Linux Standard Base
The Linux Standard Base is a joint project by several Linux distributions under the organizational structure of the Linux Foundation to standardize the software system structure, including the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard used in the Linux kernel. The LSB is based on the POSIX specification, the Single UNIX Specification, several other open standards, but extends them in certain areas. According to the LSB: The goal of the LSB is to develop and promote a set of open standards that will increase compatibility among Linux distributions and enable software applications to run on any compliant system in binary form. In addition, the LSB will help coordinate efforts to recruit software vendors to port and write products for Linux Operating Systems; the LSB compliance may be certified for a product by a certification procedure. The LSB specifies for example: standard libraries, a number of commands and utilities that extend the POSIX standard, the layout of the file system hierarchy, run levels, the printing system, including spoolers such as CUPS and tools like Foomatic, several extensions to the X Window System.
LSB specifies boot facilities, such as $local_fs, $network, which are used to indicate service dependencies in System V-style initialization scripts. A machine readable comment block at the top of a script provides the information necessary to determine at which point of the initialization process the script should be invoked, it is called the LSB header. The command lsb_release -a is available in many systems to get the LSB version details, or can be made available by installing an appropriate package, for example the redhat-lsb package in Red-Hat-flavored distributions such as Fedora, or the lsb-release package in Debian-based distributions; the LSB is designed to be binary-compatible and produce a stable application binary interface for independent software vendors. To achieve backward compatibility, each subsequent version is purely additive. In other words, interfaces are only added, not removed; the LSB adopted an interface deprecation policy to give application developers enough time in case an interface is removed from the LSB.
This allows the developer to rely on every interface in the LSB for a known time and to plan for changes, without being surprised. Interfaces are only removed after having been marked "deprecated" for at least three major versions, or eleven years. LSB 5.0 is the first major release. 1.0: Initial release June 29, 2001. 1.1: Released January 22, 2002. Added hardware-specific specifications. 1.2: Released June 28, 2002. Added hardware-specific specifications. Certification began July 2002. 1.2.1: Released October 2002. Added Itanium. 1.3: Released December 17, 2002. Added hardware-specific specifications. 2.0: Released August 31, 2004 LSB is modularized to LSB-Core, LSB-CXX, LSB-Graphics, LSB-I18n New hardware-specific specifications Synchronized to Single UNIX Specification version 3 2.0.1: Released October 21, 2004, ISO version of LSB 2.0, which included specification for all hardware architectures. 2.1: Released March 11, 2005. 3.0: Released July 1, 2005. Among other library changes: GNU C Library version 2.3.4 C++ ABI is changed to the one used by gcc 3.4 The core specification is updated to ISO POSIX Technical Corrigenda 1: 2005 3.1: Released October 31, 2005.
This version has been submitted as ISO/IEC 23360. 3.2: Released January 28, 2008. This version has been submitted as ISO/IEC 23360. 4.0: Released November 11, 2008. This version contains the following features: GNU C Library version 2.4 Binary compatibility with LSB 3.x Easier to use SDK Support for newer versions of GTK and Cairo graphical libraries Java Simpler ways of creating LSB-compliant RPM packages Crypto API 4.1: Released February 16, 2011:Java removed "Trial Use" modules from LSB 4.0, covering multimedia and desktop miscellaneous have been promoted as required submodules Updated GTK+, Cairo and CUPS libraries Three new test suites added 5.0: Released June 2, 2015 First major release that breaks backward compatibility with earlier versions Incorporates the changes made in FHS 3.0 Qt 3 library has been removed Evolved module strategy. The main parts of it are: ISO/IEC 23360-1:2006 Linux Standard Base core specification 3.1 – Part 1: Generic specification ISO/IEC 23360-2:2006 Linux Standard Base core specification 3.1 – Part 2: Specification for IA-32 architecture ISO/IEC 23360-3:2006 Linux Standard Base core specification 3.1 – Part 3: Specification for IA-64 architecture ISO/IEC 23360-4:2006 Linux Standard Base core specification 3.1 – Part 4: Specification for AMD64 architecture ISO/IEC 23360-5:2006 Linux Standard Base core specification 3.1 – Part 5: Specification for PPC32 architecture ISO/IEC 23360-6:2006 Linux Standard Base core specification 3.1 – Part 6: Specification for PPC64 architecture ISO/IEC 23360-7:2006 Linux Standard Base core specification 3.1 – Part 7: Specification for S390 architecture ISO/IEC 23360-8:2006 Linux Standard Base core specification 3.1 – Part 8: Specification for S390X architectureThere is ISO/IEC TR 24715:2006 which identifies areas of conflict between ISO/IEC 23360 and the ISO/IEC 99
GNU is an operating system and an extensive collection of computer software. GNU is composed wholly of free software, most of, licensed under the GNU Project's own General Public License. GNU is a recursive acronym for "GNU's Not Unix!", chosen because GNU's design is Unix-like, but differs from Unix by being free software and containing no Unix code. The GNU project includes an operating system kernel, GNU Hurd, the original focus of the Free Software Foundation. However, given the Hurd kernel's status as not yet production-ready, non-GNU kernels, most popularly the Linux kernel, can be used with GNU software; the combination of GNU and Linux has become ubiquitous to the point that the duo is referred to as just "Linux" in short, or, less GNU/Linux. Richard Stallman, the founder of the project, views GNU as a "technical means to a social end". Relatedly Lawrence Lessig states in his introduction to the second edition of Stallman's book Free Software, Free Society that in it Stallman has written about "the social aspects of software and how Free Software can create community and social justice".
Development of the GNU operating system was initiated by Richard Stallman while he worked at MIT Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. It was called the GNU Project, was publicly announced on September 27, 1983, on the net.unix-wizards and net.usoft newsgroups by Stallman. Software development began on January 5, 1984, when Stallman quit his job at the Lab so that they could not claim ownership or interfere with distributing GNU components as free software. Richard Stallman chose the name including the song The Gnu; the goal was to bring a wholly free software operating system into existence. Stallman wanted computer users to be free to study the source code of the software they use, share software with other people, modify the behavior of software, publish their own modified versions of the software; this philosophy was published as the GNU Manifesto in March 1985. Richard Stallman's experience with the Incompatible Timesharing System, an early operating system written in assembly language that became obsolete due to discontinuation of PDP-10, the computer architecture for which ITS was written, led to a decision that a portable system was necessary.
It was thus decided that the development would be started using C and Lisp as system programming languages, that GNU would be compatible with Unix. At the time, Unix was a popular proprietary operating system; the design of Unix was modular, so it could be reimplemented piece by piece. Much of the needed software had to be written from scratch, but existing compatible third-party free software components were used such as the TeX typesetting system, the X Window System, the Mach microkernel that forms the basis of the GNU Mach core of GNU Hurd. With the exception of the aforementioned third-party components, most of GNU has been written by volunteers. In October 1985, Stallman set up the Free Software Foundation. In the late 1980s and 1990s, the FSF hired software developers to write the software needed for GNU; as GNU gained prominence, interested businesses began contributing to development or selling GNU software and technical support. The most prominent and successful of these was Cygnus Solutions, now part of Red Hat.
The system's basic components include the GNU Compiler Collection, the GNU C library, GNU Core Utilities, but the GNU Debugger, GNU Binary Utilities, the GNU Bash shell and the GNOME desktop environment. GNU developers have contributed to Linux ports of GNU applications and utilities, which are now widely used on other operating systems such as BSD variants and macOS. Many GNU programs have been ported to other operating systems, including proprietary platforms such as Microsoft Windows and macOS. GNU programs have been shown to be more reliable than their proprietary Unix counterparts; as of November 2015, there are a total of 466 GNU packages hosted on the official GNU development site. The official kernel of GNU Project was the GNU Hurd microkernel. With the April 30, 2015 release of the Debian GNU/Hurd 2015 distro, GNU OS now provides the components to assemble an operating system that users can install and use on a computer; this includes the GNU Hurd kernel, in a pre-production state. The Hurd status page states that "it may not be ready for production use, as there are still some bugs and missing features.
However, it should be a good base for further development and non-critical application usage."Due to Hurd not being ready for production use, in practice these operating systems are Linux distributions. They contain GNU components and software from many other free software projects. Looking at all program code contained in the Ubuntu Linux distribution in 2011, GNU encompassed 8% and the Linux kernel 6%. Other kernels like the FreeBSD kernel work together with GNU software to form a working operating system; the FSF maintains that an operating system built using the Linux kernel and GNU tools and utilities, should be considered a variant of GNU, promotes the term GNU/Linux for such systems. The GNU Project has endorsed Linux distributions, such as gNewSense and Par
Blender is a free and open-source 3D computer graphics software toolset used for creating animated films, visual effects, art, 3D printed models, interactive 3D applications and video games. Blender's features include 3D modeling, UV unwrapping, raster graphics editing and skinning, fluid and smoke simulation, particle simulation, soft body simulation, animating, match moving, motion graphics, video editing and compositing. While current versions feature an integrated game engine, the upcoming 2.8 release will remove it. The Dutch animation studio NeoGeo started to develop Blender as an in-house application and based on the timestamps for the first source files, January 2, 1994 is considered to be Blender's birthday; the version 1.00 was released in January 1995, with the primary author being company co-owner and software developer Ton Roosendaal. The name Blender was inspired by a song by Yello, from the album Baby which NeoGeo used in its showreel; some of the design choices and experiences for Blender were carried over from an earlier software called Traces, that Ton Roosendaal developed for NeoGeo on the Commodore Amiga platform during the 1987–1991 period.
On January 1, 1998, Blender was released publicly online as SGI freeware. NeoGeo was dissolved and its client contracts were taken over by another company. After NeoGeo's dissolution, Ton Roosendaal founded Not a Number Technologies in June 1998 to further develop Blender distributing it as shareware until NaN went bankrupt in 2002; this meant, at the time, discontinuing the development of Blender. In May 2002, Roosendaal started the non-profit Blender Foundation, with the first goal to find a way to continue developing and promoting Blender as a community-based open-source project. On July 18, 2002, Roosendaal started a crowdfunding precursor; the campaign aimed for open-sourcing Blender for a one-time payment of €100,000 collected from the community. On September 7, 2002, it was announced that they had collected enough funds and would release the Blender source code. Today, Blender is free and open-source software developed by its community, alongside two full-time and two part-time employees employed by the Blender Institute.
The Blender Foundation reserved the right to use dual licensing, so that, in addition to GPLv2, Blender would have been available under the Blender License that did not require disclosing source code but required payments to the Blender Foundation. However, they never exercised this option and suspended it indefinitely in 2005. Blender is available under "GNU GPLv2 or any later" and was not updated to the GPLv3, as "no evident benefits" were seen. In January -- February 2002 it was clear that NaN would close the doors in March, they put out one more release, 2.25. As a sort-of easter egg, a last personal tag, the artists and developers decided to add a 3D model of a chimpanzee head, it was created by Willem-Paul van Overbruggen, who named it Suzanne after the orangutan in the Kevin Smith film Jay and Silent Bob Strike Back. Suzanne is Blender's alternative to more common test models such as the Utah Teapot and the Stanford Bunny. A low-polygon model with only 500 faces, Suzanne is used as a quick and easy way to test material, rigs and lighting setups and is frequently used in joke images.
Suzanne is still included in Blender. The largest Blender contest gives out an award called the Suzanne Award; the following table lists notable developments during Blender's release history. Official releases of Blender for Microsoft Windows, MacOS and Linux, as well as a port for FreeBSD, are available in both 32-bit and 64-bit versions. Though it is distributed without extensive example scenes found in some other programs, the software contains features that are characteristic of high-end 3D software. Among its capabilities are: Support for a variety of geometric primitives, including polygon meshes, fast subdivision surface modeling, Bezier curves, NURBS surfaces, icospheres, multi-res digital sculpting, outline font, a new n-gon modeling system called B-mesh. Internal render engine with scanline rendering, indirect lighting, ambient occlusion that can export in a wide variety of formats. A pathtracer render engine called Cycles. Cycles supports the Open Shading Language since Blender 2.65.
Integration with a number of external render engines through plugins. Keyframed animation tools including inverse kinematics, hook and lattice-based deformations, shape animations, non-linear animation and vertex weighting. Simulation tools for soft body dynamics including mesh collision detection, LBM fluid dynamics, smoke simulation, Bullet rigid body dynamics, ocean generator with waves. A particle system that includes support for particle-based hair. Modifiers to apply non-destructive effects. Python scripting for tool creation and prototyping, game logic, importing/exporting from other formats, task automation and custom tools. Basic non-linear video/audio editing. A integrated node-based compositor within the rendering pipeline accelerated with OpenCL. Procedural and node-based textures, as well as texture painting, projective painting, vertex painting, weight painting and dynamic painting. Real-time control during physics rendering. Camera and object tracking. Grease Pencil tools for 2D animation within a full 3D pipeline.
The Blender Game Engine was a built-in realtime graphics and logic engine with features such including collision detection, a dynamics engine, programmable logic
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems based on the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991 by Linus Torvalds. Linux is packaged in a Linux distribution. Distributions include the Linux kernel and supporting system software and libraries, many of which are provided by the GNU Project. Many Linux distributions use the word "Linux" in their name, but the Free Software Foundation uses the name GNU/Linux to emphasize the importance of GNU software, causing some controversy. Popular Linux distributions include Debian and Ubuntu. Commercial distributions include SUSE Linux Enterprise Server. Desktop Linux distributions include a windowing system such as X11 or Wayland, a desktop environment such as GNOME or KDE Plasma. Distributions intended for servers may omit graphics altogether, include a solution stack such as LAMP; because Linux is redistributable, anyone may create a distribution for any purpose. Linux was developed for personal computers based on the Intel x86 architecture, but has since been ported to more platforms than any other operating system.
Linux is the leading operating system on servers and other big iron systems such as mainframe computers, the only OS used on TOP500 supercomputers. It is used by around 2.3 percent of desktop computers. The Chromebook, which runs the Linux kernel-based Chrome OS, dominates the US K–12 education market and represents nearly 20 percent of sub-$300 notebook sales in the US. Linux runs on embedded systems, i.e. devices whose operating system is built into the firmware and is tailored to the system. This includes routers, automation controls, digital video recorders, video game consoles, smartwatches. Many smartphones and tablet computers run other Linux derivatives; because of the dominance of Android on smartphones, Linux has the largest installed base of all general-purpose operating systems. Linux is one of the most prominent examples of open-source software collaboration; the source code may be used and distributed—commercially or non-commercially—by anyone under the terms of its respective licenses, such as the GNU General Public License.
The Unix operating system was conceived and implemented in 1969, at AT&T's Bell Laboratories in the United States by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, Douglas McIlroy, Joe Ossanna. First released in 1971, Unix was written in assembly language, as was common practice at the time. In a key pioneering approach in 1973, it was rewritten in the C programming language by Dennis Ritchie; the availability of a high-level language implementation of Unix made its porting to different computer platforms easier. Due to an earlier antitrust case forbidding it from entering the computer business, AT&T was required to license the operating system's source code to anyone who asked; as a result, Unix grew and became adopted by academic institutions and businesses. In 1984, AT&T divested itself of Bell Labs; the GNU Project, started in 1983 by Richard Stallman, had the goal of creating a "complete Unix-compatible software system" composed of free software. Work began in 1984. In 1985, Stallman started the Free Software Foundation and wrote the GNU General Public License in 1989.
By the early 1990s, many of the programs required in an operating system were completed, although low-level elements such as device drivers and the kernel, called GNU/Hurd, were stalled and incomplete. Linus Torvalds has stated that if the GNU kernel had been available at the time, he would not have decided to write his own. Although not released until 1992, due to legal complications, development of 386BSD, from which NetBSD, OpenBSD and FreeBSD descended, predated that of Linux. Torvalds has stated that if 386BSD had been available at the time, he would not have created Linux. MINIX was created by Andrew S. Tanenbaum, a computer science professor, released in 1987 as a minimal Unix-like operating system targeted at students and others who wanted to learn the operating system principles. Although the complete source code of MINIX was available, the licensing terms prevented it from being free software until the licensing changed in April 2000. In 1991, while attending the University of Helsinki, Torvalds became curious about operating systems.
Frustrated by the licensing of MINIX, which at the time limited it to educational use only, he began to work on his own operating system kernel, which became the Linux kernel. Torvalds began the development of the Linux kernel on MINIX and applications written for MINIX were used on Linux. Linux matured and further Linux kernel development took place on Linux systems. GNU applications replaced all MINIX components, because it was advantageous to use the available code from the GNU Project with the fledgling operating system. Torvalds initiated a switch from his original license, which prohibited commercial redistribution, to the GNU GPL. Developers worked to integrate GNU components with the Linux kernel, making a functional and free operating system. Linus Torvalds had wanted to call his invention "Freax", a portmant
Open-source software is a type of computer software in which source code is released under a license in which the copyright holder grants users the rights to study and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose. Open-source software may be developed in a collaborative public manner. Open-source software is a prominent example of open collaboration. Open-source software development generates an more diverse scope of design perspective than any company is capable of developing and sustaining long term. A 2008 report by the Standish Group stated that adoption of open-source software models have resulted in savings of about $60 billion per year for consumers. In the early days of computing and developers shared software in order to learn from each other and evolve the field of computing; the open-source notion moved to the way side of commercialization of software in the years 1970-1980. However, academics still developed software collaboratively. For example Donald Knuth in 1979 with the TeX typesetting system or Richard Stallman in 1983 with the GNU operating system.
In 1997, Eric Raymond published The Cathedral and the Bazaar, a reflective analysis of the hacker community and free-software principles. The paper received significant attention in early 1998, was one factor in motivating Netscape Communications Corporation to release their popular Netscape Communicator Internet suite as free software; this source code subsequently became the basis behind SeaMonkey, Mozilla Firefox and KompoZer. Netscape's act prompted Raymond and others to look into how to bring the Free Software Foundation's free software ideas and perceived benefits to the commercial software industry, they concluded that FSF's social activism was not appealing to companies like Netscape, looked for a way to rebrand the free software movement to emphasize the business potential of sharing and collaborating on software source code. The new term they chose was "open source", soon adopted by Bruce Perens, publisher Tim O'Reilly, Linus Torvalds, others; the Open Source Initiative was founded in February 1998 to encourage use of the new term and evangelize open-source principles.
While the Open Source Initiative sought to encourage the use of the new term and evangelize the principles it adhered to, commercial software vendors found themselves threatened by the concept of distributed software and universal access to an application's source code. A Microsoft executive publicly stated in 2001 that "open source is an intellectual property destroyer. I can't imagine something that could be worse than this for the software business and the intellectual-property business." However, while Free and open-source software has played a role outside of the mainstream of private software development, companies as large as Microsoft have begun to develop official open-source presences on the Internet. IBM, Oracle and State Farm are just a few of the companies with a serious public stake in today's competitive open-source market. There has been a significant shift in the corporate philosophy concerning the development of FOSS; the free-software movement was launched in 1983. In 1998, a group of individuals advocated that the term free software should be replaced by open-source software as an expression, less ambiguous and more comfortable for the corporate world.
Software licenses grant rights to users which would otherwise be reserved by copyright law to the copyright holder. Several open-source software licenses have qualified within the boundaries of the Open Source Definition; the most prominent and popular example is the GNU General Public License, which "allows free distribution under the condition that further developments and applications are put under the same licence", thus free. The open source label came out of a strategy session held on April 7, 1998 in Palo Alto in reaction to Netscape's January 1998 announcement of a source code release for Navigator. A group of individuals at the session included Tim O'Reilly, Linus Torvalds, Tom Paquin, Jamie Zawinski, Larry Wall, Brian Behlendorf, Sameer Parekh, Eric Allman, Greg Olson, Paul Vixie, John Ousterhout, Guido van Rossum, Philip Zimmermann, John Gilmore and Eric S. Raymond, they used the opportunity before the release of Navigator's source code to clarify a potential confusion caused by the ambiguity of the word "free" in English.
Many people claimed that the birth of the Internet, since 1969, started the open-source movement, while others do not distinguish between open-source and free software movements. The Free Software Foun
Debian is a Unix-like operating system consisting of free software. Ian Murdock started the Debian Project on August 16, 1993. Debian 0.01 was released on September 15, 1993, the first stable version, 1.1, was released on June 17, 1996. The Debian stable branch is the most popular edition for personal computers and network servers, is used as the basis for many other distributions. Debian is one of the earliest operating systems based on the Linux kernel; the project's work is carried out over the Internet by a team of volunteers guided by the Debian Project Leader and three foundational documents: the Debian Social Contract, the Debian Constitution, the Debian Free Software Guidelines. New distributions are updated continually, the next candidate is released after a time-based freeze. Debian has been developed and distributed according to the principles of the GNU Project, this drew the support of the Free Software Foundation which sponsored the project from November 1994 to November 1995; when the sponsorship ended, the Debian Project formed the nonprofit Software in the Public Interest to continue financially supporting development.
Debian has access to online repositories that contain over 51,000 packages Debian contains only free software, but non-free software can be downloaded and installed from the Debian repositories. Debian includes popular free programs such as LibreOffice, Firefox web browser, Evolution mail, K3b disc burner, VLC media player, GIMP image editor, Evince document viewer. Debian is a popular choice for servers, for example as the operating system component of a LAMP stack. Debian supports Linux having offered kFreeBSD for version 7 but not 8, GNU Hurd unofficially. GNU/kFreeBSD was released as a technology preview for IA-32 and x86-64 architectures, lacked the amount of software available in Debian's Linux distribution. Official support for kFreeBSD was removed for version 8, which did not provide a kFreeBSD-based distribution. Several flavors of the Linux kernel exist for each port. For example, the i386 port has flavors for IA-32 PCs supporting Physical Address Extension and real-time computing, for older PCs, for x86-64 PCs.
The Linux kernel does not contain firmware without sources, although such firmware is available in non-free packages and alternative installation media. Debian offers CD images built for Xfce, the default desktop on CD, DVD images for GNOME, KDE and others. MATE is supported, while Cinnamon support was added with Debian 8.0 Jessie. Less common window managers such as Enlightenment, Fluxbox, IceWM, Window Maker and others are available; the default desktop environment of version 7.0 Wheezy was temporarily switched to Xfce, because GNOME 3 did not fit on the first CD of the set. The default for the version 8.0 Jessie was changed again to Xfce in November 2013, back to GNOME in September 2014. Several parts of Debian are translated into languages other than American English, including package descriptions, configuration messages and the website; the level of software localization depends on the language, ranging from the supported German and French to the hardly translated Creek and Samoan. The installer is available in 73 languages.
Debian offers CD images for installation that can be downloaded using BitTorrent or jigdo. Physical disks can be bought from retailers; the full sets are made up of several discs, but only the first disc is required for installation, as the installer can retrieve software not contained in the first disc image from online repositories. Debian offers different network installation methods. A minimal install of Debian is available via the netinst CD, whereby Debian is installed with just a base and added software can be downloaded from the Internet. Another option is to boot the installer from the network. Installation images can be used to create a bootable USB drive; the default bootstrap loader is GNU GRUB version 2, though the package name is grub, while version 1 was renamed to grub-legacy. This conflicts with e.g. Fedora, where grub version 2 is named grub2; the default desktop may be chosen from the DVD boot menu among GNOME, KDE Plasma, Xfce and LXDE, from special disc 1 CDs. Debian releases live install images for CDs, DVDs and USB thumb drives, for IA-32 and x86-64 architectures, with a choice of desktop environments.
These Debian Live images allow users to boot from removable media and run Debian without affecting the contents of their computer. A full install of Debian to the computer's hard drive can be initiated from the live image environment. Personalized images can be built with the live-build tool for discs, USB drives and for network booting purposes. Debian was first announced on August 16, 1993, by Ian Murdock, who called the system "the Debian Linux Release"; the word "Debian" was formed as a portmanteau of the first name of his then-girlfriend Debra Lynn and his own first name. Before Debian's release, the Softlanding Linux System had been a popular Linux distribution and the basis for Slackware; the perceived poor maintenance and prevalence of bugs in SLS motivated Murdock to launch a new distribution. Debian 0.01, released on September 15, 1993, was the first of several internal releases. Version 0.90 was the first public release, providing support through mailing lists hosted at Pixar. The release included the Debian Linux Manifesto, outlining Murdock's view for the new operating system.
In it he called for the creation of a distribution to be maintained in the spirit of Linux and GNU. The Debian project released the 0.9x versions in 1994 and 1995. During this time it was sponso
KDE is an international free software community developing Free and Open Source software. As a central development hub, it provides tools and resources that allow collaborative work on this kind of software. Well-known products include the Plasma Desktop, KDE Frameworks and a range of cross-platform applications like Krita or digikam designed to run on Unix and Unix-like desktops, Microsoft Windows and Android. Being one of KDE's most recognized projects, the Plasma Desktop is the official / default desktop environment on many Linux distributions, such as openSUSE, Mageia, OpenMandriva, Kubuntu, KaOS and PCLinuxOS; the KDE community and its work can be measured in the following figures: KDE is one of the largest active Free Software communities. More than 2500 contributors participate in developing KDE software. About 20 new developers contribute their first code each month. KDE software consists of over 6 million lines of code. KDE software has been translated into over 108 languages. KDE software is available on more than 114 official FTP mirrors in over 34 countries.
A read-only mirror of all repositories can be found on Github. There are many free software projects maintained by the KDE community; the project known as KDE or KDE SC nowadays consists of three parts: KDE Plasma, a platform UI that provides the base for different workspaces like Plasma Desktop or Plasma Mobile KDE Frameworks, a collection of more than 70 free-to-use libraries built on top of Qt KDE Applications KDE Plasma is a user interface technology that can be adjusted to run on various form factors like desktops, netbooks and smartphones or embedded devices. The brand Plasma for the graphical workspaces has been introduced from KDE SC 4.4 onwards. During the fourth series there have been two additional workspaces besides the Plasma 4 Desktop called Plasma Netbook and Plasma Active; the latest KDE Plasma 5 features the following workspaces: Plasma Desktop for any mouse or keyboard driven computing devices like desktops or laptops Plasma Mobile for smartphones Plasma Minishell for embedded and touch-enabled devices, like IoT or automotive Plasma Media Center for TVs and set-top boxes KDE Frameworks provide more than 70 free and open-source libraries built on top of Qt.
Starting with Qt 5, this platform was transformed into a set of modules, now referred to as KDE Frameworks. These modules include: Solid, Phonon, etc. and are licensed either under the LGPL, BSD license, MIT License or X11 license. KDE Applications is a bundle of software, part of the official KDE Applications release. Like Okular, Dolphin or KDEnlive, they are built on KDE Frameworks and released on a 4 months schedule with the version numbering consisting of YY. MM. Software, not part of the official KDE Applications bundle can be found in the "Extragear" section, they feature their own versioning numbers. There are many standalone applications like KTorrent, Krita or Amarok that are designed to be portable between operating systems and deployable independent of a particular workspace or desktop environment; some brands consist of multiple applications, such as KDE Kontact. KDE neon is a software repository, it aims to provide the users with updated Qt and KDE software, while updating the rest of the OS components from the Ubuntu repositories at the normal pace.
KDE maintains that it is not a "KDE distribution," but rather an up-to-date archive of KDE and Qt packages. There is two "Developer" editions of KDE Neon. WikiToLearn, abbreviated WTL, is one of KDE's newer endeavors, it is a wiki that provides a platform to share open source textbooks. The idea is to have a massive library of textbooks for anyone and everyone to create, its roots lay in University of Milan, where a group of physics majors wanted to share notes—then decided that it was for everyone and not just their internal friend group. They have become an official KDE project with several universities backing it. Like many free/open source projects, developing KDE software is a volunteer effort, although various companies, such as Novell, Nokia, or Blue Systems employ or employed developers to work on various parts of the project. Since a large number of individuals contribute to KDE in various ways (e.g. code