Ruhr University Bochum
The Ruhr-University Bochum, located on the southern hills of central Ruhr area Bochum, was founded in 1962 as the first new public university in Germany after World War II. Instruction began in 1965; the Ruhr-University Bochum is one of the largest universities in Germany and part of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, the most important German research funding organization. The RUB was successful in the Excellence Initiative of the German Federal and State Governments, a competition between Germany's most prestigious universities, it was one of the few institutions left competing for the title of an "elite university", but did not succeed in the last round of the competition. There are nine universities in Germany that hold this title; the University of Bochum was one of the first universities in Germany to introduce international bachelor's and master's degrees, which replaced the traditional German Diplom and Magister. Except for a few special cases these degrees are offered by all faculties of the Ruhr-University.
The university offers a total of 184 different study programs from all academic fields represented at the university. Unlike many older German universities, the buildings of Ruhr-University are all centralized on one campus, located south of Bochum city; the Faculty of Medicine includes several university clinics that are located at different centres in Bochum and the Ruhr area. A major facility for patient care is the University Hospital/Knappschaftskrankenhaus in the district Langendreer of Bochum. Internationally renowned experts in their respective fields are professors Wolff Schmiegel in oncology and Burkhard Dick in ophthalmology; the centralized university campus architecture is comprised exclusively of the 1960s architecture style referred to as Brutalism, consisting of 14 identical high-rise buildings. One striking feature of these buildings is that although their roofs are all at the same apparent height, the absolute heights of the buildings vary in accordance with their placement on the undulating landscape in which the university is located: the campus is at the edge of a green belt on high ground adjacent to the Ruhr valley.
The arrangement of the buildings and the paths and bridges between them was meant to resemble a "harbour of knowledge", with the buildings symbolising vessels, by architect Helmut Hentrich. The campus undergoes heavy modernisation and extension efforts, including the construction and refurbishment of several buildings; some of the original 1960s buildings are to be rebuilt due to PCB contamination. The overall campus concept envisions a modern facility and the placement of Bochum as a "knowledge city". Ruhr-University is administered by the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. 42,718 students are enrolled, the university employs around 5,600 staff, making it one of the ten largest universities in Germany. Kurt Biedenkopf, who became prime minister of the state of Saxony, was director of the university from 1967 to 1969; the university is organized in twenty different faculties. These are: Faculty of Protestant Theology Faculty of Catholic Theology Faculty of Philosophy and Journalism Faculty of History Faculty of Philology Faculty of Law Faculty of Economics Faculty of Social Science Faculty of East Asian Studies Faculty of Sports Science Faculty of Psychology Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology Faculty of Mathematics Faculty of Physics and Astronomy Faculty of Geosciences Faculty of Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty of Biology and Biotechnology Faculty of MedicineECUE - European Culture and Economy Interdisciplinary institutionsInterdisciplinary Centre for Advanced Materials Simulation International Graduate School of Neuroscience Botanischer Garten der Ruhr-Universität Bochum, a botanical garden with Chinese garden Hegel-Archiv, the archives of the German philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel Medical historical collection of the Ruhr-University Art collection, including Antiquity Museum of the Ruhr-University Audimax and Klais-Organ of the Ruhr-University Musisches Zentrum List of colleges and universities Bochum ConRuhr Ruhr-University Bochum Website
University of Cologne
The University of Cologne is a university in Cologne, Germany. It was the sixth university to be established in Central Europe and, although it closed in 1798 before being re-established in 1919, it is now one of the largest universities in Germany with more than 48,000 students; the University of Cologne is a German Excellence University, as of 2017 it ranks 145th globally according to Times Higher Education'.' The University of Cologne was established in 1388 as the fourth university in the Holy Roman Empire, after the Charles University of Prague, the University of Vienna and the Ruprecht Karl University of Heidelberg. The charter was signed by Pope Urban VI; the university began teaching on January 6, 1389. In 1798, the university was abolished by the French, who had invaded Cologne in 1794, because under the new French constitution, many universities were abolished all over France; the last rector Ferdinand Franz Wallraf was able to preserve the university's Great Seal, now once more in use.
In 1919, the Prussian government endorsed a decision by the Cologne City Council to re-establish the university. This was considered to be a replacement for the loss of the University of Strasbourg on the west bank of the Rhine, which contemporaneously reverted to France with the rest of Alsace. On May 29, 1919, the Cologne Mayor Konrad Adenauer signed the charter of the modern university. At that point, the new university was located in Neustadt-Süd, but relocated to its current campus in Lindenthal on 2 November 1934; the old premises are now being used for the Cologne University of Applied Sciences. The university was composed of the Faculty of Business and Social Sciences and the Faculty of Medicine. In 1920, the Faculty of Law and the Faculty of Arts were added, from which latter the School of Mathematics and Natural Sciences was split off in 1955 to form a separate Faculty. In 1980, the two Cologne departments of the Rhineland School of Education were attached to the university as the Faculties of Education and of Special Education.
In 1988, the university became a founding member of the Community of European Management Schools and International Companies, today's Global Alliance in Management Education. The University is a leader in the area of economics and is placed in top positions for law and business, both for national and international rankings; the University of Cologne is a statutory corporation, operated by the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia. The university is divided into six faculties; the faculties are those of Management and Social Sciences, Medicine, Arts and Natural Sciences and Human Sciences. On November 24, 2004, the physicist Axel Freimuth was elected as Rector of the University, his term began on April 1, 2005. He succeeded Tassilo Küpper and was the 49th Rector since 1919, he was Dean of Mathematics and Natural Sciences. GeoMuseum: The only natural history museum in Cologne Theatre Collection in Schloss Wahn: images and text from European theater from the 16th century Max Bruch Archive of the Institute of Musicology: autographs and writings from and about Max Bruch The Kathy Acker Reading Room, the personal library of author Kathy Acker.
Musical Instrument Collection of the Musicology Institute Egyptian collection: Papyri and parchments and small sculptures Prehistoric collection artefacts from all periods of prehistoric and early history from foreign sites, from the Neanderthal fist to the bronze sword and iron weapons of the early Middle Ages Papyrus collection of the Institute of Antiquity: Barbarastollen: Under the main building, a mining gallery was built as part of a museum for trade and industry in 1932 In 2005, the University enrolled 47,203 students, including 3,718 graduate students. In 2003, the number of post-doctoral students was 670; the number of international students was 6,157 in the Summer Semester of 2005. This amounts to 13% of the total students; those from developing countries made up about 60 %. The largest contingents came from Bulgaria, Poland and Ukraine. There are 508 professors including 70 women. In addition, the university employs 1,549 research assistants, with an additional 765 at the clinic, 1,462 other assistants.
The University of Cologne maintains twenty official partnerships with universities from ten countries. Of these, the partnerships with Clermont-Ferrand I and Pennsylvania State are the oldest partnerships. In addition, Cologne has further cooperations with more than 260 other universities. Over the centuries, scholars from Cologne have been among the most prominent in their fields, beginning with Albertus Magnus and his pupil Thomas Aquinas. Notable alumni of the 20th century include among others Kurt Alder, Peter Grünberg, Heinrich Böll, Karl Carstens, Gustav Heinemann, Karolos Papoulias, Erich Gutenberg, Axel Ockenfels, Eberhard Voit. List of medieval universities Erich Meuthen: Kölner Universitätsgeschichte, Band I: Die alte Universität, 1988, ISBN 3-412-06287-1 Bernd Heimbüchel und Klaus Pabst: Kölner Universitätsgeschichte, Band II: Das 19
Freiburg im Breisgau
Freiburg im Breisgau is a city in Baden-Württemberg, with a population of about 220,000. In the south-west of the country, it straddles the Dreisam river, at the foot of the Schlossberg; the city has acted as the hub of the Breisgau region on the western edge of the Black Forest in the Upper Rhine Plain. A famous old German university town, archiepiscopal seat, Freiburg was incorporated in the early twelfth century and developed into a major commercial and ecclesiastical center of the upper Rhine region; the city is known for its medieval minster and Renaissance university, as well as for its high standard of living and advanced environmental practices. The city is situated in the heart of the major Baden wine-growing region and serves as the primary tourist entry point to the scenic beauty of the Black Forest. According to meteorological statistics, the city is the sunniest and warmest in Germany, held the all-time German temperature record of 40.2 °C from 2003 to 2015. Freiburg was founded by Duke Berthold III of Zähringen in 1120 as a free market town.
Frei means "free", Burg, like the modern English word "borough", was used in those days for an incorporated city or town one with some degree of autonomy. The German word Burg means "a fortified town", as in Hamburg. Thus, it is that the name of this place means a "fortified town of free citizens"; this town was strategically located at a junction of trade routes between the Mediterranean Sea and the North Sea regions, the Rhine and Danube rivers. In 1200, Freiburg's population numbered 6,000 people. At about that time, under the rule of Bertold V, the last duke of Zähringen, the city began construction of its Freiburg Münster cathedral on the site of an older parish church. Begun in the Romanesque style, it was continued and completed 1513 for the most part as a Gothic edifice. In 1218, when Bertold V died Egino V von Urach, the count of Urach assumed the title of Freiburg's count as Egino I von Freiburg; the city council wrote down its established rights in a document. At the end of the thirteenth century there was a feud between the citizens of Freiburg and their lord, Count Egino II of Freiburg.
Egino II raised taxes and sought to limit the citizens' freedom, after which the Freiburgers used catapults to destroy the count's castle atop the Schloßberg, a hill that overlooks the city center. The furious count called on his brother-in-law the Bishop of Strasbourg, Konradius von Lichtenberg, for help; the bishop responded by marching with his army to Freiburg. According to an old Freiburg legend, a butcher named Hauri stabbed the Bishop of Strasbourg to death on 29 July 1299, it was a Pyrrhic victory, since henceforth the citizens of Freiburg had to pay an annual expiation of 300 marks in silver to the count of Freiburg until 1368. In 1366 the counts of Freiburg made another failed attempt to occupy the city during a night raid; the citizens were fed up with their lords, in 1368 Freiburg purchased its independence from them. The city turned itself over to the protection of the Habsburgs, who allowed the city to retain a large measure of freedom. Most of the nobles of the city died in the battle of Sempach.
The patrician family Schnewlin took control of the city. The guilds became more powerful than the patricians by 1389; the silver mines in Mount Schauinsland provided an important source of capital for Freiburg. This silver made Freiburg one of the richest cities in Europe, in 1327 Freiburg minted its own coin, the Rappenpfennig. In 1377 the cities of Freiburg, Basel and Breisach entered into a monetary alliance known as the Genossenschaft des Rappenpfennigs; this alliance facilitated commerce among the cities and lasted until the end of the sixteenth century. There were 8,000-9,000 people living in Freiburg between the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, 30 churches and monasteries. At the end of the fourteenth century the veins of silver were dwindling, by 1460 only 6,000 people still lived within Freiburg's city walls. A university city, Freiburg evolved from its focus on mining to become a cultural centre for the arts and sciences, it was a commercial center. The end of the Middle Ages and the dawn of the Renaissance was a time of both advances and tragedy for Freiburg.
In 1457, Albrecht VI, Regent of Further Austria, established Albert-Ludwigs-Universität, one of Germany's oldest universities. In 1498, Emperor Maximilian I held a Reichstag in Freiburg. In 1520, the city ratified a set of legal reforms considered the most progressive of the time; the aim was to find a balance between old Roman Law. The reforms were well received the sections dealing with civil process law and the city's constitution. In 1520, Freiburg decided not to take part in the Reformation and became an important centre for Catholicism on the Upper Rhine. Erasmus moved here. In 1536, a strong and persistent belief in witchcraft led to the city's first witch-hunt; the need to find a scapegoat for calamities such as the Black Plague, which claimed 2,000 area residents in 1564, led to an escalation in witch-hunting that reached its peak in 1599. A plaque on the old city wall marks the spot; the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries were turbulent times for Freiburg. At the beginning of the Thirty Years' War there were 10,000-14,000 citizens in Freiburg.
Heidelberg University is a public research university in Heidelberg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. Founded in 1386 on instruction of Pope Urban VI, Heidelberg is Germany's oldest university and one of the world's oldest surviving universities, it was the third university established in the Holy Roman Empire. Heidelberg has been a coeducational institution since 1899; the university consists of twelve faculties and offers degree programmes at undergraduate and postdoctoral levels in some 100 disciplines. Heidelberg comprises three major campuses: the humanities are predominantly located in Heidelberg's Old Town, the natural sciences and medicine in the Neuenheimer Feld quarter, the social sciences within the inner-city suburb Bergheim; the language of instruction is German, while a considerable number of graduate degrees are offered in English. As of 2017, 56 Nobel Prize winners have been affiliated with the university. Modern scientific psychiatry, psychopharmacology, psychiatric genetics, environmental physics, modern sociology were introduced as scientific disciplines by Heidelberg faculty.
1,000 doctorates are completed every year, with more than one third of the doctoral students coming from abroad. International students from some 130 countries account for more than 20 percent of the entire student body. Internationally renowned and ranked among Europe's top universities, Heidelberg is one of the most prestigious universities in the world, a German Excellence University, part of the U15, as well as a founding member of the League of European Research Universities and the Coimbra Group; the university's noted alumni include eleven domestic and foreign Heads of State or Heads of Government. The Great Schism of 1378 made it possible for Heidelberg, a small city and capital of the Electorate of the Palatinate, to gain its own university; the Great Schism was initiated by the election of two popes after the death of Pope Gregory XI in the same year. One successor the other in Rome; the German secular and spiritual leaders voiced their support for the successor in Rome, which had far-reaching consequences for the German students and teachers in Paris: they lost their stipends and had to leave.
Rupert I recognized the opportunity and initiated talks with the Curia, which led to a Papal Bull for foundation of a university. After having received, on 23 October 1385, permission from pope Urban VI to create a school of general studies, the final decision to found the university was taken on 26 June 1386 at the behest of Rupert I, Count Palatine of the Rhine; as specified in the papal charter, the university was modelled after University of Paris and included four faculties: philosophy, theology and medicine. On 18 October 1386 a special Pontifical High Mass in the Heiliggeistkirche was the ceremony that established the university. On 19 October 1386 the first lecture was held. In November 1386, Marsilius of Inghen was elected first rector of the university; the rector seal motto was semper apertus—i.e. "the book of learning is always open." The university grew and in March 1390, 185 students were enrolled at the university. Between 1414 and 1418, theology and jurisprudence professors of the university took part in the Council of Constance and acted as counselors for Louis III, who attended this council as representative of the emperor and chief magistrate of the realm.
This resulted in establishing a good reputation for its professors. Due to the influence of Marsilius, the university taught the nominalism or via moderna. In 1412, both realism and the teachings of John Wycliffe were forbidden at the university but around 1454, the university decided that realism or via antique would be taught, thus introducing two parallel ways; the transition from scholastic to humanistic culture was effected by the chancellor and bishop Johann von Dalberg in the late 15th century. Humanism was represented at Heidelberg University by the founder of the older German Humanistic School Rudolph Agricola, Conrad Celtes, Jakob Wimpfeling, Johann Reuchlin. Æneas Silvius Piccolomini was chancellor of the university in his capacity of provost of Worms, always favored it with his friendship and good-will as Pope Pius II. In 1482, Pope Sixtus IV permitted laymen and married men to be appointed professors in the ordinary of medicine through a papal dispensation. In 1553, Pope Julius III sanctioned the allotment of ecclesiastical benefice to secular professors.
Martin Luther's disputation at Heidelberg in April 1518 made a lasting impact, his adherents among the masters and scholars soon became leading Reformationists in Southwest Germany. With the Electorate of the Palatinate turn to the Reformed faith, Otto Henry, Elector Palatine, converted the university into a calvinistic institution. In 1563, the Heidelberg Catechism was created under collaboration of members of the university's divinity school; as the 16th century was passing, the late humanism stepped beside Calvinism as a predominant school of thought. It developed into a cultural and academic center. However, with the beginning of the Thirty Years' War in 1618, the intellectual and fiscal wealth of the university declined. In 1622, the then-world-famous Bibliotheca Palatina was stolen from the University Cathedral and taken to Rome; the reconstruction e
University of Rostock
The University of Rostock is a public university located in Rostock, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. Founded in 1419, it is the third-oldest university in Germany, it is the oldest and largest university in continental northern Europe and the Baltic Sea area, 8th oldest in Central Europe. It was the 5th university established in the Holy Roman Empire; the university has been associated with five Nobel laureates. Famous alumni include Nobel laureates: Albrecht Kossel, Karl von Frisch, Otto Stern, it is a member of the European University Association. The language of instruction is German, but English for postgraduate studies, it was founded in 1419 by confirmation of Pope Martin V and thus is one of the oldest universities in Northern Europe. In Germany, there are only five universities that were founded before, while only Heidelberg and Leipzig operated continuously since then: Heidelberg, Erfurt, Würzburg and Leipzig; that makes Rostock University the third oldest German university in continuous operation.
Throughout the 15th century, the University of Rostock had about 400 to 500 students each year, a large number at that time. Rostock was among the largest universities in Germany at the time and many of its students came from the Low Countries, Scandinavia or other states bordering the Baltic Sea. In the course of political struggles and pressure from the church, the university moved to Greifswald in 1437 and remained there until 1443. From 1487 to 1488 teaching took place in Lübeck. A few years the city of Rostock, its university became Protestant in 1542. Humanism and Lutheranism were defining characteristics of the university. After the Thirty Years' War, the University of Rostock played only a regional role; when the "ownership" of the university moved from the city to the state in 1827, things changed for the better. The end of the 19th century saw generous building activity in Rostock's alma mater and the university soon regained its old reputation amongst German universities. On the occasion of the 500th anniversary of the university, Albert Einstein and Max Planck received honorary doctorates on 12 November 1919.
This made the University of Rostock the world's first institute of higher learning to award this honour to Einstein. The doctorate was not revoked despite such orders by the Nazis; the reason for this remains unknown. David Katz, Hans Moral and others lost their posts in 1933; the end of the Second World War in 1945 brought many changes. The university, now finding itself in the Soviet Zone of Germany, was re-opened on 24 February 1946; the Faculty of Law was closed in 1951, a Faculty of Agriculture was introduced in 1950 and in 1951 saw the opening of a Department of Shipbuilding. The University of Rostock was the first traditional university in Germany to open a technical faculty. In 1952, the Faculty of Aviation was opened, but relocated to Dresden. In 1976 the university was renamed Wilhelm-Pieck-Universität after Wilhelm Pieck, the first president of the German Democratic Republic; the renaming was annulled after the German reunification. The regional economy has improved as over 800 companies launched from the university since 1991.
External funding for research increased between 2005 and 2010 by 83% and is above 47 million Euros per year. Over 500 million Euros has been invested in the university infrastructure since 1991, which will reach 750 million Euros by 2015; the number of young people from the West Germany and international students who choose University of Rostock as a study location, are increasing every year. International Students from 99 different countries have been studied at University of Rostock. In 2007, the University of Rostock gathered its research capacities into three profile lines: Life, Light & Matter, Maritime Systems, Aging of Individuals and Society. In 2010 a fourth was called Knowledge-Culture-Transformation. Life, Light & Matter develops new concepts for future technologies based on atomic and molecular processes in connection with laser optics and life sciences. Maritime Systems unites oceanographers, humanities scholars and social scientists and lawyers. Aging of Individuals and Society has as its target a self-determined lifestyle in old age.
Knowledge-Culture-Transformation deals with media and the representation of knowledge, transformation of knowledge and interculturalism as well as knowledge and power. Like many continental European universities, the University of Rostock is divided into academic faculties; those can be sub-divided into academic chairs. It is divided into the following nine faculties: The Rostock University Library consists of 3 divisional libraries and several specialized libraries provides scientific literature and information for research and study; the university statistics shows about 3 million physical volumes recorded in the catalogue. It provides access to specialized databases; the library possesses large special collections of culturally historical and scientifically historical old books. In the Patents and Standards Centre, all DIN norms and regulations as well as the VDI guidelines are provided. Moreover, the library contains the university archive and the art treasure collection; the Rostock Student Services provides accommodation for newly arrived i
A Fachhochschule, abbreviated FH, or University of Applied Sciences is a German tertiary education institution, specializing in topical areas. Fachhochschulen were first founded in Germany, were adopted in Austria, Switzerland and Greece. An increasing number of Fachhochschulen are abbreviated as Hochschule, the generic term in Germany for institutions awarding academic degrees in higher education, or expanded as Hochschule für angewandte Wissenschaften. Universities of Applied Sciences are designed with a focus on teaching professional skills. Swiss law calls Fachhochschulen and Universitäten "separate but equal". Due to the Bologna process, Universitäten and Fachhochschulen award equivalent academic bachelor's and master's degrees. Fachhochschulen do not award doctoral degrees themselves. Combined with the rule that they appoint only professors with a professional career of at least three years outside the university system, those are the two major ways in which they differ from traditional universities.
However, they may run doctoral programs. Due to the Bologna process, most German Universitäten and Fachhochschulen have ceased admitting students to programs leading to the traditional German Diplom, but now apply the new degree standard of Bachelor's and Master's degrees. In line with the Bologna process, bachelor's and master's degrees awarded by both types of universities are equivalent. With a Master's from either, one can now enter a doctoral degree program at a Universität, but a graduate with a bachelor's degree from either is unable to proceed directly to a doctoral degree program in Germany. With the master's degree of either of the institutions a graduate can enter the höheren Dienst career for civil servants; the Fachhochschule or University of Applied Sciences and Arts is a type of German institution of higher education that emerged from the traditional Engineering Schools and similar professional schools of other disciplines. It differs from the traditional university through its more practical orientation.
Subjects taught at Fachhochschulen include engineering, computer science and management, arts and design, communication studies, social service, other professional fields. The traditional degree awarded at a Fachhochschule was the Diplom. Coursework totaled eight semesters of full-time study, with various options for specialization. In addition, there were one or two practical training semesters to provide hands-on experience in real working environments; the program concluded after five years, with the final examination and a thesis, an extensive project on a current practical or scientific aspect of the profession. In an effort to make educational degrees more compatible within Europe, the German Diplom degrees were phased out by 2010 and replaced by the European bachelor's and master's degree; the Fachhochschule represents a close relationship between higher education and the employment system. Their practical orientation makes them attractive to employers. Today, Fachhochschulen conduct research.
Research projects sponsored by industry. In Germany the right to confer doctoral degrees is still reserved to Universitäten. In 2016, Fulda University of Applied Sciences became the first Fachhochschule to be conferred this right for its graduate center for social sciences. Several Fachhochschulen run doctoral programs where the degree itself is awarded by a partner university in Germany or abroad. There are a few universities, such as Catholic University of Eichstätt-Ingolstadt and Bundeswehr University Munich, which run Fachhochschule courses in addition to their normal courses; the Austrian government decided to establish Fachhochschulen in 1990. In the academic year of 2010/11, there were twenty-one institutions considered as Fachhochschulen plus a number of other providers of Fachhochschulstudiengängen with a total of over 27,000 students. About a third of the 136 Fachhochschulstudiengänge are organized as part-time courses of studies; the Swiss Universities of Applied Sciences UAS are vocational universities established in Switzerland in 1995 following the model of the German Fachhochschulen.
They are called Fachhochschule in German, Haute école specialisée in French and scuola universitaria professionale in Italian. The Swiss Universities of Applied Sciences offer third level education, continuing education, services businesses and institutions, produce applied research activities. In 2013 there are seven public UAS approved by the Swiss Federal Council in 1998 and two private UAS approved by the Federal Council in 2005 and 2008; the public UAS are run by one or more cantons. UAS have the institutional mandate to provide degree programmes, continuing education and training, to conduct applied research and to offer services to companies and institutions. Students with a finished apprenticeship and a Fachmatura and students with the Matura and a practical year in a company can access further education within the Universities for Applied Science; the UAS and their Bachelor’s and Master’s degrees are federally accredited. The Federal Department of Eco
Berlin University of the Arts
The Universität der Künste Berlin, situated in Berlin, Germany, is the largest art school in Europe. It is a public art and design school, one of the four research universities in the city; the university is known for being one of the biggest and most diversified universities of the arts worldwide. It has four colleges specialising in fine arts, architecture and design, music and the performing arts with around 3,500 students, thus the UdK is one of only three universities in Germany to unite the faculties of art and music in one institution. The teaching offered at the four colleges encompasses the full spectrum of the arts and related academic studies in more than 40 courses. Having the right to confer doctorates and post-doctoral qualifications, Berlin University of the Arts is one of Germany's few art colleges with full university status. Outstanding professors and students at all its colleges, as well as the steady development of teaching concepts, have publicly defined the university as a high standard of artistic and art-theoretical education.
All the study courses at Berlin University of the Arts are part of a centuries-old tradition. Thus Berlin University of the Arts gives its students- at an early stage of rigorously selected artists and within the protected sphere of a study course – the opportunity to investigate and experiment with other art forms in order to recognise and extend the boundaries of their own discipline. Within the field of Visual Arts, the university is known for the intense competition that involves the selection of its students, the growth of applicants worldwide has increased during the years, due to Berlin's important current role in the cultural innovation worldwide. In the same way, the University of the Arts is publicly recognized for being on the cutting edge in the areas of Visual Arts, Fashion Design, Industrial Design and Experimental Design, its roots institutions date back to the foundation of Academie der Mal-, Bild- und Baukunst, the Prussian Academy of Arts, at the behest of Elector Frederick III of Brandenburg.
The two predecessor organisations were Königlich Akademischen Hochschule für ausübende Tonkunst established in 1869 under Joseph Joachim, which had adopted the tradition of the famous Stern Conservatory, the Berlin State School of Fine Arts founded in 1875. In 1975, both art schools merged under the name Hochschule der Künste Berlin, HdK; the organization received the title of a university on 1 November 2001. The exchange program with UDK is a direct enrollment program offered during the fall and academic year to students interested in the arts and with four semesters of German language study; each academic year the school receives 100 exchange students on the basis of institutional agreements. Students participating in the exchange are required to subsidize their own accommodations with little help from the school. Annually, the university opens its doors to the public in its four colleges, offering one of the most important art fairs in Berlin due to new proposals that highlight its young artists.
Claudio Arrau, pianist Claudia Barainsky, soprano Esther Berlin-Joel, graphic designer F. W. Bernstein, cartoonist and academic Sebastian Bieniek, artist Norbert Bisky, painter Antonio Piedade da Cruz, Indian painter and sculptor Daniela Comani, painter SEO, artist Marie Fillunger, opera singer Caroline Fischer, pianist Eduard Franck Catherine Gayer, coloratura soprano Ria Ginster, soprano Leopold Godowsky, pianist Günter Grass, sculptor, 1999 Nobel prize in Literature Burkhard Held, painter Carla Henius, mezzo-soprano Philip A. Herfort, orchestra leader Arnulf Herrmann, composer Christian Leden, ethno-musicologist. Leo van Doeselaar 1995– Jean-Philippe Vassal 2012– Vivienne Westwood 1993–2005 Josef Wolfsthal 1926–1931 Ji-Yeoun You 2009- Isang Yun 1970–85 Siegfried Zielinski 2007- Walter Zimmermann 1993- Thomas Zipp 2008- Spandauer Kirchenmusikschule, which became part of the Musikhochschule Berlin in 1998 Universities and research instituti