Oslo is the capital and the most populous city in Norway. It constitutes both a county and a municipality, founded in the year 1040, and established as a kaupstad or trading place in 1048 by Harald Hardrada, the city was elevated to a bishopric in 1070 and a capital under Haakon V of Norway around 1300. Personal unions with Denmark from 1397 to 1523 and again from 1536 to 1814, after being destroyed by a fire in 1624, the city was moved closer to Akershus Fortress during the reign of Christian IV of Denmark and renamed Christiania in his honour. It was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838, following a spelling reform, it was known as Kristiania from 1877 to 1925, at which time its original Norwegian name was restored. Oslo is the economic and governmental centre of Norway, the city is a hub of Norwegian trade, banking and shipping. It is an important centre for industries and maritime trade in Europe. The city is home to companies within the maritime sector, some of which are among the worlds largest shipping companies, shipbrokers.
Oslo is a city of the Council of Europe and the European Commission intercultural cities programme. Oslo is considered a city and ranked Beta World City in studies carried out by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group. It was ranked one in terms of quality of life among European large cities in the European Cities of the Future 2012 report by fDi magazine. A survey conducted by ECA International in 2011 placed Oslo as the second most expensive city in the world for living expenses after Tokyo. In 2013 Oslo tied with the Australian city of Melbourne as the fourth most expensive city in the world, as of January 1,2016, the municipality of Oslo has a population of 658,390, while the population of the citys urban area was 942,084. The metropolitan area had an population of 1.71 million. The population was during the early 2000 increasing at record rates and this growth stems for the most part from international immigration and related high birth rates, but from intra-national migration. The immigrant population in the city is growing faster than the Norwegian population.
As of January 1,2016, the municipality of Oslo has a population of 658,390, the urban area extends beyond the boundaries of the municipality into the surrounding county of Akershus, the total population of this agglomeration is 942,084. To the north and east, wide forested hills rise above the city giving the location the shape of a giant amphitheatre. The urban municipality of Oslo and county of Oslo are two parts of the entity, making Oslo the only city in Norway where two administrative levels are integrated
Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic Ocean. It has a population of 332,529 and an area of 103,000 km2, the capital and largest city is Reykjavík. Reykjavík and the areas in the southwest of the country are home to over two-thirds of the population. Iceland is volcanically and geologically active, the interior consists of a plateau characterised by sand and lava fields and glaciers, while many glacial rivers flow to the sea through the lowlands. Iceland is warmed by the Gulf Stream and has a climate, despite a high latitude just outside the Arctic Circle. Its high latitude and marine influence still keeps summers chilly, with most of the archipelago having a tundra climate. According to the ancient manuscript Landnámabók, the settlement of Iceland began in the year 874 AD when the Norwegian chieftain Ingólfr Arnarson became the first permanent settler on the island. In the following centuries, and to a lesser extent other Scandinavians, emigrated to Iceland, the island was governed as an independent commonwealth under the Althing, one of the worlds oldest functioning legislative assemblies.
Following a period of strife, Iceland acceded to Norwegian rule in the 13th century. The establishment of the Kalmar Union in 1397 united the kingdoms of Norway, Iceland thus followed Norways integration to that Union and came under Danish rule after Swedens secession from that union in 1523. In the wake of the French revolution and the Napoleonic wars, Icelands struggle for independence took form and culminated in independence in 1918, until the 20th century, Iceland relied largely on subsistence fishing and agriculture, and was among the poorest in Europe. Industrialisation of the fisheries and Marshall Plan aid following World War II brought prosperity, in 1994, it became a part of the European Economic Area, which further diversified the economy into sectors such as finance and manufacturing. Iceland has an economy with relatively low taxes compared to other OECD countries. It maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides health care. Iceland ranks high in economic and social stability and equality, in 2013, it was ranked as the 13th most-developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index.
Iceland runs almost completely on renewable energy, some bankers were jailed, and the economy has made a significant recovery, in large part due to a surge in tourism. Icelandic culture is founded upon the nations Scandinavian heritage, most Icelanders are descendants of Germanic and Gaelic settlers. Icelandic, a North Germanic language, is descended from Old Norse and is related to Faroese
Kauniainen is a small town and a municipality of 9,395 inhabitants in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area, Finland. It is surrounded by the City of Espoo, in Greater Helsinki, the local taxation rate in Kauniainen is the lowest in Finland, which makes the city attractive to the highest earners. This in turn makes the average income generally high, making it possible to keep the taxation rate low without compromising the service to the inhabitants, approximately 58% of the population have Finnish as their mother tongue while 38% are Swedish speakers. The dominant party in the city council has traditionally been the Swedish Peoples Party, Kauniainen is the only municipality in Finland to be fully enclosed by another municipality. The Swedish name Grankulla is composed by the Swedish words gran, earlier the place was known under its dialectal form Gränkull. The name Gränkull is found on maps as the name of the hill where the water tower in Kauniainen is located. The Finnish name of the town, Kauniainen, is derived from the name of a homestead that was located in Kauniainen called Kauniais and it was named after an estate near Tampere.
The Finnish name was taken into use in the 1930s and was made the name of the town alongside the Swedish name in 1949. Around 10,000 years ago, after the Ice Age, only a few islets were visible in the Yoldia Sea, the first permanent settlements in the area were established in the 19th century. Today Kauniainen is situated several kilometres from the sea, in the beginning of the 20th century Kauniainen only consisted of a few crofters’ holdings at the outskirts of larger farms in Espoo. The name of the place, was known as the more dialectal Gränkull. The history of modern Kauniainen began in 1906 when a company, AB Grankulla, bought the land, several other similar communities were established at the same time around Helsinki, Haaga, Leppävaara and Puistola. The share holders, among them the father of the municipality Janne Thurman, could be satisfied with their investment, the era of the villas had though begun a few years earlier, when Elia Heikel and Emil Lindstedt bought the area around lake Gallträsk and built the first villas.
No properties sold were smaller than 3,000 square metres, in 1915 Kauniainen received a limited autonomy from Espoo and the role of the company declined. The first exact population figure is from 1917 when the community had 1,647 inhabitants, in 1920 Kauniainen became a market town and gained complete municipal sovereignty. Kauniainen differed from its surroundings in Espoo with a town plan, road network, villas. It was decided to keep Kauniainen a green, rural community, most of the villas were built in neoclassical style or in the late 1920s functionalism. The work with a new plan was started in the late 1920s, but the proposal was disputed
Huddinge Municipality is a municipality in Stockholm County in east central Sweden. Its seat is located in Huddinge, which is a part of Stockholm urban area, the municipality is, with its 100,000 inhabitants, the second most populated in Stockholm County. The municipality covers the central part of the Södertörn peninsula. More than half of the area consists of agriculture, hills, or lakes. Huddinge borders the municipalities, Stockholm Municipality, Ekerö Municipality, Botkyrka Municipality, Haninge Municipality. Björksättra Peninsula Nature Reserve Flemingsbergsskogen Nature Reserve Gömmaren Nature Reserve, including the Fullersta kvarn Natura 2000 area, gladöskogen Nature Reserve Gömsta Äng Nature Reserve Lännaskogen Nature Reserve, including Lissma-Kvarnsjö and Lännaskogen Natura 2000 areas. Orlången Nature Reserve Paradiset Nature Reserve, including Granby and Hanveden Natura 2000 areas. 5% of the population of Stockholm County, the average age is 36.7 years, but one-third of the population is under 25 years of age.
This means that Huddinge has a younger population than both Stockholm County and the whole country. The population density of the municipality is increasing significantly, since the 1960s, the population has doubled in size and is currently among the 14 largest municipalities in Sweden. The population of Huddinge passed the one of Gävle in 2008, and it is believed that the history of Huddinge goes back at least 1,000 years, to before the Viking Age. When hostile ships approached the community, the inhabitants of Huddinge would climb to high locations, beacons were located around the entirety of Lake Mälaren. Huddinges coat of arms has its origins in this tradition, the name Huddinge is believed to come from the Uddungs - the first inhabitants in this area, which during the Iron Age lived on the shores of Lake Mälaren nearby Vårby. Huddinge is served by the Stockholm public transport system, there are two stations on the Stockholm Metro and five on the Stockholm commuter rail system as well as large bus network.
Some main line trains call at Flemingsberg, the municipality contains six public libraries, Södertörn University College and one of the campuses for Karolinska Institutet. Kungens Kurva is one of Swedens largest shopping areas and it hosts, among other things, the largest IKEA store in the world, the largest cinema in the country, and a large shopping centre. In total, it generates a turnover of 6 billion Swedish kronor and has 15 million visitors per year, peter Forsberg happened to make his debut as a senior player with his original club Modo Hockey, facing Huddinge away. After years of debate a vote is planned was 2008 regarding a split of Huddinge into two different municipalities named in published documents as Huddinge and Huddinge östra, the intention with a split is to make the eastern part of Huddinge its own municipality after years of protests from inhabitants. Due to large protests it was decided in 2007 to hold a vote regarding the split, however it was proposed that only the inhabitants of eastern Huddinge would be allowed to vote
Asker is a municipality in Akershus county, Norway. It is part of the Viken traditional region, the administrative centre of the municipality is the village of Asker. The municipality is a suburb of Oslo, the national capital, Asker was established as a municipality on 1 January 1838. The municipality is named after the old Asker farm, since the first church was built here, the name is the plural form of ask which means ash tree. The coat-of-arms is from modern times and they were granted on 7 October 1975. The arms show a background with three silver-colored tree trunks and are thus canting arms. The trees are ashes, which were cropped every year to provide food for the animals, the trees thus developed after many years a very typical shape, which was characteristic for the area. In 1998, just before the millennium, the Askerbøringer elected the area of Semsvannet including the mountain ridge Skaugumsåsen – to be their Place of the Millennium. Its main parts are Asker, Vollen, Blakstad, Borgen, Dikemark, Vardåsen, Holmen, Høn, Billingstad, Nesøya, and Heggedal.
Asker is a place with many beaches, but contains hills. The district is known for many important businesses and it is known for gardening. The Skaugum estate, where Crown Prince Haakon of Norway lives with his family, is situated here, the first IKEA store outside of Sweden opened in Asker in 1963. Although Asker is principally a rural municipality, the expansion of Oslo has resulted in its becoming an affluent suburb, thus numerous celebrities now reside in the area. According to SSB, Asker ranks as the 2nd wealthiest municipality in Norway based on household income. Asker is the home of the Frisk Tigers, who won the Norwegian Hockey championship in 1975,1979, Asker Skiklubb is the largest sports club in Norway. It has a history dating back to 1889. Many of Askers famous people have been successful individuals associated with the sports club, the city is the home of Asker svømmeklubb. Asker womens football club has been home to international players including four who played in the 2007 FIFA Womens World Cup in China
Frederiksberg is a part of the Capital Region of Denmark. It is formally an independent municipality, Frederiksberg Municipality, but is treated as a part of Copenhagen. It occupies an area of less than 9 km2 and had a population of 103,192 in 2015, Frederiksberg is an enclave surrounded by Copenhagen Municipality and there is no clear border between the two. Some sources ambiguously refer to Frederiksberg as a quarter or neighbourhood of Copenhagen, Frederiksberg has its own mayor and municipal council, and is fiercely independent. Frederiksberg is considered to be an affluent, or posh, the town is characterised by its many green spaces, such as the Frederiksberg Gardens and Søndermarken. Some institutions and locations that are considered to be part of Copenhagen are actually located in Frederiksberg. For example, Copenhagen Zoo as well as stations of the Copenhagen Metro are located in Frederiksberg. The Copenhagen S-train system has stations in Frederiksberg, including Peter Bangs Vej station.
Frederiksbergs original name was Tulehøj, indicating that a thul lived there, the term is known from the Snoldelev rune stone. In Beowulf, Unferth holds the same title, in Håvamål, Odin himself is referred to as the old thul. Thula translates as song, like in the Rigsthula poem from the Edda, by 1443 the name Tulehøj was spelled Tulleshøy. It was regarded as Copenhagens border to the west, people lived here since the Bronze Age. Farming was not very successful, and in 1697 most of the burned down. This meant that the peasants were unable to pay taxes, in 1700-1703, King Frederik IV built a palace on top of the hill known as Valby Bakke. He named the palace Frederichs Berg, and the town at the foot of the hill consequently changed its name to Frederiksberg. A number of the houses were bought by wealthy citizens of Copenhagen who did not farm the land. The town changed slowly from a community to a merchant town, with craftsmen. During the summer rooms were offered for rent, and restaurants served food to the people of Copenhagen who had left the city for the open land
Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup is the main international airport serving Copenhagen, the entire Zealand, the Øresund Region, and a large part of southern Sweden. It is the largest airport in the Nordic countries with 29 million passengers in 2016 and it is the third-busiest airport in Northern Europe, and by far the busiest for international travel in Scandinavia. The airport is located on the island of Amager, just 8 kilometres south of Copenhagen city centre, the airport covers an area of 11.8 square kilometres. Most of the airport is situated in the municipality of Tårnby, the airport is the main hub out of three used by Scandinavian Airlines and is an operating base for Thomas Cook Airlines Scandinavia and Norwegian Air Shuttle. Copenhagen Airport handles around 60 scheduled airlines, and has a maximum operation capability of 83 operations/hour, unlike other Scandinavian airports, most of the airports passengers are international. In 2015,6. 1% of passengers travelled to and from other Danish airports,83.
5% to/from other European airports, the airport is owned by Københavns Lufthavne, which operates Roskilde Airport. Copenhagen Airport was originally called Kastrup Airport, since it is located in the town of Kastrup. The formal name of the airport is still Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, to distinguish it from Roskilde Airport, whose name is Copenhagen Airport. The airport was inaugurated 20 April 1925 and was one of the first civil airports in the world. It consisted of a large, impressive terminal built of wood, a couple of hangars, a balloon mast, a landing stage. The grass on the runways was kept short by sheep, which were shepherded away before take-offs, from 1932 to 1939, takeoffs and landings increased from 6,000 to 50,000 and passenger number increased to 72,000. Between 1936 and 1939, a new terminal was built, considered one of the finest examples of Nordic functionalism. The terminal was designed by Vilhelm Lauritzen, who was considered a pioneer among architects, in not only of architecture and construction.
In the years of World War II, the Copenhagen airport was closed for operations except for periodic flights to destinations in Sweden, Germany. In the summer of 1941 the first hard-surface runway opened and it was 1,400 metres long and 65 metres wide. When World War II ended in May 1945, the Copenhagen airport was the most modern airport in Europe. On 1 August 1947, Scandinavian Airlines was founded, an important event for the Copenhagen Airport, traffic increased rapidly in the first years Scandinavian Airlines operated. On 26 January 1947, a KLM Douglas DC-3 Dakota crashed at the airport after stopping en route to Stockholm,22 people on board died, including the Swedish prince Gustav Adolf and the American opera singer Grace Moore
The Nordic countries or Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most commonly known as Norden. They consist of Denmark, Iceland and Sweden, the population of the Nordic countries are mainly Scandinavian or Finnish, with Greenlandic Inuit and the Sami people as minorities. Of todays native languages, Danish, Icelandic, the non-Germanic languages spoken are Finnish and several Sami languages. The main religion is Lutheran Christianity, the Nordic countries have much in common in their way of life, their use of Scandinavian languages and social structure. Politically, Nordic countries do not form an entity. Especially in English, Scandinavia is sometimes used as a synonym for the Nordic countries, Scandinavian Peninsula on the other hand covers mainland Norway and Sweden as well as the northernmost part of Finland. At 3,425,804 square kilometers, the area of the Nordic countries would form the 7th-largest country in the world. Uninhabitable icecaps and glaciers comprise about half of area, mostly in Greenland.
In January 2013, the region had a population of around 26 million people, the Nordic countries cluster near the top in numerous metrics of national performance, including education, economic competitiveness, civil liberties, quality of life, and human development. Although the area is linguistically heterogeneous, with three unrelated groups, the common linguistic heritage is one of the factors making up the Nordic identity. The North Germanic languages Danish and Swedish are considered mutually intelligible and these languages are taught in school throughout the Nordic countries. Swedish, for example, is a subject in Finnish schools. Danish is mandatory in Faroese and Greenlandic schools, as these states are a part of the Danish Realm. Iceland teaches Danish, since Iceland too was a part of the Danish Realm until 1918, there is a high degree of income redistribution and little social unrest. The Nordic countries consists of historical territories of the Scandinavian countries, areas that share a common history and it is meant unambiguously to refer to this larger group, since the term Scandinavia is narrower and sometimes ambiguous.
The Nordic countries are considered to unambiguously refer to Denmark, Iceland and Sweden. The term is derived indirectly from the local term Norden, used in the Scandinavian languages, unlike the Nordic countries, the term Norden is in the singular. The demonym is nordbo, literally meaning northern dweller, especially outside of the Nordic region the term Scandinavia is often used incorrectly as a synonym for the Nordic countries
The Antarctic Peter I Island and the sub-Antarctic Bouvet Island are dependent territories and thus not considered part of the Kingdom. Norway lays claim to a section of Antarctica known as Queen Maud Land, until 1814, the kingdom included the Faroe Islands and Iceland. It included Isle of Man until 1266, Shetland and Orkney until 1468, Norway has a total area of 385,252 square kilometres and a population of 5,258,317. The country shares a long border with Sweden. Norway is bordered by Finland and Russia to the north-east, Norway has an extensive coastline, facing the North Atlantic Ocean and the Barents Sea. King Harald V of the Dano-German House of Glücksburg is the current King of Norway, erna Solberg became Prime Minister in 2013, replacing Jens Stoltenberg. A constitutional monarchy, Norway divides state power between the Parliament, the Cabinet and the Supreme Court, as determined by the 1814 Constitution, the kingdom is established as a merger of several petty kingdoms. By the traditional count from the year 872, the kingdom has existed continuously for 1,144 years, Norway has both administrative and political subdivisions on two levels and municipalities.
The Sámi people have an amount of self-determination and influence over traditional territories through the Sámi Parliament. Norway maintains close ties with the European Union and the United States, the country maintains a combination of market economy and a Nordic welfare model with universal health care and a comprehensive social security system. Norway has extensive reserves of petroleum, natural gas, lumber, the petroleum industry accounts for around a quarter of the countrys gross domestic product. On a per-capita basis, Norway is the worlds largest producer of oil, the country has the fourth-highest per capita income in the world on the World Bank and IMF lists. On the CIAs GDP per capita list which includes territories and some regions, from 2001 to 2006, and again from 2009 to 2017, Norway had the highest Human Development Index ranking in the world. It has the highest inequality-adjusted ranking, Norway ranks first on the World Happiness Report, the OECD Better Life Index, the Index of Public Integrity and the Democracy Index.
Norway has two names, Noreg in Nynorsk and Norge in Bokmål. The name Norway comes from the Old English word Norðrveg mentioned in 880, meaning way or way leading to the north. In contrasting with suðrvegar southern way for Germany, and austrvegr eastern way for the Baltic, the Anglo-Saxon of Britain referred to the kingdom of Norway in 880 as Norðmanna land. This was the area of Harald Fairhair, the first king of Norway, and because of him
Botkyrka Municipality is a municipality in Stockholm County in east central Sweden, not far from the capital Stockholm. Its seat is located in the town of Tumba, in 1971 Grödinge was merged with Botkyrka and in 1974 Salem was added. The Salem part was already in 1983 split off again and a new Salem Municipality was formed, the municipality is named after Saint Botvid, a Christian missionary during the 12th century. Saint Botvid is shown on the seal and coat of arms of Botkyrka Municipality, where he carries an axe, another remnant of Botkyrkas Christian medieval history is the Botkyrka church, made of stone. Botkyrka, particularly Northern Botkyrka, has one of the highest percentages of first,56. 4% the population has at least one parent born in another country. This gives the municipality a multi-cultural atmosphere with for example a big Syriac Orthodox Church in Hallunda, politically the municipality is primarily Social Democratic, that has governed Botkyrka for a long period except 3 years in the early 1990th.
However, with less seats the party now governs together with The Green Party, there have been several local parties. For a long period a local party called Botkyrkapartiet has held several seats, a party was active from mid 1980th to mid 1990th with only one purpose - to prevent the exploitation of the small airfield, F18, in Tullinge to become a commercial airport in the 1980s. In the election 2010 a local party for the area of Tullinge got 6 seats on the agenda of separating Tullinge from Botkyrka as a separate municipality, Botkyrka has two local, newspapers called Mitt i Botkyrka and Södra Sidan. They are delivered free of charge to all households, the Swedish hip hop group The Latin Kings raps about life in Botkyrka in several of their songs. The northern and eastern parts of the municipality are in the contiguous Stockholm urban area, Tumba forms a locality of its own. Vårsta is in the central part, the southern half of the municipality is mostly rural. Botkyrka is served by the Stockholm public transport system, Stockholm metro has four and Stockholm commuter rail two stations within the municipality.
There is an extensive SL bus network, Botkyrka is a municipal with several world-famous companies. The company owns significant land in Botkyrka used for development of its agricultural division, deLaval The company is a leading producer of dairy and farming machinery. Tumba Bruk The company produces banknotes