The largest of these is the University of Stavanger and international military installations are located in Stavanger, among these is the North Atlantic Treaty Organisations Joint Warfare Center. Other international establishments, and especially local branches of foreign oil and gas companies, immigrants make up 11.
3% of Stavangers population. Stavanger has since the early 2000s consistently had an unemployment rate lower than the Norwegian and European average. In 2011, the unemployment rate was less than 2%, the city is among those that frequent various lists of expensive cities in the world, and Stavanger has even been ranked as the worlds most expensive city by certain indexes. Stavanger is served by international airport Stavanger Airport, which offers flights to cities in most major European countries, the airport was named most punctual European regional airport by flightstats. com in 2010. Every two years, Stavanger organizes the Offshore Northern Seas, which is the second largest exhibition, gladmat food festival is held each year and is considered to be one of Scandinavias leading food festivals. The city is known for being one of the nations premier culinary clusters. Stavanger 2008 European Capital of Culture, the first traces of settlement in the Stavanger region come from the days when the ice retreated after the last ice age c.10,000 years ago.
Stavanger grew into a center of administration and an important south-west coast market town around 1100–1300. Stavanger fulfilled an urban role prior to its status as city, Bishop Reinald, who may have come from Winchester, England, is said to have started construction of Stavanger Cathedral around 1100. It was finished around 1125, and the city of Stavanger counts 1125 as its year of foundation, with the Protestant Reformation in 1536, Stavangers role as a religious center declined, and the establishment of Kristiansand in the early 17th century led to the relocation of the bishopric. However, rich herring fisheries in the 19th century gave the city new life, Stavanger was established as a municipality 1 January 1838
Lund is a city in the province of Scania, southern Sweden. The town had 87,244 inhabitants in 2015, out of a total of 118,150 in 2016. It is the seat of Lund Municipality, Skåne County, Lund is believed to have been founded around 990, when Scania belonged to Denmark. From 1103 it was the see of the Catholic Metropolitan Archdiocese of Lund, Lund was transferred to Sweden following the signing of the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658. It was temporarily the capital of Sweden between 1716 and 1718, Lund University, established 1666, is today one of Scandinavias largest institutions for education and research. The university and its buildings dominate much of the centre of the city, numerous literary and intellectual figures have lived or studied in Lund, including the writer August Strindberg and the scientist and naturalist Carl Linnaeus. Along with Sigtuna, Lund is the oldest city in present-day Sweden, until the 1980s, the town was thought to have been founded around 1020 by either Sweyn I Forkbeard or his son Canute the Great of Denmark.
The area was part of the kingdom of Denmark. But, recent archaeological discoveries suggest that the first settlement dated to circa 990, the Uppåkra settlement dates back to the first century B. C. and its remains are at the present site of the village of Uppåkra. King Sweyn I Forkbeard moved Lund to its present location, a distance of five kilometres. The new location of Lund, on a hill and across a ford, gave the new site considerable defensive advantages in comparison with Uppåkra, the diocese of nearby Dalby was absorbed in 1066. Lund Cathedral was similarly founded in or shortly after 1103, in 1152, the Norwegian archdiocese of Nidaros was founded as a separate province of the church, independent of Lund. In 1164 Sweden acquired an archbishop of its own, although he was subordinate to the archbishop of Lund. It is still, as the diocese of Lund, a diocese in the Church of Sweden, Lund Cathedral School was founded in 1085 by the Danish king Canute the Saint. This is the oldest school in Scandinavia and one of the oldest in Northern Europe, many prominent people were educated there, among them the actor Max von Sydow and several high-ranking politicians.
In 1658, the Scanian lands were ceded by Denmark to Sweden by the Treaty of Roskilde, on December 4,1676 Lund was defended in the Battle of Lund, one of the bloodiest battles fought in Scandinavia. Lund University, established in 1666, is Swedens largest, with 42,000 full or part-time students, the figure includes Lund Institute of Technology, which is to some extent independent of the old university. As late as the 1940s, Lund was a small city with few large-scale industries, covering only about a quarter of the current urban area, and dominated by the cathedral
The term Danish Realm refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark. The legal nature of the Kingdom of Denmark is fundamentally one of a sovereign state. The Faroe Islands and Greenland have been part of the Crown of Denmark since 1397 when the Kalmar Union was ratified, legal matters in The Danish Realm are subject to the Danish Constitution. Beginning in 1953, state law issues within The Danish Realm has been governed by The Unity of the Realm, a less formal name for The Unity of the Realm is the Commonwealth of the Realm. In 1978, The Unity of The Realm was for the first time referred to as rigsfællesskabet. The name caught on and since the 1990s, both The Unity of The Realm and The Danish Realm itself has increasingly been referred to as simply rigsfællesskabet in daily parlance. The Danish Constitution stipulates that the foreign and security interests for all parts of the Danish Realm are the responsibility of the Danish government, the Faroes received home rule in 1948 and Greenland did so in 1979.
In 2005, the Faroes received a self-government arrangement, and in 2009 Greenland received self rule, the Danish Realms unique state of internal affairs is acted out in the principle of The Unity of the Realm. This principle is derived from Article 1 of the Danish Constitution which specifies that constitutional law applies equally to all areas of the Danish Realm, the Constitutional Act specifies that sovereignty is to continue to be exclusively with the authorities of the Realm. The language of Denmark is Danish, and the Danish state authorities are based in Denmark, the Kingdom of Denmarks parliament, with its 179 members, is located in the capital, Copenhagen. Two of the members are elected in each of Greenland and the Faroe Islands. The Government ministries are located in Copenhagen, as is the highest court, in principle, the Danish Realm constitutes a unified sovereign state, with equal status between its constituent parts. Devolution differs from federalism in that the powers of the subnational authority ultimately reside in central government.
The Self-Government Arrangements devolves political competence and responsibility from the Danish political authorities to the Faroese, the Faroese and Greenlandic authorities administer the tasks taken over from the state, enact legislation in these specific fields and have the economic responsibility for solving these tasks. The Danish government provides a grant to the Faroese and the Greenlandic authorities to cover the costs of these devolved areas. The 1948 Home Rule Act of the Faroe Islands sets out the terms of Faroese home rule, the Act states. the Faroe Islands shall constitute a self-governing community within the State of Denmark. It establishes the government of the Faroe Islands and the Faroese parliament. The Faroe Islands were previously administered as a Danish county, the Home Rule Act abolished the post of Amtmand and these powers were expanded in a 2005 Act, which named the Faroese home government as an equal partner with the Danish government
Espoo is the second largest city and municipality in Finland. The population of the city of Espoo was 269,802 as of 1 January 2016. It is part of the Finnish Capital Region, and most of its population lives in the urban core of the Helsinki metropolitan area, along with the cities of Helsinki, Vantaa. Espoo shares its border with Helsinki and Vantaa, while enclosing Kauniainen. The city is on the shore of the Gulf of Finland, other bordering municipalities of Espoo are Nurmijärvi and Vihti in the north, and Kirkkonummi in the west. The national park of Nuuksio is situated in northwestern Espoo, Espoo encompasses 312 square kilometres, of which 312 km2 is land. Espoo has several regional centers. Espoo is thus divided into seven areas, Vanha-Espoo, Suur-Espoonlahti, Pohjois-Espoo, Suur-Kauklahti, Suur-Leppävaara, Suur-Matinkylä. Aalto University is based in Otaniemi, along with a thriving community that includes numerous startups. The city of Espoo is officially bilingual, the majority of the population,83.
6%, speaks Finnish as their mother tongue, while a minority of 8. 3% speaks Swedish. 8% of Espoos population has a first language other than Finnish or Swedish, the name was first mentioned in 1431. The banks of the River Espoo are even today heavily populated with aspen, the first inhabitants in the area arrived about 9,000 years ago. Physical evidence indicates agriculture from ca.1000 AD, but there are no historical records, up to the 13th century, the area was a borderland between the hunting grounds of Finnish Proper and Tavastian Finns, with a sparse population. Immigrants from Sweden established permanent agricultural settlements during the 12th and 13th centuries, Espoo was a subdivision of the Kirkkonummi congregation until 1486-7. The oldest known document referring to Kirkkonummi is from 1330, Espoo as a subchapter has been dated to the 1380s, the construction of the Espoo Cathedral, the oldest preserved building in Espoo, marks the independence of Espoo. Administratively, Espoo was a part of Uusimaa, when the province was split to Eastern and Western provinces governed from the Porvoo and Raasepori castles, the eastern border of the Raasepori province was in Espoo.
The 13th century road connecting the most important cities in Finland at that time, in 1557, King Gustaf Wasa decided to stabilize and develop the region by founding a royal mansion in Espoo. The government bought the villages of Espåby and Mankby and transferred the population elsewhere, the royal mansion housed the kings local plenipotentiary, and collected royal tax in kind paid by labor on the mansions farm
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Aalborg, spelled Ålborg, is an industrial and university city in the North of Jutland, Denmark. It has an population of 112,194, making it the fourth most populous city in Denmark. With a population of 210,316, the Municipality of Aalborg is the third most populous in the country after Copenhagen, by road Aalborg is 64 kilometres southwest of Frederikshavn, and 118 kilometres north of Aarhus. The distance to Copenhagen is 412 kilometres, the earliest settlements date to around AD700. Aalborgs position at the narrowest point on the Limfjord made it an important harbour during the Middle Ages, the city is known for its half-timbered mansions built by its prosperous merchants. Budolfi Church, now a cathedral, dates from the end of the 14th century and Aalborghus Castle, Aalborg is a city in transition from a working-class industrial area to a knowledge-based community. A major exporter of grain and spirits, its business interests include Siemens Wind Power, Aalborg Industries. These companies have become global producers of wind turbine rotors, marine boilers, with its theatres, symphony orchestra, opera company, performance venues, and museums such as Aalborg Historical Museum and the Aalborg Museum of Modern Art, Aalborg is an important cultural hub.
The Aalborg Carnival, held at the end of May, is one of the largest festivals in Scandinavia, the major university is the University of Aalborg, founded in 1974, which has more than 17,000 students. Trænregimentet, the Danish regiment for army supply and emergency personnel, is in Aalborg. Aalborg University Hospital, the largest in the north of Jutland, was founded in 1881. The football club Aalborg BK, established in 1885 and based at Nordjyske Arena, won the Danish Superliga in the 1994–95 season, the 1998–99 season, the 2007–08 season and the 2013–14 season. Other sports associations include the icehockey club Aalborg Pirates, the handball team Aalborg Håndbold, the rugby club Aalborg RK. Aalborg Railway Station, on John F. Kennedys Plads has connected the city to Randers, Aalborg Airport is just 6 kilometres northwest of the city centre, and the E45, a European route from Karesuando, Sweden, to Gela, passes through Aalborg. The European Commission has concluded that the citizens of Aalborg are the most satisfied people in Europe with their city.
The area around the narrowest point on the Limfjord attracted settlements as far back as the Iron Age leading to a thriving Viking community until around the year 1000 in what has now become Aalborg. In the Middle Ages, royal trading privileges, a natural harbour, despite the difficulties it experienced over the centuries, the city began to prosper once again towards the end of the 19th century when a bridge was built over Limfjord and the railway arrived. Aalborgs initial growth relied on heavy industry but its current development focuses on culture, Aalborg traces its history back over a thousand years