The Yayoi period is an Iron Age era in the history of Japan traditionally dated 300 BC–300 AD. Since the 1980s, scholars have argued that a period classified as a transition from the Jōmon period should be reclassified as Early Yayoi; the date of the beginning of this transition is controversial, with estimates ranging from the 10th to the 6th centuries BC. The period is named after the neighborhood of Tokyo where archaeologists first uncovered artifacts and features from that era. Distinguishing characteristics of the Yayoi period include the appearance of new Yayoi pottery styles and the start of an intensive rice agriculture in paddy fields. A hierarchical social class structure has its origin in China. Techniques in metallurgy based on the use of bronze and iron were introduced from China over Korea to Japan in this period; the Yayoi followed the Jōmon period and Yayoi culture flourished in a geographic area from southern Kyūshū to northern Honshū. Archaeological evidence supports the idea that during this time, an influx of farmers from the Asian continent to Japan absorbed or overwhelmed the native hunter-gatherer population.
The Yayoi period is traditionally dated from 300 BC to 300 AD. During this period Japan transitioned to a settled agricultural society; the earliest archaeological evidence of the Yayoi is found on northern Kyūshū, but, still debated. Yayoi culture spread to the main island of Honshū, mixing with native Jōmon culture. A recent study that used accelerator mass spectrometry to analyze carbonized remains on pottery and wooden stakes, suggests that they dated back to 900–800 BC, 500 years earlier than believed; the name Yayoi is borrowed from a location in Tokyo where pottery of the Yayoi period was first found. Yayoi pottery was decorated and produced using the same coiling technique used in Jōmon pottery. Yayoi craft specialists made bronze ceremonial bells and weapons. By the 1st century AD, Yayoi farmers began using iron agricultural weapons; as the Yayoi population increased, the society became more complex. They wove textiles, lived in permanent farming villages, constructed buildings with wood and stone.
They accumulated wealth through land ownership and the storage of grain. Such factors promoted the development of distinct social classes. Contemporary Chinese sources described the people as having tattoos and other bodily markings which indicated differences in social status. Yayoi chiefs, in some parts of Kyūshū, appear to have sponsored, politically manipulated, trade in bronze and other prestige objects; that was possible by the introduction of an irrigated, wet-rice culture from the Yangtze estuary in southern China via the Ryukyu Islands or Korean Peninsula. Wet-rice agriculture led to the growth of a sedentary, agrarian society in Japan. Local political and social developments in Japan were more important than the activities of the central authority within a stratified society. Direct comparisons between Jōmon and Yayoi skeletons show that the two peoples are noticeably distinguishable; the Jōmon tended to be shorter, with longer forearms and lower legs, more wide-set eyes and wider faces, much more pronounced facial topography.
They have strikingly raised brow ridges and nose bridges. Yayoi people, on the other hand, averaged an inch or two taller, with close-set eyes and narrow faces, flat brow ridges and noses. By the Kofun period all skeletons excavated in Japan except those of the Ainu are of the Yayoi type with Jomon admixture, resembling those of modern-day Japanese; the origin of Yayoi culture has long been debated. The earliest archaeological sites are Itazuke or Nabata in the northern part of Kyūshū. Contacts between fishing communities on this coast and the southern coast of Korea date from the Jōmon period, as witnessed by the exchange of trade items such as fishhooks and obsidians. During the Yayoi period, cultural features from China and Korea arrived in this area at various times over several centuries, spread to the south and east; this was a period of mixture between immigrants and the indigenous population, between new cultural influences and existing practices. Chinese influence was obvious in the bronze and copper weapons, dōkyō, dōtaku, as well as irrigated paddy rice cultivation.
Three major symbols of Yayoi culture are the bronze mirror, the bronze sword, the royal seal stone. Between 1996 and 1999, a team led by Satoshi Yamaguchi, a researcher at Japan's National Museum of Nature and Science, compared Yayoi remains found in Japan's Yamaguchi and Fukuoka prefectures with those from China's coastal Jiangsu province and found many similarities between the Yayoi and the Jiangsu remains; some scholars have concluded. Mark J. Hudson has cited archaeological evidence that included "bounded paddy fields, new types of polished stone tools, wooden farming implements, iron tools, weaving technology, ceramic storage jars, exterior bonding of clay coils in pottery fabrication, ditched settlements, domesticated pigs, jawbone rituals." The migrant transfusion from the Korean peninsula gains strength because Yayoi culture began on the north coast of Kyūshū, where Japan is closest to Korea. Yayoi pottery, burial mounds, food preservation were discovered to be similar to the pottery of southern Korea.
However, some scholars argue that the rapid increase of four million people in Japan between the Jōmon and Yayoi periods cannot be explained by migration alone. They attribute the increase to a shift from a hunter-gatherer to an agricultural diet on the islands, with the introduction
Hopscotch is a children's game that can be played with several players or alone. Hopscotch is a popular playground game in which players toss a small object into numbered triangles or a pattern of rectangles outlined on the ground and hop or jump through the spaces to retrieve the object. To play hopscotch, a court is first laid out on the ground. Depending on the available surface, the court is either scratched out in the dirt or drawn with chalk on pavement. Courts may be permanently marked where playgrounds are paved, as in elementary schools. Designs vary, but the court is composed of a series of linear squares interspersed with blocks of two lateral squares. Traditionally the court ends with a "safe" or "home" base in which the player may turn before completing the reverse trip; the home base may be a rectangle, or a semicircle. The squares are numbered in the sequence in which they are to be hopped; the first player tosses a stone or marker called a "lucky", onto the court. This object should land in the square without sliding, or rolling out.
It is a small flat stone, bean bag, or small chain with a charm. The marker must land within the square without touching the line; the player hops through the course, skipping the square with the marker in it. Single squares must be hopped on one foot. For the first single square, either foot may be used. Side-by-side squares are straddled, with the left foot landing in the left square, the right foot landing in the right square. Optional squares marked "Safe", "Home", or "Rest" are neutral squares, may be hopped through in any manner without penalty. After hopping into "Safe", "Home", or "Rest", the player must turn around and return through the course on one or two legs depending on the square until reaching the square with the marker; the player stops in the square before the marker and reaches down to retrieve the marker and continue the course as stated, without touching a line or stepping into a square with another player's marker. Upon completing the sequence, the player continues the turn by tossing the marker into square number two, repeating the pattern.
If, while hopping through the court in either direction, the player steps on a line, misses a square, or loses balance, the turn ends. Players begin their turns; the first player to complete one course for every numbered square on the court wins the game. Although the marker is most picked up during the game in the boy's game, the marker was kicked sequentially back through the course on the return trip and kicked out, it is attested that an ancient form of hopscotch was played by Roman children, but the first recorded references to the game in the English-speaking world date to the late 17th century under the name "scotch-hop" or "scotch-hopper". A manuscript Book of Games compiled between 1635 and 1672 by Francis Willughby refers to'Scotch Hopper‥, they play with a piece of tile or a little flat piece of lead, upon a boarded floor, or any area divided into oblong figures like boards'. In Poor Robin's Almanack for 1677, the game is referred to as "Scotch-hoppers"; the entry states, "The time when schoolboys should play at Scotch-hoppers."
The 1707 edition of Poor Robin's Almanack includes the following phrase… "Lawyers and Physicians have little to do this month, so they may play at Scotch-hoppers." In 1828, Webster's An American Dictionary of the English language referred to the game as'Scotch-hopper'...'a play in which boys hop over scotches and lines in the ground.'Since the game was known and popular in the seventeenth century, it is logical to suppose it may have existed at least a few decades before its earliest literary reference. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the etymology of hopscotch is a formation from the words "hoop" and "scotch", the latter in the sense of "an incised line or scratch"; the journal of the British Archaeological Association, Volume 26 states, "The sport of Hop-Scotch or Scotch-Hoppers is called in Yorkshire'Hop-Score,' and in Suffolk'Scotch Hobbies or Hobby,' from the boy who gets on the player's back whilst hopping or'hicking,' as it is there termed. There are many other forms of hopscotch played across the globe.
In India it is called Stapu, Nondi or Kith-Kith, in Spain and some Latin American countries, it's rayuela, although it may be known as golosa or charranca. In Turkey, it is Seksek. In Russian it is known as классики. In Poland, it is called klasy, meaning classes or pajac. Swedes name the game hoppa hage, while in Norway it is called Paradise. In Italy the game is known as mondo. In the Netherlands and Flanders, it is called Hinkelen. In Bosnia and Serbia it is called školica, meaning little school. In Malaysia the most popular variant is called tengteng. In Mexico, it is called bebeleche meaning drink avioncito meaning little plane. In Cuba and in Puerto Rico it is called "La Peregrina"
Ogura Hyakunin Isshu
Ogura Hyakunin Isshu is a classical Japanese anthology of one hundred Japanese waka by one hundred poets. Hyakunin isshu can be translated to "one hundred people, one poem ", it was compiled by Fujiwara no Teika while he lived in the Ogura district of Japan. One of Teika's diaries, the Meigetsuki, says that his son, Fujiwara no Tameie, asked him to arrange one hundred poems for Tameie's father-in-law, Utsunomiya Yoritsuna, furnishing a residence near Mount Ogura. In order to decorate screens of the residence, Fujiwara no Teika produced the calligraphy poem sheets. Hishikawa Moronobu provided woodblock portraits for each of the poets included in the anthology. In his own lifetime, Teika was better known for other work. For example, in 1200, Teika prepared another anthology of one hundred poems for ex-Emperor Go-Toba; this was called the Shōji Hyakushu. Emperor Tenji Empress Jitō Kakinomoto no Hitomaro Yamabe no Akahito Sarumaru no Taifu Ōtomo no Yakamochi Abe no Nakamaro Kisen Hōshi Ono no Komachi Semimaru Ono no Takamura Henjō Retired Emperor Yōzei Minamoto no Tōru Emperor Kōkō Ariwara no Yukihira Ariwara no Narihira Fujiwara no Toshiyuki Lady Ise Prince Motoyoshi Sosei Fun'ya no Yasuhide Ōe no Chisato Sugawara no Michizane Fujiwara no Sadakata Fujiwara no Tadahira Fujiwara no Kanesuke Minamoto no Muneyuki Ōshikōchi no Mitsune Mibu no Tadamine Sakanoue no Korenori Harumichi no Tsuraki Ki no Tomonori Fujiwara no Okikaze Ki no Tsurayuki Kiyohara no Fukayabu Fun'ya no Asayasu Ukon Minamoto no Hitoshi Taira no Kanemori Mibu no Tadami Kiyohara no Motosuke Fujiwara no Atsutada Fujiwara no Asatada Fujiwara no Koretada Sone no Yoshitada Egyō Minamoto no Shigeyuki Ōnakatomi no Yoshinobu Fujiwara no Yoshitaka Fujiwara no Sanekata Fujiwara no Michinobu Michitsuna no Haha Takashina no Takako known as Takashina no Kishi or Kō no Naishi Fujiwara no Kintō Izumi Shikibu Murasaki Shikibu Daini no Sanmi Akazome Emon Koshikibu no Naishi Ise no Taifu Sei Shōnagon Fujiwara no Michimasa Fujiwara no Sadayori Sagami Gyōson Suō no Naishi Retired Emperor Sanjō Nōin Hōshi Ryōzen Minamoto no Tsunenobu Yūshi Naishinnō-ke no Kii Ōe no Masafusa Minamoto no Toshiyori Fujiwara no Mototoshi Fujiwara no Tadamichi Retired Emperor Sutoku Minamoto no Kanemasa Fujiwara no Akisuke Taiken Mon In no Horikawa Tokudaiji Sanesada Dōin Fujiwara no Shunzei Fujiwara no Kiyosuke Shun'e Saigyō Jakuren Kōkamonin no Bettō Princess Shikishi Inpumon'in no Tayū Kujō Yoshitsune Nijōin no Sanuki Minamoto no Sanetomo Asukai no Masatsune Jien Saionji Kintsune Fujiwara no Teika Fujiwara no Ietaka Retired Emperor Go-Toba Retired Emperor Juntoku Poem number 2One of the poems attributed to Empress Jitō was selected by Fujiwara no Teika.
The text is visually descriptive. From the Shinkokinshū, but the original poem was from the Man'yōshū. Poem number 26 A quite different poem is attributed to Sadaijin Fujiwara no Tadahira in the context of a specific incident. After abdicating, former Emperor Uda visited Mount Ogura in Yamashiro Province, he was so impressed by the beauty of autumn colours of the maples that he ordered Fujiwara no Tadahira to encourage Uda's son and heir, Emperor Daigo, to visit the same area. Prince Tenshin or Prince Teishin was Tadahira's posthumous name, this is the name used in William Porter's translation of the poem which observes that "he maples of Mount Ogura, If they could understand, Would keep their brilliant leaves, until he Ruler of this land Pass with his Royal band." The accompanying 18th century illustration shows a person of consequence riding an ox in a procession with attendants on foot. The group is passing through an area of maples. Fujiwara no Teika chose this poem from the Shūi Wakashū for the Hyakunin Isshu.'*'By modern Romanization, "Miyuki matanamu".
The Ogura Hyakunin Isshu has been translated into many languages and into English many times, beginning with Yone Noguchi's Hyaku Nin Isshu in English in 1907. Other translations include: William N. Porter, A Hundred Verses from Old Japan Clay MacCauley, Hyakunin-isshu Tom Galt, The Little Treasury of One Hundred People, One Poem Each Joshua S. Mostow, Pictures of the Heart: The Hyakunin Isshu in Word and Image Peter McMillan, One Hundred Poets, One Poem Each Emiko Miyashita and Michael Dylan Welch, 100 Poets: Passions of the Imperial Court Many other anthologies compiled along the same criteria—one hundred poems by one hundred poets—include the words hyakunin isshu, notably the World War II-era Aikoku Hyakunin Isshu, or One Hundred Patriotic Poems by One Hundred Poets. Important is Kyōka Hyakunin Isshu, a series of parodies of the original Ogura collection. Teika's anthology is the basis for the card game of karuta, popular since the Edo period. Many forms of playing game
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
The Asuka period was a period in the history of Japan lasting from 538 to 710, although its beginning could be said to overlap with the preceding Kofun period. The Yamato polity evolved during the Asuka period, named after the Asuka region, about 25 km south of the modern city of Nara; the Asuka period is characterized by its significant artistic and political transformations, having their origins in the late Kofun period but affected by the arrival of Buddhism from China. The introduction of Buddhism marked a change in Japanese society; the Asuka period is distinguished by the change in the name of the country from Wa to Nihon. The term "Asuka period" was first used to describe a period in the history of Japanese fine-arts and architecture, it was proposed by fine-arts scholars Sekino Tadasu and Okakura Kakuzō around 1900. Sekino dated the Asuka period as ending with the Taika Reform of 646. Okakura, saw it as ending with the transfer of the capital to the Heijō Palace of Nara. Although historians use Okakura's dating, many historians of art and architecture prefer Sekino's dating and use the term "Hakuhō period" to refer to the successive period.
The Yamato polity was distinguished by powerful great clans or extended families, including their dependents. Each clan was headed by a patriarch who performed sacred rites for the clan's kami to ensure the long-term welfare of the clan. Clan members were the High Nobility, the Imperial line that controlled the Yamato polity was at its pinnacle; the Asuka period, as a sub-division of the Yamato period, is the first time in Japanese history when the Emperor of Japan ruled uncontested from modern-day Nara Prefecture known as Yamato Province. The Yamato polity was concentrated in the Asuka region and exercised power over clans in Kyūshū and Honshū, bestowing titles, some hereditary, on clan chieftains; the Yamato name became synonymous with all of Japan as the Yamato rulers suppressed other clans and acquired agricultural lands. Based on Chinese models, they developed a central administration and an imperial court attended by subordinate clan chieftains but with no permanent capital. By the mid-seventh century, the agricultural lands had grown to a substantial public domain, subject to central policy.
The basic administrative unit of the Gokishichidō system was the county, society was organized into occupation groups. Most people were farmers; the Soga clan intermarried with the imperial family, by 587 Soga no Umako, the Soga chieftain, was powerful enough to install his nephew as emperor and to assassinate him and replace him with the Empress Suiko. Suiko, the first of eight sovereign empresses, is sometimes considered a mere figurehead for Umako and Prince Regent Shōtoku Taishi; however she wielded power in her own right, the role of Shōtoku Taishi is exaggerated to the point of legend. Shōtoku, recognized as a great intellectual of this period of reform, was a devout Buddhist and was well-read in Chinese literature, he was influenced by Confucian principles, including the Mandate of Heaven, which suggested that the sovereign ruled at the will of a supreme force. Under Shōtoku's direction, Confucian models of rank and etiquette were adopted, his Seventeen-article constitution prescribed ways to bring harmony to a chaotic society in Confucian terms.
In addition, Shōtoku adopted the Chinese calendar, developed a system of trade roads, built numerous Buddhist temples, had court chronicles compiled, sent students to China to study Buddhism and Confucianism, sent Ono no Imoko to China as an emissary. Six official missions of envoys and students were sent to China in the seventh century; some remained twenty years or more. The sending of such scholars to learn Chinese political systems showed significant change from envoys in the Kofun period, in which the five kings of Wa sent envoys for the approval of their domains. In a move resented by the Chinese, Shōtoku sought equality with the Chinese emperor by sending official correspondence, addressed, "From the Son of Heaven in the Land of the Rising Sun to the Son of Heaven of the Land of the Setting Sun." Some would argue that Shōtoku's bold step set a precedent: Japan never again accepted a "subordinate" status in its relations with China, except for Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, who accepted such a relationship with China in the 15th century.
As a result, Japan in this period received no title from Chinese dynasties, while they did send tribute. From the Chinese point of view, the class or position of Japan was demoted from previous centuries in which the kings received titles. On the other hand, Japan loosened its political relationships with China and established extraordinary cultural and intellectual relationships. About twenty years after the deaths of Shōtoku Taishi, Soga no Umako, Empress Suiko, court intrigues over succession led to a palace coup in 645 against the Soga clan's monopolized control of the government; the revolt was led by Prince Naka no Ōe and Nakatomi no Kamatari, who seized control of the court from the Soga family and introduced the Taika Reform. The Japanese era corresponding to the years 645–649 was thus named Taika, referring to the Reform, meaning "great change"; the revolt leading to the Taika Reform is called the Isshi Incident, referring to the Chinese zodiac year in which the coup took place
Hide-and-seek, or hide-and-go-seek, is a popular children's game in which any number of players conceal themselves in a set environment, to be found by one or more seekers. The game is played by one player chosen closing their eyes and counting to a predetermined number while the other players hide. For example, count to 100 in units of 5 or count to 20, one two three and keep counting up till it reaches twenty. After reaching this number, the player, "it" calls "Ready or not, here I come!" and attempts to locate all concealed players. The game can end in one of several ways. In the most common variation of the game, the player chosen as "it" locates all players as the players are not allowed to move. Another common variation has the seeker counting at "home base". In Ohio, a hider must yell "free" when he touches base or he can still be tagged out, but if the seeker tags another player before reaching home base, that person becomes "it." The game is an example of an oral tradition, as it is passed by children.
Different versions of the game are played under a variety of names. One derivative in game is called "Sardines", in which only one person hides and the others must find them, hiding with them when they do so; the hiding places become progressively more cramped, like sardines in a tin. The last person to find the hiding group is the loser and subsequently the hider for the next round; this game is best played at night in a big area like a park, or in a dark room or just regular lighting inside as traditional hide and seek is played. A. M. Burrage calls this version of the game "Smee" in his 1931 ghost story of the same name. In some versions of the game, after the first player is caught or if not any other players can be found over a period of time, "it" calls out a pre-agreed phrase to signal the other hiders to return to base for the next round. In another version, when players are caught they help the "it" seek out others; the original term is "All ye all ye, come for free". Over the years this term has taken on various phrases, the most popular is "Olly olly oxen free".
In one variant, once all hiders have been located, the game becomes a game of tag where the "it" chases after all the other players and the first person tagged becomes the "it". In another, the hiders who are found help the "it" track down the remaining hiders, but the first person to be found becomes the next "it." In another variant the game is called "Chase". It is however team plays only after dusk. Two teams—the hiders and the seekers—are each composed of two or more players. There is a central home base from which the seekers count and hiders must return to without being tagged by a seeker in order to be considered "free" to hide again. All players dress in black. No flashlights are allowed; the only lights in the playing field are those from natural lighting. The goal is for the hiders to take advantage of camouflage of the shadows in the surrounding area; the game is meant to be stealth. When a hider is caught—tagged by a seeker—the hider does not get to hide again and must remain on home base.
If a hider returns home "free" without being tagged they can hide again in the next round representing their team. When all hiders are caught the hiders become the seekers and the seekers become the hiders. Hiders cannot leave the boundaries of the playing field or else are "caught" or "out" from the round; the origins of this version arose in Greece, New York, in 1976 and had a large following through the end of 1989. Its popularity waned in the 1990s as parents began helicoptering their children—worrying about adolescent safety at night. In some parts of Australia, the game is called "44 Homes"; the hiders hide until they are spotted by the seeker, who chants, "Forty, Forty, I see you". Once spotted, the hider must run to "home base" and touch it before she or he is "tipped" by the seeker. If tagged, that hider becomes the new "it."In North India, hide-and-seek is played differently – if any of the'hiders' touches the seeker and says'Dhappa' the seeker has to count again. However, if the seeker sees the hider before they manage to touch him/her and say dhappa that hider will be'it' the next round, unless some other hider manages to'Dhappa' the seeker without being seen.
But now, instead of doing Dhappa on the "IT "s body, hiders can do dhappa. The "it" is called as "Dianer". In Brazil and Russia, hide-and-seek has an extra step; the "it" starts facing the wall while everyone hides. Once the "it" finds someone, they must race to the spot where the "it" was counting and facing the wall and whoever touches that spot first, wins the game; this is sometimes played by other countries. Hide and Go Seek in the dark is another variant, self explanatory. You play go seek at night in a park or field or in a house at night with the lights off. Hide and seek world championship named "Nascondino World Championship" is the unique international hide-and-seek competition, a team play for adults, with non-diversified categories by gender. Born in 2010 in the Italian city of Bergamo, it is held annually in summer; the game is a derivative of the Italian version of hide a