Dublin Airport is an international airport serving Dublin, the capital city of Ireland. It is operated by DAA; the airport is located 10 km north of Dublin in Fingal. In 2018, over 31.5 million passengers passed through the airport, making it the airport's busiest year on record. It is the 13th busiest airport in Europe, is the busiest of the Republic of Ireland's airports by total passenger traffic, it has the greatest traffic levels on the island of Ireland, followed by Belfast International Airport. The airport has an extensive short and medium haul network, served by an array of carriers, as well as a significant long-haul network focused on North America, the Middle East and East Asia, it serves as the headquarters of Ireland's flag carrier – Aer Lingus, regional airline Stobart Air, Europe's largest low-cost carrier – Ryanair, ASL Airlines Ireland, together with another two airlines, CityJet and Norwegian Air International. United States border preclearance services are available at the airport for U.
S.-bound passengers. Shannon Airport is the only other airport in Europe to offer this facility. In 1917, during World War I, the townland of Collinstown was selected as the site of a base for the British Royal Flying Corps. By April 1918, when the Flying Corps was renamed the Royal Air Force, Collinstown Aerodrome was more than 20% complete. Construction was completed in 1919. On 20 March 1919 a group of 30 Irish Volunteers, including five employed by the RAF, stole 75 rifles and 5,000 rounds of ammunition from the base; as Collinstown Camp the site was used for internment of Irish republicans. At the end of 1922 the land and buildings at Collinstown were transferred to the Irish Free State; the airfield fell into disrepair and grass grew on the former runways. In 1936 the Executive Council of the Irish Free State established a new civil airline, Aer Lingus, which began operating from the military aerodrome, Casement Aerodrome, at Baldonnel to the southwest of Dublin. A decision was made; the former Collinstown site, extended into the neighbouring townlands of Rock and Corballis, was chosen.
Work on the new airport began in 1937. By the end of 1939, a grass airfield surface, internal roads, car parks and electrical power and lighting were set up; the inaugural flight from Dublin took place on 19 January 1940 to Liverpool. In August 1938, work began on a new airport terminal building; the terminal building was designed by architect Desmond FitzGerald, brother of politician Garret FitzGerald. FitzGerald, who had designed an airport terminal as part of his college studies, led a team of architects that included Kevin Barry, Daithí Hanley, Charles Aliaga Kelly, Dermot O'Toole and Harry Robson; the terminal building opened in early 1941, with its design influenced by the tiered structure of the luxury ocean liners of the time. The terminal was awarded the Triennial Gold Medal of the Royal Hibernian Institute of Architects in 1942 and is today a listed building. Due to World War II, known as The Emergency in the Irish Free State, services were restricted at Dublin Airport until late 1945.
The only international scheduled routes operated during this time were by Aer Lingus to Liverpool. The end of the war meant the beginning of a major expansion in services at the airport. Aer Lingus resumed its London service to Croydon in November 1945. In 1947, KLM started the first European flights to Dublin with a service to Amsterdam. Three new concrete runways were completed in 1948, in 1950 - after ten years in operation - the airport had welcomed a total of 920,000 passengers. Throughout the 1950s Dublin Airport expanded with uninterrupted traffic growth. Runway extensions and terminal enhancements were carried out to deal with the influx of traffic and passengers. New airlines began serving the airport also; these included British European Airways, BKS. In 1958, a new transatlantic service was started by Aer Lingus via Shannon Airport. By the mid 1950s, it was clear that the original terminal building was too small to cope with growing passenger numbers. A new North Terminal was opened in June 1959.
The plan was that North Terminal would handle all US and European flights, but instead it became the arrivals terminal for all Dublin Airport passengers, while the original passenger terminal was used for departures. During the 1960s, the number of scheduled carriers continued to grow. By the close of the 1960s, a sizeable number of Boeing 737s, BAC One-Elevens, Boeing 707s and Hawker Siddeley Tridents were using the airport regularly. To cope with larger aircraft in the late 1960s new departure gate piers were added close to the old terminal to cope with larger aircraft; these piers would subsequently be connected to Terminal 1. During 1969, the airport handled 1,737,151 passengers; the advent of wide-body aircraft posed challenges for aviation. In 1971, Aer Lingus took delivery of two new Boeing 747 aircraft. To cope with this, a new £10 million passenger terminal capable of handling six million passengers per year, which became known as Terminal 1, was opened in June 1972; the growth, anticipated at Dublin's airport during the 1970s did not materialise immediately.
In 1983 Aer Lingus opened its'Aer Lingus Commuter' division which took delivery of Sho
County Wicklow is a county in Ireland. The last of the traditional 32 counties to be formed, as late as 1606, it is part of the Mid-East Region and is located in the province of Leinster, it is named after the town of Wicklow, which derives from the Old Norse name Víkingaló, which means "Vikings' Meadow". Wicklow County Council is the local authority for the county; the population of the county was 142,425 at the 2016 census. Wicklow is colloquially known as "the Garden of Ireland", it is the 17th-largest of Ireland's 32 counties by area, being thirty-three miles in length by twenty miles in breadth, 16th-largest by population. It is the fourth-largest of Leinster's twelve counties by size and the fifth-largest in terms of population; the adjoining counties are Wexford to the south, Carlow to the south-west, Kildare to the west and Dublin to the north. Total list of Settlements: The Wicklow Mountains form the largest continuous upland region in Ireland; the highest mountain in the range, rises to 925 metres, giving Wicklow the second-highest county peak after Kerry.
The River Liffey, chief river of Dublin, rises in the county, is a major source of water for Greater Dublin. The Liffey's leading tributary, the River Dodder, rises just across the border in southern County Dublin, receives some minor flows from extreme northern Wicklow; the River Dargle runs to the Irish Sea at Bray. The River Avoca forms from the confluence of the Avonmore and Avonbeg at the Meeting of the Waters, before discharging into the Irish Sea at Arklow; the River Aughrim is a tributary of the Avoca. The River Slaney is in the western part of the county. One of the smaller rivers of the county, the River Vartry is important to Dublin's water supply. Lakes are small but numerous, located in mountain valleys or glacial corries, they include Lough Dan, Lough Tay, Lough Brae, the lakes of Glendalough, the Poulaphouca reservoir. Wicklow is home to hydroelectric facilities; the Turlough Hill pumped-storage scheme, a significant civil engineering project, was carried out in the mountains in the 1960s and 1970s.
Wicklow called "The Garden of Ireland", has been a popular tourist destination for many years, due to its scenery, walking and climbing options, attractions including the ruins of the monastic city of Glendalough, Wicklow Gaol and water-based activities on reservoirs and the coast. The Wicklow Way is the oldest waymarked long-distance walking trail in Ireland; the popular annual mass participation bike ride Wicklow 200 has taken place in the county every year since 1982. County Wicklow was the last of the traditional counties of Ireland to be shired in 1606 from land part of counties Dublin and Carlow. Established as a distinct county, it was aimed at controlling local groups such as the O'Byrnes; the Military Road, stretching from Rathfarnham to Aghavannagh crosses the mountains, north to south, was built by the British Army to assist them in defeating the rebels still active in the Wicklow Mountains following the failed 1798 rebellion. It provided them with access to an area, a hotbed of Irish rebellion for centuries.
Several barracks to house the soldiers were built along the route and the Glencree Centre for Peace and Reconciliation was built alongside the remains of barracks there. Battalions of the Irish Army use firing ranges in County Wicklow for tactical exercises the largest one in the Glen of Imaal, used by the British Army prior to independence; the ancient monastery of Glendalough is located in County Wicklow. During the Cromwellian invasion of Ireland, local authorities surrendered without a fight. During the 1798 rebellion, some of the insurgents took refuge in the Wicklow Mountains, resulting in clashes between British troops and the troops commanded by General Joseph Holt near Aughrim and at Arklow; the boundaries of the county were extended in 1957 by the Local Government Act which "detached lands from the County of Dublin and from the jurisdiction and powers of the Council of the County of Dublin" near Bray and added them to the County of Wicklow. The local government authority is Wicklow County Council which returns 32 councillors from five municipal districts.
All of the previous Town Councils were abolished under a new Local Government Act at the 2014 Local Elections. For elections to Dáil Éireann, the entire county in included in the Wicklow constituency along with some eastern parts of County Carlow; the constituency returns five TDs to the Dáil. Mermaid, County Wicklow Arts Centre is based in Bray. Mermaid is the county's hub of artistic activity and creation, offering a programme in many art forms: visual arts, theatre productions, dance performances, arthouse cinema, comedy and a music programme. Two of the county's festivals take place in Arklow, the Arklow music Festival and the Arklow Seabreeze Festival; the county is a popular film-making location in Ireland. Bray is home to Ardmore Studios, where many of Ireland's best known feature films, including Rawhead Rex John Boorman's Excalibur and Zardoz, Jim Sheridan's Oscar-winning In the Name of the Father, several Neil Jordan films, have been shot; the BBC series Ballykissangel was filmed in County Wicklow.
Scenes from the movie P. S. I Love You were shot in the Wicklow Mountains National Park while several scenes from other movies, from Barry Lyndon to Haywire, have been filmed in the county. WicklowNews.net is a popular news website in the county and was established in 2010. The local radio station in Wicklow is East Coast F
Moll's Gap or Céim an Daimh, is a mountain pass on the N71 road from Kenmare to Killarney in Kerry, Ireland. Moll's Gap is on the Ring of Kerry route, offers views of the MacGillycuddy's Reeks mountains, is a popular tourist location; the rocks at Moll's gap are formed of Old Red Sandstone, which are small quartz grains laid down over 350 million years ago. Moll's Gap is named after Moll Kissane, who ran a shebeen in the 1820s, while the road was under construction. Like the nearby Gap of Dunloe, Moll's Gap is an example of a "glacial breach", where a 500 metre deep glacier in the Black Valley broke through Moll's Gap 25,000 years ago during Ireland's last ice age Gap of Dunloe Black Valley Ladies View
Cork is a city in south-west Ireland, in the province of Munster, which had a population of 125,657 in 2016. The city is on the River Lee which splits into two channels at the western end and divides the city centre into islands, they reconverge at the eastern end where the quays and docks along the river banks lead outwards towards Lough Mahon and Cork Harbour, one of the largest natural harbours in the world. A monastic settlement, Cork was expanded by Viking invaders around 915; the city's charter was granted by Prince John, as Lord of Ireland, in 1185. Cork city was once walled, the remnants of the old medieval town centre can be found around South and North Main streets; the third largest city by population on the island of Ireland, the city's cognomen of "the rebel city" originates in its support for the Yorkist cause in the Wars of the Roses. Corkonians refer to the city as "the real capital", a reference to its opposition to the Anglo-Irish Treaty in the Irish Civil War. Cork was a monastic settlement, reputedly founded by Saint Finbarr in the 6th century.
Cork achieved an urban character at some point between 915 and 922 when Norseman settlers founded a trading port. It has been proposed that, like Dublin, Cork was an important trading centre in the global Scandinavian trade network; the ecclesiastical settlement continued alongside the Viking longphort, with the two developing a type of symbiotic relationship. The city's charter was granted by Prince John, as Lord of Ireland, in 1185; the city was once walled, some wall sections and gates remain today. For much of the Middle Ages, Cork city was an outpost of Old English culture in the midst of a predominantly hostile Gaelic countryside and cut off from the English government in the Pale around Dublin. Neighbouring Gaelic and Hiberno-Norman lords extorted "Black Rent" from the citizens to keep them from attacking the city; the present extent of the city has exceeded the medieval boundaries of the Barony of Cork City. Together, these baronies are located between the Barony of Barrymore to the east, Muskerry East to the west and Kerrycurrihy to the south.
The city's municipal government was dominated by about 12–15 merchant families, whose wealth came from overseas trade with continental Europe – in particular the export of wool and hides and the import of salt and wine. The medieval population of Cork was about 2,100 people, it suffered a severe blow in 1349 when half the townspeople died of plague when the Black Death arrived in the town. In 1491, Cork played a part in the English Wars of the Roses when Perkin Warbeck a pretender to the English throne, landed in the city and tried to recruit support for a plot to overthrow Henry VII of England; the mayor of Cork and several important citizens went with Warbeck to England but when the rebellion collapsed they were all captured and executed. The title of Mayor of Cork was established by royal charter in 1318, the title was changed to Lord Mayor in 1900 following the knighthood of the incumbent Mayor by Queen Victoria on her Royal visit to the city. Since the nineteenth century, Cork had been a Irish nationalist city, with widespread support for Irish Home Rule and the Irish Parliamentary Party, but from 1910 stood behind William O'Brien's dissident All-for-Ireland Party.
O'Brien published the Cork Free Press. In the War of Independence, the centre of Cork was burnt down by the British Black and Tans, in an event known as the "Burning of Cork". and saw fierce fighting between Irish guerrillas and UK forces. During the Irish Civil War, Cork was for a time held by anti-Treaty forces, until it was retaken by the pro-Treaty National Army in an attack from the sea; the climate of Cork, like the rest of Ireland, is mild oceanic and changeable with abundant rainfall and a lack of temperature extremes. Cork lies in plant Hardiness zone 9b. Met Éireann maintains a climatological weather station at Cork Airport, a few kilometres south of the city; the airport is at an altitude of 151 metres and temperatures can differ by a few degrees between the airport and the city itself. There are smaller synoptic weather stations at UCC and Clover Hill. Due to its position along the west coast, Cork city is subject to occasional flooding. Temperatures below 0 °C or above 25 °C are rare.
Cork Airport records an average of 1,227.9 millimetres of precipitation annually, most of, rain. The airport records sleet a year; the low altitude of the city, moderating influences of the harbour, mean that lying snow rarely occurs in the city itself. There are on average 204 "rainy" days a year, of which there are 73 days with "heavy rain". Cork is a foggy city, with an average of 97 days of fog a year, most common during mornings and during winter. Despite this, Cork is one of Ireland's sunniest cities, with an average of 3.9 hours of sunshine every day and only having 67 days where there is no "recordable sunshine" during and around winter. The Cork School of Music and the Crawford College of Art and Design provide a throughput of new blood, as do the active theatre components of several courses at University College Cork. Important elements in the cultural life of the city are: Corcadorca Theatre Company, of which Cillian Murphy was a troupe member prior to Hollywood fame.
Avoca, County Wicklow
Avoca is a small town near Arklow, in County Wicklow, Ireland. It is situated on the River Avoca; the Avoca area has been associated with its famous copper mines for many years and the valley has been celebrated by Thomas Moore in the famous song "The Meeting of the Waters". The name of the song derives from the meeting of the Avonmore and Avonbeg rivers, about two miles from the village of Avoca; the song is said to have been written under a tree. Avoca is famous for its handweaving, with Avoca Handweavers based there. Avoca was once known as Newbridge, it subsequently became known as Ovoca, in Victorian times as Avoca. Ptolemy mentions the river Oboka on his early map of Ireland; the official name of the village is now Avoca in Abhóca in Irish. None of the other names are used today. Avoca has been used as a filming location for television series; the BBC series Ballykissangel was filmed there. In 1967, Avoca was one of the locations used in the film Jules Verne's Rocket to the Moon, it was the setting for the comedy film Zonad which had a general Irish release in 2010.
The red kite reintroduced to Ireland, is now seen in and around Avoca. Copper mining is reported to have begun in the Avoca River valley around 1720 and it continued, with interruptions, until 1982. Earlier mining dating back to the Bronze Age, may have occurred; the East Avoca site, today, is composed of a number of rock waste spoil heaps, abandoned quarries and disused roads. The largest spoil heap, Mount Platt, was built up from waste rock excavated from Cronebane open pit. There was a mineral tramway built from the West Avoca mines, through the village and on to Arklow Harbour; the route of most of this was subsumed into the Dublin-Rosslare railway line, but an arch and a tunnel under the road from Rathdrum to Avoca remains. Avoca lies on the R752 regional road linking Rathnew with Woodenbridge; the village is served by Bus Éireann route 133 from Dublin and Wicklow to Arklow, with two departures in each direction on Mondays to Saturdays and one each way on Sundays. There is some local political pressure to secure reopening of Avoca railway station, from which passenger services were withdrawn on 3 March 1964 101 years after its opening, on the Dublin-Rosslare railway line, on 18 July 1863.
Avoca has town twinning agreements with: Bromham, England, United Kingdom. List of towns and villages in Ireland Avoca Cemetery Headstones Avoca Handweavers Official Site Mining, Metal Resources and Exploration in the Republic of Ireland in German, English summary
Dublin Port Tunnel
The Dublin Tunnel and still known as the Dublin Port Tunnel, is a road traffic tunnel in Dublin, that forms part of the M50 motorway. The twin tunnels form a two-lane dual carriageway connecting Dublin Port, which lies to the east of central Dublin, the M50 motorway at junction 2, close to Dublin Airport; the tunnels are 4.5 km in length and total project length of 5.6 km. It had final cost of €752 million; the tunnel was opened on 20 December 2006. It was opened to all traffic on 28 January 2007. Traffic congestion in central Dublin became severe at the end of the 20th century, with thousands of heavy goods vehicles travelling to and from Dublin port via the city centre; the tunnel relieves surface road congestion in Dublin city centre by diverting HGVs from Dublin Port directly onto the motorway network. This has positive knock-on effects for bus users and cyclists travelling along the city quays, including better air quality and safer travel. To discourage commuters from using the tunnel, vehicles other than HGVs are tolled.
HGVs travelling north and west benefit from the expected six-minute journey time through the tunnel. A tunnel was chosen. Dublin Bus routes 142, 33x and 41x use the tunnel to get to the port area of the city from the northern suburbs. Longer distance buses from Belfast and Letterkenny use the route; the tunnel was first suggested in the 1990s after a number of transportation and engineering studies and was included in the Dublin City Development Plan 1999 – 2005. The project was approved following a public inquiry in 1999; the tunnel formed part of the National Development Plan and funds were provided under the plan to the National Roads Authority by the Department of Transport. The contract was managed by Dublin City Council and supervised by Brown & Root, a unit of Halliburton; the main contractor was a Japanese-British-Irish consortium Nishimatsu Mowlem Irishenco1, appointed in 2000. The tender price for construction of the tunnel was €457 million; the final project cost was brought to €752 million by land acquisition, insurance and other services, plus supervision by Brown & Root.
Construction commenced in June 2001 and the tunnel was due to open in 2005 after an elapsed time of 43 months. It opened in December 2006, giving an elapsed time of 66 months. One reason for the project extension was to allay residents' noise concerns. Under some areas such as Griffith Avenue and the Cloisters, boring was restricted to 16 hours per day. Under Annadale Crescent it was reduced to 13 hours. Length: 4.5 km – total project 5.6 km Bores: 2 Bore width: 11.77 m Lane width: 3.65 m Shoulder width: 1 m Bore height: 4.9 m Operating height: 4.65 m Lowest point: -30 m at MarinoIt is the fourth longest urban motorway tunnel in Europe after Madrid M-30, Blanka tunnel complex in Prague and Södra länken in Stockholm, Sweden. When non-urban road tunnels are included, the Dublin Port Tunnel is shorter than some other European tunnels, such as the Lærdal Tunnel in Norway, the Gotthard Road Tunnel in Switzerland, the Mont Blanc Tunnel between France and Italy and the Western Scheldt Tunnel in The Netherlands.
The tunnel was built in five sections including a pipe-jacked section under the Dublin-Belfast railway line. The "cut and cover" sections at both ends featured excavations as deep as 12 m into which horseshoe-shaped sections of reinforced concrete were cast in-situ and backfilled; the southern section, at Fairview, is 500 m long while the northern cut and cover channel from Whitehall Church to Shantalla extends over 1500 m. This work was undertaken by the Irishenco units of the consortium. Both bored sections were initiated from a shaft 33 m deep and 57 m in diameter created at Collins Avenue by Mowlem in a joint venture with Intrafor of France. From here, the Tunnel boring machines, managed by Nishimatsu, were sent north through open clay and south through hard limestone; as is traditional, both machines were named after women – Meghan for 650 m of open clay and Grainne for 2,600 m of limestone. TBM-1 "Grainne" headed south, passing under Griffith Avenue and Fairview, it was dismantled, turned around and used to bore a second tunnel for the southbound carriageway.
The machine, designed by Herrenknecht of Germany, was 156 m long, 12 m in diameter and was delivered to Dublin port in 105 parts carried by three ships, taking one week to unload. Combined, these bores resulted in the removal of 500,000 m³ of rock. A similar process was followed northwards by the 60 m long TBM-2 "Meghan" boring from Collins Avenue to Whitehall Church, first creating the southbound carriageway; the bores were completed with breakthrough into the reception shaft on 18 November 2003 and 18 August 2004 for clay and rock, respectively. Much of the bored sections are 21–23 m below the surface, with the lowest point at Marino, towards the southern end, a point that hosts the tunnel's drainage sump. A particular challenge was faced near the southern portals where the tunnel passes under the Dublin to Belfast railway, a line that carries suburban and commuter services; the railway was constructed on an elevated embankment made up of soft materials resting on alluvial deposits of sand and silt.
Because the railway had to remain operational at all times, the cut and cover approach could not be used. Nishimatsu constructed