Grenoble Institute of Technology
The Grenoble Institute of Technology is a French technological university system consisting of six engineering schools. Grenoble INP has a two-year preparatory class programme, an adult education department, as well as 21 laboratories and a graduate school in Engineering Sciences. More than 1,100 engineers graduate every year from Grenoble INP, making it France's biggest grande école. Most of Grenoble INP is located in Grenoble, except for the ESISAR, located in Valence. Grenoble INP was born in the Alpine environment, it was founded in 1900 with the creation of the Electrical Engineering Institute. Industrial pioneers of a century ago found that after mastering hydraulic power and creating the initial industrial applications, they had created a need for well-trained engineers; the first of its type in France, Grenoble INP became polytechnical and grew continuously in scale, becoming the National Polytechnical Institute in 1971 with Louis Néel, Nobel Laureate in Physics as its first President.
Grenoble INP is contributing to the Minatec project, one of Europe's biggest nanosciences research center. Since December 2014, Grenoble Institute of Technology is member of the Community Grenoble Alpes University. Academic staff and researchers: 1250 teaching staff 1400 researchers 450 administrative and technical staffStudents: 1,428 degree students 3,036 masters students 842 doctorate studentsThe total number of students in 2014-2015 was 5,306 students, including 1,152 international students. Most of the students enter Grenoble INP after a two-year undergraduate program, the French classes préparatoires aux grandes écoles, the selection being made according to the results of an entrance exam; however a few students can be admitted at the INPG without needing to take an entrance exam. Such students have to follow another two-year undergraduate program called the CPP Preparatory Course and to have a minimum entrance average at the end of the program; this program has been created by the French INPs in in order to attract more French high school-leavers as well as students with particular sporting or musical talents.
Each year, Grenoble INP graduates: 1,046 engineers with a "Diplôme d'ingénieur" 332 DEA 146 The École nationale supérieure de l'énergie, l'eau et l'environnement or Ense3, founded in 2008, created from the merge of the former schools ENSHMG and ENSIEG. The Ecole nationale supérieure d'informatique et de mathématiques appliquées de Grenoble or Ensimag, founded in 1960: trains engineers to master the design and use of computer and mathematical tools: VLSI and computer design, software engineering, telecommunications and networks, distributed applications and systems, image processing and synthesis and financial systems modeling, scientific computation; the Département Télécommunications founded by ENSIMAG and ENSERG in 1999 has merged with Ensimag. The École nationale supérieure en systèmes avancés et réseaux or Esisar, founded in 1995 and based in Valence; the school trains engineers of communication. The École nationale supérieure de génie industriel or Génie industriel founded in 1990, is the industrial and system engineering department of the institute.
It trains engineers specialized in organization and technological management. The Génie industrie has a formal link with Grenoble's Social Sciences University and its business School whose faculty participate in ENSGI's curriculum. Génie industriel is created from the merge of the former schools ENSGI and ENSHMG The École internationale du papier, de la communication imprimée et des biomatériaux or Pagora named Ecole Française de Papeterie et des Industries Graphiques was founded in 1907 It trains engineers for the paper and graphics industries: physical chemistry and mechanics, process engineering, paper production and conversion, printing techniques; the École nationale supérieure de physique, électronique et matériaux or Phelma, founded in 2008, created from the merge of the former schools ENSPG, ENSEEG and ENSERG. Nanotech is an instruction open in September 2004 in collaboration between Grenoble INP and two other schools, the Polytechnic University of Turin and the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne.
The instruction given in English in the three cities focuses on microelectronics micro technology and nanotechnology. In 2008, some schools merged, some other changed their names. From 10 schools or department, the group reorganized the courses and reduces the number of school down to 6. · Département Télécommunications, founded in 1999: trains engineers to master the design and use of computer and telecommunication tools: VLSI and computer design, software engineering, telecommunications and networks, electronics. It merged in 2008 with Ensimag. École Nationale Supérieure de Physique de Grenoble, founded in 1985: trains engineers in physical sciences, materials science and optoelectronic devices and nuclear engineering and physical instrumentation. ENSPG trains physics engineers with a strong scientific background. Graduates are employed in basic and applied research or in development, its activity was transferred in 2008 in the new school Phelma. École Nationale Supérieure d'Électrochimie et d'Électrométallurgie de Grenoble, founded in 1921: trains engineers in the fields of physical chemistry, materials science, process engineering
École normale supérieure (Paris)
The École normale supérieure is one of the French grandes écoles and a school of PSL University since 2010. It was conceived during the French Revolution and was intended to provide the Republic with a new body of professors, trained in the critical spirit and secular values of the Enlightenment, it has since developed into an institution which has become a platform for a select few of France's students to pursue careers in government and academia. Founded in 1794 and reorganised by Napoleon, ENS has two main sections and a competitive selection process consisting of written and oral examinations. During their studies, ENS students hold the status of paid civil servants; the principal goal of ENS is the training of professors and public administrators. Among its alumni there are 13 Nobel Prize laureates including 8 in Physics, 12 Fields Medalists, more than half the recipients of the CNRS's Gold Medal, several hundred members of the Institut de France, scores of politicians and statesmen; the school has achieved particular recognition in the fields of mathematics and physics as one of France's foremost scientific training grounds, along with notability in the human sciences as the spiritual birthplace of authors such as Julien Gracq, Jean Giraudoux, Assia Djebar, Charles Péguy, philosophers such as Henri Bergson, Jean-Paul Sartre, Louis Althusser, Simone Weil, Maurice Merleau-Ponty and Alain Badiou, social scientists such as Émile Durkheim, Raymond Aron, Pierre Bourdieu, "French theorists" such as Michel Foucault and Jacques Derrida.
The school's students are referred to as normaliens. The ENS is a grande école and, as such, is not part of the mainstream university system, although it maintains extensive connections with it; the vast majority of the academic staff hosted at ENS belong to external academic institutions such as the CNRS, the EHESS and the University of Paris. This mechanism for constant scientific turnover allows ENS to benefit from a continuous stream of researchers in all fields. ENS full professorships are competitive. Generalistic in its recruitment and organisation, the ENS is the only grande école in France to have departments of research in all the natural and human sciences, its status as one of the foremost centres of French research has led to its model being replicated elsewhere, in France, in Italy, in Romania, in China and in former French colonies such as Morocco, Mali and Cameroon. The current institution finds its roots in the creation of the Ecole normale de l'an III by the post-revolutionary National Convention led by Robespierre in 1794.
The school was created based on a recommendation by Joseph Lakanal and Dominique-Joseph Garat, who were part of the commission on public education. The Ecole normale was intended as the core of a planned centralised national education system; the project was conceived as a way to reestablish trust between the Republic and the country's elites, alienated to some degree by the Reign of Terror. The decree establishing the school, issued on 9 brumaire, states in its first article that "There will be established in Paris an Ecole normale, from all the parts of the Republic, citizens educated in the useful sciences shall be called upon to learn, from the best professors in all the disciplines, the art of teaching." The inaugural course was given on 20 January 1795 and the last on 19 May of the same year at the Museum of Natural History. The goal of these courses was to train a body of teachers for all the secondary schools in the country and thereby to ensure a homogenous education for all; these courses covered all the existing sciences and humanities and were given by scholars such as: scientists Monge, Daubenton and philosophers Bernardin de Saint-Pierre and Volney were some of the teachers.
The school was closed as a result of the arrival of the Consulate but this Ecole normale was to serve as a basis when the school was founded for the second time by Napoleon I in 1808. On 17 March 1808, Napoleon created by decree a pensionnat normal within the imperial University of France charged with "training in the art of teaching the sciences and the humanities"; the establishment was opened in its strict code including a mandatory uniform. By a sister establishment had been created by Napoleon in Pisa under the name of Scuola normale superiore, which continues to exist today and still has close ties to the Paris school. Up to 1818, the students are handpicked by the academy inspectors based on their results in the secondary school. However, the "pensionnat" created by Napoleon came to be perceived under the Restoration as a nexus of liberal thought and was suppressed by then-minister of public instruction Denis-Luc Frayssinous in 1824. An École préparatoire was created on 9 March 1826 at the site of collège Louis-le-Grand.
This date can be taken as the definitive date of creation of the current school. After the July Revolution, the school regained its original name of École normale and in 1845 was renamed École normale supérieure. During the 1830s, under the direction of philosopher Victor Cousin, the school enhanced its status as an institution to prepare the agrégation by expanding the duration of study to three years, was divided into its present-day "
ESIEE Paris is a graduate school of engineering located in Marne-la-Vallée. The school is part of the ESIEE network of graduate schools. ESIEE Paris offers its students general engineering training with the aim of enabling them to design and oversee complex industrial systems while meeting strict economic constraints and dealing with an international environment. To accomplish this, the school renders advanced scientific and technological training, updated to keep pace with changes in the leading edge technologies and supplemented by its association with language, general culture and humanities teaching. ESIEE Paris belongs to the Paris Île-de-France Regional Chamber of Industry; the school is a member of the Conférence des Grandes Écoles, University of Paris-Est. The'modernist' school building located at Marne-la-Vallée has been designed and conceived by the famed French architect Dominique Perrault, it was known until the 1960s as the Breguet school. Created in 1904, under the patronage of a family whose three generations contributed to the progress of electricity in the nineteenth century, their descendants accepted that the new school be called Breguet School.
The school, from its inception, is intended to constitute in the field of science and technology of electricity, the equivalent of what had been for a long time, the National Schools of Arts and Crafts for mechanics, delivers an engineering degree. Recognized by the State by decree of January 3, 1922, the order of diploma is signed by the Minister of Supervision in 1926. Following the law of July 10, 1934, which specified the conditions of issue and the use of the title of qualified engineer, the Breguet School continues to appear on the list of establishments entitled to issue the title of engineer, after three years of consecutive studies at an entrance examination, aligned with the admission requirements of similar public schools. At the beginning, in 1904, it was not about electronics, let alone about computers and systems, but about electricity and mechanics; as the technical and technological evolution progressed, the School's teaching was adapted. Terrestrial television and radio courses appeared in the 30s and 40s and were replaced and developed after the war under the general term of electronics.
The scientific and technical education, supplemented by a broad general education allowed some 4 000 engineers from the 60 promotions, to adapt to all the circumstances of their professional life. Breguet is found in a wide range of industries, in its first place in electrical or mechanical construction, aeronautics, but in national services such as EDF, Public Works, etc. In 1960, the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Paris, anxious to add to its teaching work a training of engineers, chooses Breguet School, which develops from that time a wide collaboration company-school; the last class of engineers from École Breguet was released in 1965. In 1968, the School became known as École Supérieure d'Ingénieurs in Electrical Engineering and Electronics, it is presently operated by the Paris Chamber of Commerce. Some of the students come directly from high school and graduate after five years while others, who follow the traditional path to the Grandes écoles, come from a preparatory classes and graduate in three years.
400 of the 1,800 students in Paris graduate every year and 60% of them have spent at least three months studying or working outside France. Depending on their specialization, they can attend classes in its 650 m2 clean room, it is known as the first engineering school to have students design and launch an artificial satellite, named SARA, in 1991, as part of extracurricular work in ESIEESPACE, a student club. During the last two years, students choose a specialization among the following subjects: Computer science Signal processing and telecommunications Network engineering Electronics and microelectronics Embedded systems Manufacturing systems engineering ESIEE launched several masters of science programs in nano-science, MEMS, electronic engineering and system on a chip, programs to which international students and 4th and 5th-year ESIEE students may participate. In addition to the European Erasmus Programme, two main exchange programs are offered to the students: The Tripartite Programme, offered to outstanding candidates, operates with the Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, the University of Southampton, the ICAI in the Universidad Pontificia Comillas.
Under this program, students spend their last two years in two universities of their choice. The Entree Programme, allows students to transfer to 17 other European universities. Under this program, students spend the first semesters of the last two years in two universities of their choice. Hereafter is a list of some of the Universities where the students of ESIEE Paris have the opportunity to study: - Federal University of Minas Gerais - École Polytechnique de Montréal - Université Laval - Université du Québec à Montréal - Université de Sherbrooke - Beijing Jiaotong University - Xidian University - University of Freiburg - University of Ulm - Politecnico di Milano - Politecnico di Torino - Sapienza University of Rome - Tecnológico de Monterrey - Warsaw University of Technology - UPC - Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya - Chalmers University of Technology - Brunel University - Heriot-Watt University - University of Exeter - Georgia Institute of Technology - University of California, Irvine - University of New Mexico ESIEE Paris is invested in 5 primary researc
École Nationale des Chartes
The École Nationale des Chartes is a French grande école and a constituent college of PSL Research University specialised in historical sciences. It was founded in 1821 and was located first at the National Archives at the Palais de la Sorbonne. In October 2014, it moved to 65 rue de Richelieu, opposite the Richelieu-Louvois Site of the National Library of France; the school is administered by the Ministry of National Education, Higher Education and Research. It holds the status of grand établissement, its students, who are recruited by competitive examination and hold the status of trainee civil servant, receive the qualification of archivist-paleographer after completing a thesis. They go on to follow careers as heritage curators in the archive and visual fields, as library curators or as lecturers and researchers in the human and social sciences. In 2005, the school introduced master's degrees, for which students were recruited based on an application file, and, in 2011, doctorates; the École des Chartes was created by order of Louis XVIII on 22 February 1821, although its roots are in the Revolution and the Napoleonic period.
The Revolution, during which property was confiscated, congregations were suppressed and competencies were transferred from the Church to the State, produced radical cultural changes. In 1793 the feudist Antoine Maugard approached the public instruction committee of the Convention with a proposal for a project of historical and diplomatic education; the project was never carried out, Maugard was forgotten. The institution was created by the philologist and anthropologist Joseph Marie de Gérando, baron of the Empire and general secretary to Champagny, the Minister of the Interior. In 1807 he submitted a proposal to Napoleon for the creation of a school to train young scholars of history. Napoleon examined the proposal and declared that he wished to develop a much larger specialist history school. However, Gérando was posted to Italy on an administrative mission, the project was interrupted. At the end of 1820, Gérando convinced Count Siméon, a philosopher and professor of law, state councilor under the Empire and, at that time Minister of the Interior, of the usefulness of an institution modeled on the grandes écoles, dedicated to the study of "a branch of French literature", the charters.
The 1820s were a favorable period for the creation of the École des Chartes. This was firstly because the atmosphere of nostalgia for the Middle Ages created a desire to train specialists who would, by carrying out a direct study of archives and manuscripts confiscated during the Revolution, be able to renew French historiography. Secondly, the need was felt to maintain this branch of study, which stemmed from Maurist tradition, since the field was endangered by a lack of knowledgeable collaborators in the "science of charters and manuscripts", and thirdly, during the reign of Louis XVIII, a period which saw the return of the Ultras and during which the constitutional monarchy was called into question, the political context influenced the creation of an institution whose name made explicit reference to the defense of the Charter. Under the order of 1821, twelve students were nominated by the Minister of the Interior, based on propositions by the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, they were paid during the two years of their studies.
They principally studied paleography and philology, with a purely practical aim: to be able to read and understand the documents that they would be responsible for curating. The professors and students of the school were placed under the authority of the curator of medieval manuscripts of the Royal Library, rue de Richelieu, of the general guard of the Archives of the Kingdom; this first experience was not successful because no job openings were reserved for the students. The first course was implemented in two stages by the ministerial decree of 11 May and by the decree of 21 December 1821, was the only one run; the Académie did put forward a new list of candidates, the course length was set at two years by the Order of 16 July 1823, but lessons had to be suspended on 19 December 1823 due to a lack of students. However, following a long period of inactivity, the Ministry of the Interior decided to re-open the school. Rives, the director of staff of the ministry, together with Dacier, drew up a report on the reorganization of the School and a draft order, proposed to Charles X by La Bourdonnaye, which resulted in the order of 11 November 1829.
The school was now open to anyone who had acquired the Baccalaureate, but six to eight students were selected by competitive examination at the end of the first year. They followed two further years of training. On completion of their studies, they received the qualification of archivist-paleographer and were reserved half of the available jobs in libraries and archives; the first valedictorian was Alexandre Teulet. The "Guizot period" benefited the École des Chartes, which soon became an important institution in the field of historical – medieval – studies. On 24 March 1839 the Société de l’École des Chartes was founded by Louis Douët d'Arcq, among others, it published the Bibliothèque de l'École des Chartes, one of the oldest French scientific reviews, to disseminate the work carried out in the school; the Order of 31 December 1846 implemented a fundamental reorganization of the school and its study program, which remained unchanged for more than a century. The students, who were holders of the Baccalaureate, were recruited by examination (which shortly afterwards became a competitiv
A university is an institution of higher education and research which awards academic degrees in various academic disciplines. Universities provide undergraduate education and postgraduate education; the word university is derived from the Latin universitas magistrorum et scholarium, which means "community of teachers and scholars". While antecedents had existed in Asia and Africa, the modern university system has roots in the European medieval university, created in Italy and evolved from cathedral schools for the clergy during the High Middle Ages; the original Latin word universitas refers in general to "a number of persons associated into one body, a society, community, corporation, etc". At the time of the emergence of urban town life and medieval guilds, specialized "associations of students and teachers with collective legal rights guaranteed by charters issued by princes, prelates, or the towns in which they were located" came to be denominated by this general term. Like other guilds, they were self-regulating and determined the qualifications of their members.
In modern usage the word has come to mean "An institution of higher education offering tuition in non-vocational subjects and having the power to confer degrees," with the earlier emphasis on its corporate organization considered as applying to Medieval universities. The original Latin word referred to degree-awarding institutions of learning in Western and Central Europe, where this form of legal organisation was prevalent, from where the institution spread around the world. An important idea in the definition of a university is the notion of academic freedom; the first documentary evidence of this comes from early in the life of the University of Bologna, which adopted an academic charter, the Constitutio Habita, in 1158 or 1155, which guaranteed the right of a traveling scholar to unhindered passage in the interests of education. Today this is claimed as the origin of "academic freedom"; this is now recognised internationally - on 18 September 1988, 430 university rectors signed the Magna Charta Universitatum, marking the 900th anniversary of Bologna's foundation.
The number of universities signing the Magna Charta Universitatum continues to grow, drawing from all parts of the world. According to Encyclopædia Britannica, the earliest universities were founded in Asia and Africa, predating the first European medieval universities; the University of Al Quaraouiyine, founded in Morocco by Fatima al-Fihri in 859, is considered by some to be the oldest degree-granting university. Their endowment by a prince or monarch and their role in training government officials made early Mediterranean universities similar to Islamic madrasas, although madrasas were smaller, individual teachers, rather than the madrasa itself, granted the license or degree. Scholars like Arnold H. Green and Hossein Nasr have argued that starting in the 10th century, some medieval Islamic madrasas became universities. However, scholars like George Makdisi, Toby Huff and Norman Daniel argue that the European university has no parallel in the medieval Islamic world. Several other scholars consider the university as uniquely European in origin and characteristics.
Darleen Pryds questions this view, pointing out that madaris and European universities in the Mediterranean region shared similar foundations by princely patrons and were intended to provide loyal administrators to further the rulers' agenda. Some scholars, including Makdisi, have argued that early medieval universities were influenced by the madrasas in Al-Andalus, the Emirate of Sicily, the Middle East during the Crusades. Norman Daniel, views this argument as overstated. Roy Lowe and Yoshihito Yasuhara have drawn on the well-documented influences of scholarship from the Islamic world on the universities of Western Europe to call for a reconsideration of the development of higher education, turning away from a concern with local institutional structures to a broader consideration within a global context; the university is regarded as a formal institution that has its origin in the Medieval Christian tradition. European higher education took place for hundreds of years in cathedral schools or monastic schools, in which monks and nuns taught classes.
The earliest universities were developed under the aegis of the Latin Church by papal bull as studia generalia and from cathedral schools. It is possible, that the development of cathedral schools into universities was quite rare, with the University of Paris being an exception, they were founded by Kings or municipal administrations. In the early medieval period, most new universities were founded from pre-existing schools when these schools were deemed to have become sites of higher education. Many historians state that universities and cathedral schools were a continuation of the interest in learning promoted by The residence of a religious community. Pope Gregory VII was critical in promoting and regulating the concept of modern university as his 1079 Papal Decree ordered the regulated establishment of cathedral schools that transformed themselves into the first European universities; the first universities in Europe with a form of corporate/guild structure were the University of Bologna, the University of Paris, the University of Oxford.
The University of Bologna began as a law school teach
École Centrale Paris
École Centrale Paris was a French postgraduate-level institute of research and higher education in engineering and science. It was known by its official name École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures. Founded in 1829, it was among the most selective grandes écoles. Rooted in rich entrepreneurial tradition since the industrial revolution era, it served as the cradle for top-level engineers and executives who continue to constitute a major part of the industry leadership in France. Since the 19th century, its model of education for training generalist engineers inspired the establishment of several engineering institutes around the world, such as the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne in Switzerland, Faculté polytechnique de Mons in Belgium, as well as other member schools of the Ecole Centrales Group alliance in France, Morocco and India. In 2015, École Centrale Paris merged with Supélec to form CentraleSupélec, a constituent institute of the University of Paris-Saclay. "Between 1832 and 1870, the Central School of Arts and Manufactures produced 3,000 engineers, served as a model for most of the industrialized countries."
École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures was founded in 1829 as a private institute by Alphonse Lavallée, a lawyer and a prominent businessman from Nantes, who put forward most of his personal capital into founding the school, together with three top scientists who became its founding associates: Eugène Peclet, Jean-Baptiste Dumas, Théodore Olivier. Notably, Lavallée was a shareholder of Le Globe, which became in 1831 the official organ of the Saint-Simonian movement; the founding vision of École Centrale was to train multidisciplinary engineers who will become the first "doctors of factories and mills" of the then-emerging industrial sector in France, at a time when most of the other engineering schools trained students for public service. As the scientific discoveries in this era were beginning to have a major impact on industrial development in Europe, a new breed of engineers with a broad and rigorous knowledge of sciences and mathematics were needed in order for France to develop its industry and compete amongst the world's superpowers.
The school was located in various premises in Paris, including Hotel Salé and buildings which now belong to Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers. Lavallée served as the first president of École Centrale. In 1857, Lavallée transferred the ownership of the school to the French state in order to ensure its sustainability. Under Napoleon's initiative for an imperial university, the school was temporarily renamed as École Impériale des Arts et Manufactures. In 1862, graduates of the school were awarded accredited graduate diplomas in engineering, with the official academic title of'ingénieur des arts et manufactures', the first of its kind in France; the school was transferred in 1969 to a new campus located in Châtenay-Malabry. The Châtenay-Malabry campus was designed by architect Jean Fayeton, was inaugurated by President Georges Pompidou, accompanied on this occasion by Robert Galley; the school was renamed as École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures. In 2015, the school formed a strategic alliance with Supélec to create CentraleSupélec, part of the University of Paris-Saclay.
The new campus is located in Gif-sur-Yvette 20 km from the center of Paris. École Centrale Paris was one of the Centrale Graduate Schools associated as the Groupe Centrale network with its sister institutes. Since 1837, the school had established several international partnerships with the world's leading universities, such as California Institute of Technology, University of Cambridge, ETH Zurich, Georgia Institute of Technology, Harvard University, Indian Institutes of Technology, KAIST, Princeton University, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Politecnico di Milano, National University of Singapore, Stanford University, University of Toronto, Tsinghua University, TU Delft and Technische Universität München, it was a founding member of the TIME network among top engineering schools in Europe, a member of the UniverSud Paris and the CESAER association of European engineering schools. Located in the Hôtel de Juigné, the main campus of the school was transferred to rue Montgolfier in 1884, where it stayed until 1969.
Its current location neighbours the Parc de Sceaux. Former location of the École Centrale, rue Montgolfier in Paris: The school is now located at Châtenay-Malabry, Hauts-de-Seine, a southern suburb of Paris, next to the Parc de Sceaux and its Château de Sceaux. Within the main campus at Châtenay Malabry, ECP hosts eight laboratories: Molecular and Macroscopic Energy, Combustion System Analysis and Macroeconomics Modeling Industrial Engineering Chemical Engineering and Materials Processing Laboratory Applied Mathematics Soil and Structure Mechanics Technology and Strategy Solids Structure and PropertiesMost of the 2000 students at École Centrale Paris stay in dedicated on-campus student residences, located near the research labs and accessible via public transport. Following the merger of the school with Supelec, now forming CentraleSupelec, the progressive move of the campus has started from Chatenay-Malabry to Gif-sur-Yvette. Most French students who were admitted to École Centrale Paris had completed 2 to 3 years of post high school education in sciences through the classes préparatoires or
École normale supérieure Paris-Saclay
The École normale supérieure Paris-Saclay ENS Cachan, is a higher education institution located in Cachan within the Val-de-Marne department near Paris, in the Île-de-France region of France. ENS Paris-Saclay is one of the most selective French grandes écoles. Like all other grandes écoles, this elite higher education institution is not included in the mainstream framework of the French public universities. Along with the École normale supérieure, ENS Lyon and ENS Rennes, the school belongs to the informal network of French écoles normales supérieures, forming the top level of research and education in the French higher educational system. In 2014, ENS Paris-Saclay became a founding member of the University of Paris-Saclay consortium, an initiative to integrate and combine resources from a number of different grandes écoles, public universities, research institutions; the school plans to move in 2019 to a new campus located in the commune of Gif-sur-Yvette on the Saclay plateau, France's "Silicon Valley," where it will be near other members of the Paris-Saclay research-intensive and business cluster.
The main mission of ENS Paris-Saclay is to train world-class academics, but it is a starting point for public administrative or private executive careers. It recruits from the competitive "classes préparatoires". Students of the ENS Paris-Saclay who passed the entrance exam are civil servants and are known as "normaliens". Normaliens are paid a monthly salary by the French government, are required to work for a French public administration for six years after their four-year curriculum at the ENS is completed. ENS Paris-Saclay recruits other university students. Students follow the standard university curriculum, they are encouraged -though it is not mandatory- to take the Agrégation competitive examination. There are 17 departments: the scientific departments of Biology, Computer Science, Fundamental Physics, Chemistry. ENS Paris-Saclay cooperates with many foreign universities, for example in student exchange programs. One of them is MONABIPHOT developed in cooperation with Wrocław University of Technology in Poland, Complutense or Carlos III University of Madrid in Spain, MIT, Humboldt.
The admission to the ENS Paris-Saclay as normalien is made through a competitive entrance examination, requires at least two years of preparation after high school in Classes Préparatoires. The ENS Paris-Saclay recruits 800 degree seeking students. Though normaliens follow the standard university curriculum, they have the opportunity to pursue their studies in other grandes écoles such as Sciences Po, HEC, École Polytechnique and the ENSAE without having to take an entrance exam. Normaliens can prepare the ENA entrance exam. Philippe Aghion Alain Aspect Laurent Batsch Bernard Charlès Erwan Dianteill Michel Lallement Marie-Noëlle Lienemann Olivier Rubel Marc Yor Gabriel Zucman École Normale Supérieure École Normale supérieure de Lyon Grandes Écoles Classes préparatoires ENS Paris-Saclay website