Ilex, or holly, is a genus of about 480 species of flowering plants in the family Aquifoliaceae, the only living genus in that family. The species are evergreen or deciduous trees and climbers from tropics to temperate zones worldwide; the genus Ilex includes about 480 species, divided into three subgenera: Ilex subg. Byronia, with the type species Ilex polypyrena Ilex subg. Prinos, with 12 species Ilex subg. Ilex, with the rest of the speciesThe genus is widespread throughout the temperate and subtropical regions of the world, it includes species of trees and climbers, with evergreen or deciduous foliage and inconspicuous flowers. Its range was more extended in the Tertiary period and many species are adapted to laurel forest habitat, it occurs from sea level to more than 2,000 metres with high mountain species. It is a genus of evergreen trees with smooth, glabrous, or pubescent branchlets; the plants are slow-growing with some species growing to 25 m tall. The type species is the European holly Ilex aquifolium described by Linnaeus.
Plants in this genus have simple, alternate glossy leaves with a spiny leaf margin. The inconspicuous flower is greenish white, with four petals, they are dioecious, with male and female flowers on different plants. The small fruits of Ilex, although referred to as berries, are technically drupes, they range in color from red to brown to black, green or yellow. The "bones" contain up to ten seeds each; some species produce fruits parthenogenetically, such as the cultivar'Nellie R. Stevens'; the fruits ripen in winter and thus provide winter colour contrast between the bright red of the fruits and the glossy green evergreen leaves. Hence the cut branches of I. aquifolium, are used in Christmas decoration. The fruits are slightly toxic to humans, can cause vomiting and diarrhea when ingested. However, they are an important food source for birds and other animals, which help disperse the seeds; this can have negative impacts as well. Along the west coast of North America, from California to British Columbia, English holly, grown commercially, is spreading into native forest habitat, where it thrives in shade and crowds out native species.
It has been placed on the Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board's monitor list, is a Class C invasive plant in Portland. Ilex in Latin means the evergreen oak. Despite the Linnaean classification of Ilex as holly, as late as the 19th century in Britain, the term Ilex was still being applied to the oak as well as the holly – due to the superficial similarity of the leaves; the name "holly" in common speech refers to Ilex aquifolium stems with berries used in Christmas decoration. By extension, "holly" is applied to the whole genus; the origin of the word "holly" is considered a reduced form of Old English holen, Middle English Holin Hollen. The French word for holly, derives from the Old Low Franconian *hulis. Both are related to Old High German hulis, huls, as are Low German/Low Franconian terms like Hülse or hulst; these Germanic words appear to be related to words for holly in Celtic languages, such as Welsh celyn, Breton kelen and Irish cuileann. Several Romance languages use the Latin word acrifolium "sharp leaf", so Italian agrifoglio, Occitan grefuèlh, etc.
The phylogeography of this group provides examples of various speciation mechanisms at work. In this scenario ancestors of this group became isolated from the remaining Ilex when the Earth mass broke away into Gondwana and Laurasia about 82 million years ago, resulting in a physical separation of the groups and beginning a process of change to adapt to new conditions; this mechanism is called allopatric speciation. Over time, survivor species of the holly genus adapted to different ecological niches; this led to an example of ecological speciation. In the Pliocene, around five million years ago, mountain formation diversified the landscape and provided new opportunities for speciation within the genus; the fossil record indicates that the Ilex lineage was widespread prior to the end of the Cretaceous period. Based on the molecular clock, the common ancestor of most of the extant species appeared during the Eocene, about 50 million years ago, suggesting that older representatives of the genus belong to now extinct branches.
The laurel forest covered great areas of the Earth during the Paleogene, when the genus was more prosperous. This type of forest extended during the Neogene, more than 20 million years ago. Most of the last remaining temperate broadleaf evergreen forests are believed to have disappeared about 10,000 years ago at the end of the Pleistocene. Many of the then-existing species with the strictest ecological requirements became extinct because they could not cross the barriers imposed by the geography, but others found refuge as a species relict in coastal enclaves and coastal mountains sufficiently far from areas of extreme cold and aridity and protected by the oceanic influence; the genus is distributed throughout the world's different climates. Most species make their home in the tropics and subtropics, with a worldwide distribution in temperate zones; the greatest diversity of species is found in Southeast Asia. Ilex mucronata the type species of Nemopanthus, is native to eastern North America.
Nemopanthus was treated as a separate genus with eight species. Of the family Aquifoliaceae, now transferred to Ilex on molecular data. In Europe the genus is represented by a single species, th
Alnus glutinosa, the common alder, black alder, European alder or just alder, is a species of tree in the family Betulaceae, native to most of Europe, southwest Asia and northern Africa. It thrives in wet locations where its association with the bacterium Frankia alni enables it to grow in poor quality soils, it is short-lived tree growing to a height of up to 30 metres. It has separate male and female flower in the form of catkins; the small, rounded fruits are cone-like and the seeds are dispersed by wind and water. The common alder provides food and shelter to wildlife, with a number of insects and fungi being dependent on the tree, it is a pioneer species, colonising vacant land and forming mixed forests as other trees appear in its wake. Common alder dies out of woodlands because the seedlings need more light than is available on the forest floor, its more usual habitat is forest edges and riverside corridors. The timber has been used in underwater foundations and for manufacture into paper and fibreboard, for smoking foods, for joinery and carving.
Products of the tree have been used in ethnobotany, providing folk remedies for various ailments, research has shown that extracts of the seeds are active against pathogenic bacteria. In the Midwest, Alnus glutinosa is an invasive terrestrial plant soon to be banned in Indiana. Alnus glutinosa is a tree that thrives in moist soils, grows under favourable circumstances to a height of 20 to 30 metres and exceptionally up to 37 metres. Young trees have an upright habit of growth with a main axial stem but older trees develop an arched crown with crooked branches; the base of the trunk produces adventitious roots which grow down to the soil and may appear to be propping the trunk up. The bark of young trees is smooth and greenish-brown while in older trees it is dark grey and fissured; the branches are somewhat sticky, being scattered with resinous warts. The buds have short stalks. Both male and female catkins remain dormant during the winter; the leaves of the common alder are short-stalked, rounded, up to 10 cm long with a wedge-shaped base and a wavy, serrated margin.
They have a glossy dark green upper surface and paler green underside with rusty-brown hairs in the angles of the veins. As with some other trees growing near water, the common alder keeps its leaves longer than do trees in drier situations, the leaves remain green late into the autumn; as the Latin name glutinosa implies, the buds and young leaves are sticky with a resinous gum. The species is monoecious and the flowers are wind-pollinated. During the autumn they become dark brown to black in colour, somewhat woody, superficially similar to small conifer cones, they last through the winter and the small winged seeds are scattered the following spring. The seeds are flattened; this enables them to float for about a month. Unlike some other species of tree, common alders do not produce shade leaves; the respiration rate of shaded foliage is the same as well-lit leaves but the rate of assimilation is lower. This means that as a tree in woodland grows taller, the lower branches die and soon decay, leaving a small crown and unbranched trunk.
Alnus glutinosa was first described by Carl Linnaeus in 1753, as one of two varieties of alder, which he regarded as a single species Betula alnus. In 1785, Jean-Baptiste Lamarck treated it as a full species under the name Betula glutinosa, its present scientific name is due to Joseph Gaertner, who in 1791 accepted the separation of alders from birches, transferred the species to Alnus. The epithet glutinosa means "sticky", referring to the young shoots. Within the genus Alnus, the common alder is placed in subgenus Alnus as part of a related group of species including the grey alder, Alnus incana, with which it hybridizes to form the hybrid A. × hybrida. The common alder is native to the whole of continental Europe as well as the United Kingdom and Ireland. In Asia its range includes Turkey and Kazakhstan, in Africa it is found in Tunisia and Morocco, it is naturalised in the Azores. It has been introduced, either by accident or by intent, to Canada, the United States, South Africa and New Zealand.
Its natural habitat is in moist ground near rivers and lakes but it can grow in drier locations and sometimes occurs in mixed woodland and on forest edges. It tolerates a range of soil types and grows best at a pH of between 5.5 and 7.2. Because of its association with the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Frankia alni, it can grow in nutrient-poor soils where few other trees thrive; the common alder is most noted for its symbiotic relationship with the bacterium Frankia alni, which forms nodules on the tree's roots. This bacterium fixes it in a form available to the tree. In return, the bacterium receives; this relationship, which improves the fertility of the soil, has established the common alder as an important pioneer species in ecological succession. The common alder is susceptible to Phytophthora alni, a evolved species of oomycete plant pathogen of hybrid origin; this is the causal agent of phytophthora disease of alder, causing extensive mortality of the trees in som
Carpinus betulus known as the European or common hornbeam, is a hornbeam native to Western Asia and central and southern Europe, including southern England. It requires a warm climate for good growth, occurs only at elevations up to 600 metres, it grows in mixed stands with oak, in some areas beech, is a common tree in scree forests. Hornbeam was known as'Yoke Elm', it is a deciduous small to medium-size tree reaching heights of 15–25 metres 30 m, has a fluted and crooked trunk. The bark is smooth and greenish-grey in old trees; the buds, unlike those of the beech, are 10 mm long at the most, pressed close to the twig. The leaves are alternate, 4–9 cm long, with prominent veins giving a distinctive corrugated texture, a serrated margin, it is monoecious, the wind-pollinated male and female catkins appear in early summer after the leaves. The fruit is a small 7–8 mm long nut surrounded by a three-pointed leafy involucre 3–4 cm long; the wood is heavy and hard, is used for tools and building constructions.
It burns hot and making it suitable for firewood. This was the reason for lopping and hence indirectly the saving of Epping Forest, where the hornbeam was a favoured pollarding tree. Hornbeam was coppiced and pollarded in the past in England, it is still infrequently managed using these traditional methods, but for non-commercial conservation purposes. As a woodland tree traditionally managed in this way, it is frequent in the ancient woodlands of south Essex and north Kent where it occupies more than half of most ancient woods and wood pastures; the leaves provide food for some animals, including Lepidoptera such as the case-bearer moth Coleophora anatipennella. There are a number of notable forests where C. betulus is a dominant tree species, among which are: Epping Forest, Essex/London, UK Halltorp Nature Reserve, Öland, Sweden In England, trees appear to prefer soils with a pH from 3.6 to 4.6 but tolerate up to 7.6. They are found on soils with moderate clay content and avoid soils with high or low clay content.
Carpinus betulus likes moderate soil fertility and moisture. It has a shallow, wide-spreading root system and is marked by the production of stump sprouts when cut back; because it stands up well to cutting back and has dense foliage, it has been much used in landscape gardening as tall hedges and for topiary. The seeds do not germinate till the spring of the second year after sowing; the hornbeam is marked by vigorous natural regeneration. Three fossil fruits of Carpinus betulus have been extracted from borehole samples of the Middle Miocene fresh water deposits in Nowy Sacz Basin, West Carpathians, Poland. Carpinus betulus is cultivated as an ornamental tree, for planting in gardens and parks throughout north west Europe. Both the species and the cultivar C. betulus'Fastigiata' have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. There are several cultivars, notably: C. betulus'Fastigiata' or'Pyramidalis', a fastigiate tree when young, which has become a popular urban street tree in the United Kingdom and other countries.
C. betulus'Frans Fontaine', a similar fastigiate tree to'Fastigiata' Den virtuella floran: Carpinus betulus distribution Carpinus betulus - information, genetic conservation units and related resources. European Forest Genetic Resources Programme
The English Channel called the Channel, is the body of water that separates Southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean. It is the busiest shipping area in the world, it is about 560 km long and varies in width from 240 km at its widest to 33.3 km in the Strait of Dover. It is the smallest of the shallow seas around the continental shelf of Europe, covering an area of some 75,000 km2; until the 18th century, the English Channel had no fixed name either in French. It was never defined as a political border, the names were more or less descriptive, it was not considered as the property of a nation. Before the development of the modern nations, British scholars often referred to it as "Gaulish" and French scholars as "British" or "English"; the name "English Channel" has been used since the early 18th century originating from the designation Engelse Kanaal in Dutch sea maps from the 16th century onwards. In modern Dutch, however, it is known as Het Kanaal.
It has been known as the "British Channel" or the "British Sea". It was called Oceanus Britannicus by the 2nd-century geographer Ptolemy; the same name is used on an Italian map of about 1450, which gives the alternative name of canalites Anglie—possibly the first recorded use of the "Channel" designation. The Anglo-Saxon texts call it Sūð-sǣ as opposed to Norð-sǣ; the common word channel was first recorded in Middle English in the 13th century and was borrowed from Old French chanel, variant form of chenel "canal". The French name la Manche has been in use since at least the 17th century; the name is said to refer to the Channel's sleeve shape. Folk etymology has derived it from a Celtic word meaning channel, the source of the name for the Minch in Scotland, but this name was never mentioned before the 17th century, French and British sources of that time are clear about its etymology; the name in Breton means "Breton Sea", its Cornish name means "British Sea". The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the English Channel as follows: The IHO defines the southwestern limit of the North Sea as "a line joining the Walde Lighthouse and Leathercoat Point".
The Walde Lighthouse is 6 km east of Calais, Leathercoat Point is at the north end of St Margaret's Bay, Kent. The Strait of Dover, at the Channel's eastern end, is its narrowest point, while its widest point lies between Lyme Bay and the Gulf of Saint Malo, near its midpoint, it is shallow, with an average depth of about 120 m at its widest part, reducing to a depth of about 45 m between Dover and Calais. Eastwards from there the adjoining North Sea reduces to about 26 m in the Broad Fourteens where it lies over the watershed of the former land bridge between East Anglia and the Low Countries, it reaches a maximum depth of 180 m in the submerged valley of Hurd's Deep, 48 km west-northwest of Guernsey. The eastern region along the French coast between Cherbourg and the mouth of the Seine river at Le Havre is referred to as the Bay of the Seine. There are several major islands in the Channel, the most notable being the Isle of Wight off the English coast, the Channel Islands, British Crown dependencies off the coast of France.
The coastline on the French shore, is indented. The Cotentin Peninsula in France juts out into the Channel, whilst on the English side there is a small parallel strait known as the Solent between the Isle of Wight and the mainland; the Celtic Sea is to the west of the Channel. The Channel acts as a funnel that amplifies the tidal range from less than a metre as observed at sea to more than 6 metres as observed in the Channel Islands, the west coast of the Cotentin Peninsula and the north coast of Brittany; the time difference of about six hours between high water at the eastern and western limits of the Channel is indicative of the tidal range being amplified further by resonance. In the UK Shipping Forecast the Channel is divided into the following areas, from the east: Dover Wight Portland Plymouth The Channel is of geologically recent origin, having been dry land for most of the Pleistocene period. Before the Devensian glaciation and Ireland were part of continental Europe, linked by an unbroken Weald-Artois Anticline, a ridge that acted as a natural dam holding back a large freshwater pro-glacial lake in the Doggerland region, now submerged under the North Sea.
During this period the North Sea and all of the British Isles were covered by ice. The lake was fed by meltwater from the Baltic and from the Caledonian and Scandinavian ice sheets that joined to the north, blocking its exit; the sea level was about 120 m lower. Between 450,000 and 180,000 years ago, at least two catastrophic glacial lake outburst floods breached the Weald–Artois anticline; the first flood would have lasted for several months, releasing as much as one million cubic metres of water per second. The flood started with large but localized waterfalls over the ridge, which excav
Not to be confused with Prunus avium, whose scientific name means "plum of the birds". Prunus padus, known as bird cherry, hagberry, or Mayday tree, is a flowering plant in the rose family Rosaceae, it is a species of a deciduous small tree or large shrub up to 16 m tall. It is the type species of the subgenus Padus, it is native to northern Europe and northern Asia Prunus padus is native to northern Europe and spans central latitudes of Asia, including Japan. Its distribution includes the British Isles, Norway, Finland, Ukraine, Spain, Northern Italy and the Balkans; the Mayday tree is abundant as an introduced species in Anchorage, having been planted in great numbers by landscapers and homeowners. The fruit is astringent due to its tannin content. There are two varieties: European bird cherry Prunus padus var. padus and western Asia. Asian bird cherry Prunus padus var. commutata, eastern Asia. The flowers flies; the fruit is eaten by birds, which do not taste astringency as unpleasant. Bird-cherry ermine moth uses bird-cherry as its host plant, the larvae can eat single trees leafless.
The glycosides prulaurasin and amygdalin, which can be poisonous to some mammals, are present in some parts of P. padus, including the leaves and fruits. The fruit of this tree is used in western Europe, once upon a time, it may have been eaten farther east. According to Herodotus writing some 2,500 years ago, a strange race of men and women, all bald from birth, who live in what may be the foothills of the Urals, pick the bean-sized fruits of a tree called'pontic' to make a black juice from, from the leftover lees of the fruit make a cake-like dish, this juice and cakes being the main sustenance of the bald peoples. According to A. D. Godley, a translator of the works of Herodotus published in the early 1920s, it is said that the Cossacks make a similar juice from Prunus padus, call this juice a similar name as the bald men called their juice according to Scythian traders according to Herodotus, it was used medicinally during the Middle Ages. The bark of the tree, placed at the door, was supposed to ward off plague.
The variety commutata is sold as an ornamental tree in North America under the common name Mayday. It is valued for its spring display of fragrant, white flowers; the common name Mayday tree is not related to the distress signal mayday as the name for the tree was in use prior to the adoption of mayday as an international distress signal. A taboo on the use of the wood of the hackberry was reported by natives of Advie, in northeast Scotland, being regarded as a "witches tree". Taphrina padi - A Pocket Plum gall that occurs on Bird Cherry Prunus padus - information, genetic conservation units and related resources. European Forest Genetic Resources Programme
Crataegus monogyna, known as common hawthorn, oneseed hawthorn, or single-seeded hawthorn, is a species of hawthorn native to Europe, northwest Africa and western Asia. It has been introduced in many other parts of the world, it can be an invasive weed. Other common names include may, maythorn, whitethorn and haw; this species is one of several that have been referred to as Crataegus oxyacantha, a name, rejected by the botanical community as too ambiguous. In 1793 Medikus published the name C. apiifolia for a European hawthorn now included in C. monogyna, but that name is illegitimate under the rules of botanical nomenclature. The common hawthorn is a small tree 5 -- 14 metres tall, with a dense crown; the bark is dull brown with vertical orange cracks. The younger stems bear sharp thorns 12. 5mm long. The leaves are 20 to 40 mm long and lobed, sometimes to the midrib, with the lobes spreading at a wide angle; the upper surface is dark green paler underneath. The hermaphrodite flowers are produced in late spring in corymbs of 5–25 together.
The flowers are pollinated by midges and other insects and in the year bear numerous haws. The haw is a small, oval dark red fruit about 10 mm long, berry-like, but structurally a pome containing a single seed. Haws are important for wildlife in winter thrushes and waxwings; the common hawthorn is distinguished from the related but less widespread Midland hawthorn by its more upright growth, the leaves being lobed, with spreading lobes, in the flowers having just one style, not two or three. However they are inter-fertile and hybrids occur frequently. Crataegus monogyna is one of the most common species used as the "hawthorn" of traditional herbalism; the plant parts used are sprigs with both leaves and flowers, or alternatively the fruit. Hawthorne has been investigated by evidence-based medicine for treating cardiac insufficiency. Crataegus monogyna is a source of antioxidant phytochemicals extracts of hawthorn leaves with flowers. Common hawthorn is extensively planted as a hedge plant for agricultural use.
Its spines and close branching habit render it stock- and human-proof, with some basic maintenance. The traditional practice of hedge laying is most practised with this species, it is a good fire wood which burns with little smoke. Numerous hybrids exist, some of; the most used hybrid is C. × media, of which several cultivars are known, including the popular'Paul's Scarlet' with dark pink double flowers. Other garden shrubs that have sometimes been suggested as possible hybrids involving the common hawthorn, include the various-leaved hawthorn of the Caucasus, only occasionally found in parks and gardens; the fruit of hawthorn, called haws, are edible raw but are made into jellies and syrups, used to make wine, or to add flavour to brandy. Botanically they are pomes. A haw is small and oblong, similar in size and shape to a small olive or grape, red when ripe. Haws develop in groups of three along smaller branches, they are delicate in taste. In this species they have only one seed, but in other species of hawthorn there may be up to five seeds.
Petals are edible, as are the leaves, which if picked in spring when still young are tender enough to be used in salads. Hawthorn petals are used in the medieval English recipe for spinee, an almond-milk based pottage recorded in'The Forme of Cury' by the Chief Master-Cook of King Richard II, c. 1390. An ancient specimen, reputedly the oldest tree of any species in France, is to be found alongside the church at Saint Mars sur la Futaie, Mayenne; the tree has a height of 9 m, a girth of 265 cm. The inscription on the plaque beneath reads: "This hawthorn is the oldest tree in France, its origin goes back to St Julien". A famous specimen in England was the Glastonbury or Holy Thorn which, according to legend, sprouted from the staff of Joseph of Arimathea after he thrust it into the ground while visiting Glastonbury in the 1st century AD; the tree was noteworthy because it flowered twice in a year, once in the late spring, normal, but once after the harshness of midwinter had passed. The original tree at Glastonbury Abbey, felled in the 1640s during the English Civil War, has been propagated as the cultivar'Biflora'.
A replacement was planted by the local council in 1951, but was cut down by vandals in 2010. The oldest known living specimen in East Anglia, in the United Kingdom, is known as The Hethel Old Thorn, is located in the churchyard in the small village of Hethel, south of Norwich, in Norfolk, it is reputed to be more than 700 years old. The hawthorn is associated with Faerie in Ireland, as such is not disturbed by those who believe in the danger fairies traditionally represent; the hawthorn button-top gall on Hawthorn, is caused by the dipteron gall-midge Dasineura crataegi. Haweater List of Lepidoptera that feed on hawthorns Folklore about hawthorns the European species C. laevigata and/or C. monogyna and hybrids between these two species. Philips, R.. Trees
Buxus is a genus of about 70 species in the family Buxaceae. Common names boxwood; the boxes are native to western and southern Europe, southwest and eastern Asia, Madagascar, northernmost South America, Central America and the Caribbean, with the majority of species being tropical or subtropical. Centres of diversity occur in Cuba and Madagascar, they are slow-growing evergreen shrubs and small trees, growing to 2–12 m tall. The leaves are opposite, rounded to lanceolate, leathery; the flowers are yellow-green, monoecious with both sexes present on a plant. The fruit is a small capsule 0.5 -- 1.5 cm long. The genus splits into three genetically distinct sections, each section in a different region, with the Eurasian species in one section, the African and Madagascan species in the second, the American species in the third; the African and American sections are genetically closer to each other than to the Eurasian section. Buxus'Green Velvet' Buxus microphylla var. koreana'Winter Gem' Box plants are grown as hedges and for topiary.
In Britain and mainland Europe, box is subject to damage from caterpillars of Cydalima perspectalis which can devastate a box hedge within a short time. This is a introduced species first noticed in Europe in 2007 and in the UK in 2008 but spreading. There were 3 UK reports of infestation in 2011, 20 in 2014 and 150 in the first half of 2015. Owing to its fine grain it is a good wood for fine wood carving, although this is limited by the small sizes available, it is resistant to splitting and chipping, thus useful for decorative or storage boxes. It was used for wooden combs; as a timber or wood for carving it is "boxwood" in all varieties of English. Owing to the high density of the wood, boxwood is used for chess pieces, unstained boxwood for the white pieces and stained boxwood for the black pieces, in lieu of ebony; the fine endgrain of box makes it suitable for woodblock printing and woodcut blocks, for which it was the usual material in Europe. In the 16th century, boxwood was used to create intricate decorative carvings.
High quality wooden spoons have been carved from box, with beech being the usual cheaper substitute. Boxwood was once called dudgeon, was used for the handles of dirks, daggers, with the result that such a knife was known as a dudgeon. Although one "in high dudgeon" is indignant and enraged, while the image of a dagger held high, ready to plunge into an enemy, has a certain appeal, lexicographers have no real evidence as to the origin of the phrase. Due to its high density and resistance to chipping, boxwood is a economical material, has been used to make parts for various stringed instruments since antiquity, it is used to make tailpieces, chin rests and tuning pegs, but may be used for a variety of other parts as well. Other woods used for this purpose are ebony. Boxwood was a common material for the manufacture of recorders in the eighteenth century, a large number of mid- to high-end instruments made today are produced from one or other species of boxwood. Boxwood was once a popular wood for other woodwind instruments, was among the traditional woods for Great Highland bagpipes before tastes turned to imported dense tropical woods such as cocuswood and African blackwood.
General Thomas F. Meagher decorated the hats of the men of the Irish Brigade with boxwood during the American Civil War, as he could find no shamrock. Boxwood blight Cydalima perspectalis – box tree moth Box / Royal Horticultural Society American Boxwood Society Revision of the genus Buxus in Madagascar