Uppsala is the capital of Uppsala County and the fourth-largest city in Sweden, after Stockholm and Malmö. It had 168,096 inhabitants in 2017. Located 71 km north of the capital Stockholm it is the seat of Uppsala Municipality. Since 1164, Uppsala has been the ecclesiastical centre of Sweden, being the seat of the Archbishop of the Church of Sweden. Uppsala is home to Scandinavia's largest cathedral – Uppsala Cathedral. Founded in 1477, Uppsala University is the oldest centre of higher education in Scandinavia. Among many achievements, the Celsius scale for temperature was invented there. Uppsala was located a few kilometres north of its current location at a place now known as Gamla Uppsala. Today's Uppsala was called Östra Aros. Uppsala was, according to medieval writer Adam of Bremen, the main pagan centre of Sweden, the Temple at Uppsala contained magnificent idols of the Norse gods; the Fyrisvellir plains along the river south of Old Uppsala, in the area where the modern city is situated today, was the site of the Battle of Fyrisvellir in the 980s.
The present-day Uppsala was a port town of Gamla Uppsala. In 1160, King Eric Jedvardsson was attacked and killed outside the church of Östra Aros, became venerated as a saint in the Catholic Church. In 1274, Östra Aros overtook Gamla Uppsala as the main regional centre, when the cathedral of Gamla Uppsala burnt down, the archbishopric and the relics of Saint Eric were moved to Östra Aros, where the present-day Uppsala Cathedral was erected; the cathedral is built in the Gothic style and is one of the largest in northern Europe, with towers reaching 118.70 metres. The city is the site of the oldest university in Scandinavia, founded in 1477, is where Carl Linnaeus, one of the renowned scholars of Uppsala University, lived for many years. Uppsala is the site of the 16th-century Uppsala Castle; the city was damaged by a fire in 1702. Historical and cultural treasures were lost, as in many Swedish cities, from demolitions during the 1960s and 1970s, but many historic buildings remain in the western part of the city.
The arms bearing the lion can be traced to 1737 and have been modernised several times, most in 1986. The meaning of the lion is uncertain, but is connected to the royal lion depicted on the Coat of Arms of Sweden. Situated on the fertile Uppsala flatlands of muddy soil, the city features the small Fyris River flowing through the landscape surrounded by lush vegetation. Parallel to the river runs the glacial ridge of Uppsalaåsen at an elevation around 30 m, the site of Uppsala's castle, from which large parts of the town can be seen; the central park Stadsskogen stretches from the south far into town, with opportunities for recreation for many residential areas within walking distance. Only some 70 km or 40 minutes by train from the capital, many Uppsala residents work in Stockholm; the train to Stockholm-Arlanda Airport takes only 17 minutes, rendering the city accessible by air. The commercial centre of Uppsala is quite compact; the city has a distinct town and gown divide with clergy and academia residing in the Fjärdingen neighbourhood on the river's western shore, somewhat separated from the rest of the city, the ensemble of cathedral and university buildings has remained undisturbed until today.
While some historic buildings remain on the periphery of the central core, retail commercial activity is geographically focused on a small number of blocks around the pedestrianized streets and main square on the eastern side of the river, an area, subject to a large-scale metamorphosis during the economically booming years in the 1960s in particular. During recent decades, a significant part of retail commercial activity has shifted to shopping malls and stores situated in the outskirts of the city. Meanwhile, the built-up areas have expanded and some suburbanization has taken place. Uppsala lies south of the 60th parallel north and has a humid continental climate, with cold winters and warm summers. Due to its northerly location, Uppsala experiences over 18 hours of visible sunshine during the summer solstice, under 6 hours of sunshine during the winter solstice. Despite Uppsala's northerly location, the winter is not as cold as other cities at similar latitudes due to the Gulf Stream. For example, in January Uppsala has a daily mean of −2.7 °C.
In Canada, at the same latitude, Fort Smith experiences a daily mean of −22.4 °C. With respect to record temperatures, the difference between the highest and lowest is large. Uppsala’s highest recorded temperature was 37.4 °C, recorded in July 1933. On the same day Ultuna, which lies a few kilometres south of the centre of Uppsala, recorded a temperature of 38 °C; this is the highest temperature recorded in the Scandinavian Peninsula, although the same temperature was recorded in Målilla, Sweden, 14 years later. Uppsala’s lowest temperature was recorded in January 1875, when the temperature dropped to −39.5 °C. The second-lowest temperature recorded is −33.1 °C, which makes the record one of the hardest to beat, due to the fact that temperatures in Uppsala nowadays goes below −30 °C. The difference between the two records is 76.9 °C. The warmest month recorded is July 1914, with a daily mean of 21.4 °C. Since 2002 Uppsala has experienced 5 months where the d
Nyköping is a locality and the seat of Nyköping Municipality, Södermanland County, Sweden with 32,759 inhabitants as of 2017. The city is the capital of Södermanland County. Including Arnö, the locality on the southern shore of the bay just a couple of kilometres from the city centre, Nyköping would have 33,762 inhabitants according to the same SCB source. Arnö is referred to as a part of the city proper, it forms a wider conurbation with the neighbouring minor municipality and town of Oxelösund 10 kilometres south of its outskirts. Nyköping translates as Newmarket into English; the prefix Ny is translated as New and köping is an old Swedish word for a market place and a used suffix for cities in the south central region of the country. The city is located near the open Baltic Sea coast, is regarded as a coastal location. Nyköping is the home of Stockholm Skavsta Airport, located less than 10 kilometres from the city centre. Nyköping is part of the wider area of the Mälaren Valley, located around 100 kilometres from inner Stockholm.
It retains an oceanic/continental climate hybrid. The area bears traces of settlers since around 2000 BC. In the early medieval age, around 1000 AD, Nyköping was a capital of one of the many Swedish petty kingdoms. In the 13th century, construction on the Nyköping Fortress begun; the coat of arms depicts the fortress, or one of its towers. In 1317 the Nyköping Banquet took place, a renowned episode in Sweden's history, when King Birger of Sweden captured his two brothers as revenge for earlier sufferings and had them imprisoned without food until they starved to death; the earliest known charter dates from 1444. In the 16th century Nyköping became the seat of Duke Charles who became Charles IX of Sweden. With the status of a Royal residential seat, Nyköping was at its peak of development. In 1665 large parts of the city including the fortress were damaged in a fire; the same thing happened again in 1719. It was rebuilt with its current street plan. Nyköping was industrialized early compared to the rest of Sweden.
In the early 19th century, textile industry was established, the population soon rose as Nyköping's industry grew. In 1879, C. A. Wedholms mejerikärlsfabrik was founded. Wedholms is a milk cooling tank manufacturer. Nyköping was the town; the business created a spin-off named ANA, which licence-built American and English cars, as Plymouth, De Soto and Sunbeam. The company was purchased by Saab Automobile and led to SAAB becoming the largest employer in the town during the 1980s, as well as the relocation of the headquarters to Spelhagen, but when GM bought SAAB from Investor AB, the headquarters was moved back to Trollhättan and about two thousand lost their jobs. Nyköping has been a stronghold for the reconnaissance squadrons of the Swedish Air Force. Between 1941 and 1980, the nearby Stockholm Skavsta Airport was hosting the Södermanland Air Force Wing which had three squadrons with reconnaissance aircraft, it was the only dedicated reconnaissance wing in the Swedish Air Force. The city has hosted the flying school of the Swedish Army, located at Brandholmen between 1963 and 1985.
Nyköping lies about 100 kilometres south-west of capital Stockholm along the Baltic Sea. It is 60 kilometres north-east of Norrköping, both cities being accessible by highway-divided motorway, it is about 80 kilometres south of Eskilstuna. The northern areas of the city is on the same parallel of 58° 46' N as Canadian'polar bear capital of the world' Churchill, demonstrating how warm the climate is in comparison in spite of its northerly latitude; the southern edge of the municipality straddles the same parallel as the northernmost point of mainland Scotland at Thurso – that has a much more narrower range of temperature. The southern edge of the municipality is the southernmost point of Svealand, the middle of Sweden's traditional three crown lands that once formed the country; the city is located at a few miles more southerly latitude than the country's northernmost west coast town of Strömstad. Nyköping is the exodus of a small river named Nyköpingsån, which runs through the city centre, dividing the city into a natural eastern and western part.
Due to the narrowness of the river, there are a full seven crossings available for automobile traffic, one of them being for the E4. For pedestrians and bikers, an additional seven bridges are available, in addition to that there's one bridge for train traffic. All automobile bridges except E4 carry pedestrian sidewalks, which means transport is made longer than the actual distance. There is a small pedestrian bridge in an unpopulated nature reserve called Hållet, close to the E4 route; the small river Kilaån separates Nyköping and Arnö, with that river being narrower. Separating Nyköping and Arnö is the so-called Stadsfjärden, a bay stretching around the Arnö peninsula down to the neighboring municipality of Oxelösund. Stadsfjärden is used for tourist shipping and canoeing, with an internationally renowned canoeing stadium being situated along the northern shore; the port is much smaller than Oxelösund's and is used for civil traffic, as opposed to cargo shipments and ferry traffic, dominated by nearby po
Östersund is an urban area in Jämtland in the middle of Sweden. It is the capital of Jämtland County. Östersund is located at the shores of Sweden's fifth largest lake, Storsjön, opposite the island Frösön, is the only city in Jämtland. Östersund is the region's cultural and economical centre and by tradition a city of trade and commerce. Östersund had one of the most extensive garrisons in Sweden prior to its closure in the early-21st century. The city is the Mid Sweden University's largest campus site with 7,000 students. With a total population of 50,960 Östersund is the 22nd most populous city in Sweden, the 46th most populous city in Scandinavia, by far the largest inland city in Northern Sweden; the city was the only Swedish city chartered in the 18th century. Östersund was founded in order to create a trade monopoly over Jämtland whose inhabitants' lucrative trade annoyed the Swedish crown. The intention was to persuade the local farmers to deliver merchandise to middlemen in Östersund, but the population opposed this economic philosophy, Östersund long remained small.
It took until the end of the 19th century for Östersund to become a city, after the arrival of the railroad and the economic liberalization of that time. Östersund is situated in inland Scandinavia and connected to Sundsvall in the east on the Swedish coast, Trondheim in the west at the shores of the Norwegian sea. Östersund is located in the middle of Scandinavia, in the middle of Sweden, in the middle of Jämtland County and in the middle of Östersund Municipality. As the most centrally located city in Sweden, the city credits itself as the centre of Sweden.Östersund is marketed as Vinterstaden – Winter City. Winter City as a project is run by the Municipality together with city enterprises. Östersund has had a long history as a centre of outdoor activities with a modern cross-country ski stadium and an actual piste in the city itself. Östersund has hosted several World Championships in various sports such as biathlon, speed skating and ski orienteering along with Swedish National Championships in cross country skiing and snocross.
The city has been the applicant city of Sweden for several Winter Olympic Games, but has yet to host one. The precursor to the Winter Olympic Games, the Nordic Games, were however held at several occasions in the city, due to lack of snow in Stockholm. Östersund is the only city in the province and it is located on the shore of the fifth largest lake in Sweden, Storsjön. The area surrounding this lake is referred to as Storsjöbygden and this area has been described as the World's northern-most located genuine agricultural society in the inland with continental climate; the city sprawls along the eastern slopes of lake Storsjön and most of the city and the city core itself is located on the mainland, facing the non mainland part of the city, the island of Frösön, which for a long time was the actual centre of Jämtland. Today, a sizeable part of the city's population live on the slopes of the island that face the city centre. Östersund is a bimunicipal town because a minor part of it with 400 inhabitants is situated in Krokom Municipality.
The city spans across Östersundet and the city was named after this strait. Östersund can be directly translated from Swedish to English as "East Sound". The name of the strait derives from an older Jamtish name now present in the form Åstersånn. Östersund has a subarctic climate and is located in the far north of the north temperate climate zone. The cold Arctic winds that find their way to the city are called nordvästan or kallvästan locally; however the winter climate is much warmer than most locations at similar latitudes. This is due to the gulf stream and the many passages in the mountain range, bringing warmer Atlantic winds to the city during winters; this somewhat maritime character makes the summers in the city rather cool, in comparison to other towns in inland Scandinavia, which all have a more continental climate with cold winters and warm summers. It contains a strong influence of the humid continental climate courtesy of its mild September lows extending the mild mean temperatures.
Though Östersund is in fact affected by the gulf stream it lacks the high frequency of rain following the currents. This is due to the Scandinavian Mountain Range acting as a natural barrier, receiving most of the precipitation, giving Östersund and the surrounding area a rain deficit. Another issue that has to be taken into account is the higher elevation of Östersund compared to the weather stations in Ångermanland farther east. For example, Sollefteå at a similar latitude 130 kilometres to the east but at sea level, albeit inland, has three degrees warmer July days. Östersund has a high exposition of sunlight and was the most sunny city in Sweden in the summer of 2007 with 654 hours of sun. However, in comparison to east coast locations, sunshine is low. Östersund was laid out with roads spanning from north to south countered by several alleys from east to west, why an alley in Östersund is synonymous with a road leading down towards Storsjön. From the inner city one may gaze upon Storsjön, Frösön and the Jamtish fell region with snow-clad mountains.
This was made possible due to the grid plan. The regularity in Östersund's road system and the slanting alleys leading from higher altitudes down towards Storsjön have created the "windows to the west" characteristic and unique to Östersund as a city; the alleys seen as rather steep, have created the illusion that the houses in the city core are climbing to higher grou
Halmstad, is a port, university and recreational city at the mouth of the Nissan river, in the province of Halland on the Swedish west coast. Halmstad is the capital of Halland County; the city had a population of 92,797 in 2012, out of a municipal total of over 90,000. Halmstad is Sweden's 20th-largest city by population and located about midway between Gothenburg and Malmö, it is Europe's northernmost city with a lot of timber framing architecture. Halmstad, at the time part of the Kingdom of Denmark, received its first city charter in 1307, the city celebrated its 700th anniversary in 2007; the oldest remains of that first town are to be found at "Övraby" upstream on Nissan, just south of and quite close to the present day regiment buildings. The remains of the church can still be seen today between a defunct brick industry and a former landfill. In the 1320s the town moved to the present day town centre. At this time there were two monasteries in the town and during the 15th century the St. Nikolai church was built.
Halland was the object of numerous battles and occupations by Swedish troops. During the Kalmar Union – a Nordic Union between Sweden and Denmark which lasted between 1397 and 1523 – it was in Halmstad that the Union King was to be selected. At the end of the 16th century Christian IV of Denmark ordered the fortification of Halmstad and in the beginning of the 17th century to build a crescent-shaped fort with Nissan as part of the defences. 1619 is an important date in the history of Halmstad. In March of that year, King Gustav II Adolf of Sweden and Christian IV met at the castle. Over a period of a week they celebrated the payment in full of the Älvsborg ransom. August of the same year saw the destruction of Halmstad by fire. Halland became part of Sweden for a period of thirty years when peace was declared at the Treaty of Brömsebro in 1645 and Danish rule ended; the Treaty of Roskilde in 1658 made this acquisition permanent. Sweden defeated Denmark in the Battle of Fyllebro; the first May Day demonstration in Sweden was held in Halmstad in 1897.
The population grew from 48,800 in 1990 to 58,577 in 2010. In September 2007 the city hosted the Solheim Cup, played at the Halmstad Golfklubb. In 2011 Halmstad was the final port of the Tall Ships' Races. Halmstad has the south Scandinavian variety of the wet humid continental climate with warm summers and cold winters bordering on an oceanic climate. Founded in 1983, Halmstad University is a public higher education institution offering bachelor's and master's programs in various fields of study. In addition, it conducts Ph. D. programs in three fields of research: Information Technology, Innovation Science and Health Science. Halmstad University has more than 9 000 students, including 245 exchange students and 163 international programme students. Daniel Alexandersson - football player Niclas Alexandersson - football player Christopher Amott - musician Michael Amott - musician Fredrik Andersson Hed - professional golfer Sofia Arvidsson - professional tennis player Basshunter - singer, record producer, DJ Carl Bildt - former prime minister, former foreign minister Carl Johan Chilberg - ancestor of the Chilberg family, which includes art director John Edward Chilberg II Dusan Djuric - football player Björn Folkow - professor in physiology at the University of Gothenburg and a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
Per Gessle - musician Aida Hadzialic - Minister for Upper Secondary School, Adult Education and Training Olle Hagnell, psychiatrist Halmstadgruppen - Painter group Klara Johanson - writer Bengt Johansson - handball coach Niklas Kvarforth - musician Ola Lindgren - handball player Freddie Ljungberg - football player Susanne Ljungskog - cyclist Magnus Mandersson - Executive Vice-President of Ericsson Sven Nordqvist - author Gustav Nyquist - ice hockey player Erik Olson - Painter Jörgen Persson - table-tennis player Charlotta Richardy, industrialist Johannes Rydberg - physicist Bengt I. Samuelsson - Nobel prize-winner Johan Staël von Holstein - entrepreneur Annakarin Svedberg - novelist Ernst Wigforss - politician, former Minister of Finance Mindy Grasserbauer - dancer Halmstad is host of the ongoing 2018 World Team Table Tennis Championships. Kattegattgymnasiet Brunnsåkersskolan Centrumskolan Frennarps Byskola Furulundsskolan Linehedsskolan Nyhemsskolan Slottsjordsskolan Sofiebergsskolan Stenstorpsskolan Östergårdsskolan Halmstad Municipality Kroenleins Brewery Mjellby Art Museum Chronicle of the Expulsion of the Grayfriars#Chapter 11 Concerning the Friary in Halmstad Halmstad travel guide from Wikivoyage Official homepage for the Municipality Official homepage for visitors and tourists
Kristianstad is a city and the seat of Kristianstad Municipality, Skåne County, Sweden with 40,145 inhabitants in 2016. During the last 15 years, it has gone from a garrison town to a developed commercial city, today attracting visitors in the summertime from Germany and The Netherlands; the city was founded in 1614 by King Christian IV of Denmark, the city's name means'Town of Christian', as a planned city after the burning of the nearby town of Vä and moving the city rights of the neighbouring town of Sölvesborg and Åhus to the new town. The purpose of the town was to safeguard the eastern half of the Danish province of Scania against any future raids from Sweden in the north, but as a symbol of the power of Christian himself. One of these raids had sacked the nearby town of Vä in 1612. Vä lost its charter and the people were moved to the new, better fortified city; the king founded the town of Christianopel in eastern Blekinge to serve a similar purpose. Construction of the towns was a great prestige project for the king, Kristianstad's church is considered by many to be one of the most beautiful buildings constructed by King Christian IV, or northern Europe's most beautiful Renaissance church.
This meant that the church was built larger than there was use for. The king wanted castle or fortress constructed inside the town but shortage of funds made this impossible, of the intendend castle only an arsenal was constructed which today serves as the main building of the local museum. In Christianstad the town planning of the Renaissance could be laid down for the first time at the foundation of the town; this makes the Kristianstad town centre of today easy to get around in. The city's coat of arms depicts two lions holding the King Christian IV's crowned insignia, the monogram C4; the coat of arms was only modified after the Swedish takeover following the 1658 Treaty of Roskilde in which the eastern third of Denmark was ceded to Sweden. The coat of arms is similar to the coat of arms of the former town of Christianopel in eastern Blekinge, a town founded by Christian IV. Since 1971, the coat of arms is used by Kristianstad Municipality. Kristianstad's coat of arms is one of the few coat of arms in the world depicting a foreign king's or queen's coat of arms.
A reason for the Swedes to continue using the old coat of arms could be its colours – blue and yellow. Pylyp Orlyk was after 1709 chosen as a Hetman in exile by the cossacks and the Swedish king Charles XII. While in Bender Orlyk wrote one of the first state constitutions in Europe; this Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk was confirmed by Charles XII and it names him as the protector of Ukraine. After 1714 Orlyk now together with several other cossacks followed the Swedish king Charles XII to Sweden. Orlyk with his family and about 40 other Cossacks arrived in Ystad, Sweden in late November 1715. After some months in Ystad they lived in the city of Kristianstad for some years. Orlyk wrote numerous proclamations and essays about Ukraine including the 1710 Constitution of Pylyp Orlyk. Kristianstad served as capital of Kristianstad County between 1719 and 1997, it now houses the regional parliament of the Skåne Regional Council. For a long time Kristianstad was a important garrison town, the A3 Wendes Artillery Regiment and the P6 South Scanian Infantry Regiment being the towns most prominent military units.
The town housed for many years the so-called Scanian Fortification Brigade. The Wendes Artillery Regiment served with distinction in the Napoleonic Wars. One of Sweden's higher courts of appeal was located in Kristianstad before being moved to Malmö in 1917. Sweden's lowest point, at 2.41 meters below mean sea level, is located in Kristianstad. Because of this, parts of the city have to be protected from flooding by a system of levees and water pumps. To expand the city, large areas of low-lying wetlands have had to be walled in to the east. To prevent future flooding of the city center, the existing levees are in the process of being reinforced and new levees against both Helge å and Hammarsjön are under construction. An extensive system of ponds and dams is under construction; the threat of flooding became substantial during late winter 2002, when the greater part of the public park Tivoliparken was under water. However, the wetlands around the city are starting to be regarded more as an asset, not least thanks to the creation of Kristianstads Vattenrike Biosphere Reserve.
Today the Vattenriket is a Unesco biosphere reserve. Kristianstad straddles the line between an oceanic climate and a humid continental climate typical of southern Sweden; the marine influence is greater during a season that averages above the freezing point. Summers are comparatively long by Swedish standards. Kristianstad has by now crossed a vital threshold, as the city and adjacent municipality, with a population of 80,000, in essence use no oil, natural gas or coal to warm homes and businesses throughout the extensive chilly winters, it is an absolute turnaround from 20 years ago. Absolut Vodka, owned by Pernod Ricard, is produced by the town of Åhus located within the municipality. Kristianstad was the main military seat in Scania for a long time, boosting military camps and trainings. After the reforms and military cutbacks of the 1990s all of these have been closed, although a new military presence is being established in nearby Rinkaby which holds an old military training ground. In and around Kristianstad are numerous enterprises concerned with agricul
Karlstad is a city, the seat of Karlstad Municipality, the capital of Värmland County, the largest city in the province Värmland in Sweden. The city had 61,492 inhabitants in 2015 with 90,882 inhabitants in the wider municipality in 2017, is the 21st biggest municipality in Sweden. Karlstad has a cathedral. Karlstad is built on the river delta where Sweden's longest river, Klarälven, runs into Sweden's largest lake, Vänern, it has the second largest lake port in the country after Västerås. Karlstad is associated with sunshine and the symbol for Karlstad is a smiling sun. Karlstad is reputed to be one of the sunniest towns in Sweden and a local waitress, known as "Sola i Karlstad" for her sunny disposition, is commemorated with a statue. On Karlstad's largest islet, there was a place of counsel called Tingvalla in the medieval age, which had roots from the Viking Age before 1000 AD, it was used as a market place. Karlstad was granted its city charter on March 5, 1584, by the Swedish Duke Charles, who would be crowned King Charles IX of Sweden.
The city derives its name from the King – Karlstad means Charles' city. The Duke granted Karlstad the right as a governmental seat in the region, gave it a substantial amount of land; the Duke built his own house in the city, referred to as Kungsgården. Karlstad's Cathedral was built on the location Kungsgården in 1724–1730 by Christian Haller. Most significant coup d'état in modern Swedish history had its beginning in Karlstad. During the night of 7 March 1809, major general Georg Adlersparre used the part of the western army, stationed in Värmland to occupy Karlstad. From there proclaimed a revolution, during 9 March, he and his soldiers began their march toward the capital to end the reign of king Gustav IV Adolf. Karlstad has suffered four major fires. Only the cathedral and a few houses remained after the last fire on July 2, 1865. Karlstad was thereafter rebuilt according to a grid pattern with wide streets surrounded by trees. In 1905, the agreement to dissolve the union between Norway and Sweden was negotiated and signed in Karlstad.
The official language, Swedish, is the native language of a big majority and spoken by most people in Karlstad. Immigration has established 5 notable minority languages: Arabic Somalian Sorani Persian Bosnian + Serbian + Croatian Several upper secondary schools offer the most common range of courses available throughout Sweden, including the IB Diploma Programme; the majority of students in Värmland need to commute or move to Karlstad for their upper secondary education. Tertiary education is offered by Karlstad University, granted university status in 1999. Värmlands Folkblad and NWT are the two local newspapers. Ice hockey is a popular spectator sport in Karlstad; the most popular club is Färjestad BK. The team plays in the Swedish Hockey League and their home arena is Löfbergs Arena; the club has won the Swedish Championship several times, most in 2011, is the most successful ice hockey club in Sweden since the foundation of Elitserien in 1975. Several other ice hockey clubs exist and Karlstad is represented in the 1st Division of ice hockey by the team Skåre BK.
The 2010 Men's World Inline Hockey Championships was hosted by Karlstad, with Löfbergs Arena as the primary site of the tournament. Traditionally, bandy has been the most popular winter sport in Karlstad, the city is the home of two of the most successful clubs in Sweden, IF Boltic and IF Karlstad-Göta. Boltic reached 10 Swedish finals in a row from 1979 to 1988, they won the first 7 and the one in 1988. They won in 1995. In 2000, the two clubs merged into BS BolticGöta, now the major bandy club in Karlstad. After a successful season in Allsvenskan 2009/2010 the team qualified for Elitserien, but was again relegated for the 2011/2012 season; the home arena, Tingvalla Ice Stadium, built in 1967, is claimed to be one of Europe's largest artificially frozen areas and is awaiting a decision by the municipality to become renovated and transformed into an indoor ice rink. Afghans living in Karlstad has taken a liking to the sport and set up an Afghanistan national bandy team, based in the city. Karlstad is a regular host of start and special stages for the Swedish Rally.
The competition is held annually in Värmland. Several football clubs exist, the highest-ranking team is QBIK; the club was founded in 1978, entered the premier division of women's football, Damallsvenskan, in 2005. The team plays in the 1st Division, but has several players in the Swedish national team, their home ground is Tingvalla IP, the facility is becoming the home ground for the football team Karlstad BK, that plays in the men's Division 1 Norra, having gained promotion following a successful 2010 season. The third highest-ranking football team is Carlstad United; the club was founded in 1998 by an alliance of seven local football clubs, with the aim of providing Karlstad with an elite football team. The club was accepted by the Swedish Football Association in 1999 and the team is playing in the men's Division 2 Norra Götaland. FBK Karlstad play in Division 3 Västra Svealand. American football is played on Tingvalla IP; the Carlstad Crusaders play in Superserien, the highest level and since the founding of the club in 1990, the team has attended eight finals, winning its first championship in 2010.
Visby is a locality and the seat of Gotland Municipality in Gotland County, on the island of Gotland, Sweden with 24,330 inhabitants, as of 2017. Visby is the episcopal see for the Diocese of Visby; the Hanseatic city of Visby is arguably the best-preserved medieval city in Scandinavia and since 1995, it has been on the UNESCO World Heritage site list. Among the most notable historical remains are the 3.4 km long town wall that encircles the town center, a number of church ruins. Visby is a popular vacation destination for Scandinavians during the summer and receives thousands of tourists every year, it is by far the most populated locality outside the Swedish mainland. The Gotland University is in Visby, since 1 July 2013, it is a department of Uppsala University under the name Uppsala University–Campus Gotland. Visby is the sole county seat in Sweden only accessible by boat and air; the name "Visby" comes from the Old Norse Vis, meaning " place of sacrifices", by, meaning "village". In the Gutasagan the place is referred to as just Wi meaning "holy place, place of worship".
Visby is sometimes called "The City of Roses" or "The City of Ruins". The earliest history of Visby is uncertain, but it is known to have been a centre of merchandise around 900 AD, it was inhabited as early as the Stone Age because of the access to fresh water and a natural harbour. In the 12th century, Visby Cathedral, dedicated to Saint Mary, was constructed, it was reshaped in the 13th century to its current appearance, was opened in 1225, by the bishop of the Swedish city of Linköping. Several other churches were constructed in the ensuing centuries; the city flourished, thanks to the German Hanseatic League. The work on the ring wall was begun in the 12th century. Around 1300, it was rebuilt to reach its current height, acquiring the characteristic towers, although some towers were not constructed until the 15th century; the ringwall is still intact. In the first half of the fourteenth century Visby was at the height of its wealth and influence, it was during this time that Laws of Wisbuy, a set of maritime laws that had broad influence in the Baltic and beyond, were promulgated.
In 1361, Gotland was conquered by Valdemar IV of Denmark. 1,800 Gotlanders were killed in battle in front of the city. Valdemar tore down part of the wall, set up three huge beer barrels and threatened to turn his men loose to pillage the town unless they were filled with silver and gold; the Visby city fathers fulfilled the demand, with churches stripped of their valuables. Valdemar added "King of Gotland" to his title list, his treatment of Visby, a member of the Hanseatic League, precipitated that League into war with Denmark. In 1391, 1394 and 1398, it was taken and plundered by the Victual Brothers, pirates who sailed the Baltic Sea. An invading army of Teutonic Knights conquered Gotland in 1398, destroyed Visby and expelled the Victual Brothers. In 1409, Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen of the Teutonic Knights guaranteed peace with the Kalmar Union of Scandinavia by selling the island of Gotland to Queen Margaret of Denmark and Sweden. In 1411, the Norwegian and Swedish King Eric of Pomerania had the castle of Visborg constructed, settled himself there for twelve years, during which the city became a pirates' nest, the commerce halted.
As of 1470, the Hanseatic League rescinded Visby's status as a Hanseatic town. In 1525, the final blow came. In the Danish throne quarrel, the Lübeck, a Free City of the Holy Roman Empire and a leading member of the Hanseatic League, supported Frederick I, while Søren Norby the Danish governor of Gotland fought for Christian II after Christian's official resignation in 1523. While Norby fought a military action in Sweden, the Lübeckers attacked Visby and set the city on fire from four sites, but unlike widespread belief, several churches survived for first. The churches of St. James, St. Nicholas and St. Gertrude were sacked by Lübeck's army. With the reformation, all churches except St. John, which became the city parish, were closed. In 1528, the citizens of Visby sacked the ruler's church in revenge for the plundering of their town. In 1533–34, the new Danish governor, Henrik Nielsen Rosenkrantz, demolished St. John's and St. Peter's churches to improve the defence of his castle Visborgs slott.
St. Mary's Cathedral became the new city parish. Gotland was again taken into Sweden's possession in 1645, by the Treaty of Brömsebro, after 300 years of Danish rule; the city developed as things were left as they were. In the mid 18th century, after a plague had reduced Visby's population, some attempts were made by Swedish government officials to improve living standards, but little was accomplished. Not until the early 19th century did Visby once again attract commerce and a harbour industry. At the same time – 1808 – Gotland was conquered by Russia, but was peacefully taken back by the Swedes after only a couple of months. Visby is the name of the locality, or town, as well as the name of the larger area surrounding it, Visby socken. In 1936, the socken was incorporated within the newly formed Visby stad, the only locality with historical city status on Gotland. Visby socken comprises the same area as the administrative Visby District, established on 1 January 2016; as of 2019, Visby Cathedral, Visborg Church and Terra Nova Church in Visby belong to Visby Cathedral parish.
Visby is the only municipality seat of Sweden, acces