The Dauphiné Alps are a group of mountain ranges in southeastern France, west of the main chain of the Alps. Mountain ranges within the Dauphiné Alps include the Massif des Écrins, the Taillefer range and the mountains of Matheysine; the Dauphiné is a former French province whose area corresponded to that of the present departments of Isère, Drôme, Hautes-Alpes. They are separated from the Cottian Alps in the east by the Col du Galibier and the upper Durance valley. Many peaks rise with Barre des Écrins the highest. Administratively the French part of the range belongs to the French departments of Isère, Hautes-Alpes and Savoie; the whole range is drained by the Rhone through its tributaries. It has been proposed that the height of mountains in the Dauphiné Alps is limited by the erosion caused by small glaciers, causing a topographic effect called the glacial buzzsaw; the chief peaks of the Dauphiné Alps are: The chief passes of the Dauphiné Alps are: French official cartography.
Glarus is the capital of the canton of Glarus in Switzerland. Since 1 January 2011, the municipality Glarus incorporates the former municipalities of Ennenda and Riedern. Glarus lies on the river Linth between the foot of the Glärnisch to the west and the Schilt to the east. Few buildings built before the fire of 1861 remain. Wood and plastics, as well as printing, are the dominant industries; the symbol of the city is the neo-romanesque city church. The official language of Glarus is German, but the main spoken language is the local Alemannic Swiss German dialect. Glarus is first mentioned in the early 9th Century in Latin as Clarona. In 1178 it was first mentioned in German as Glarus. On 10 February 878, the Emperor Charles the Fat gave his wife Richgard or Richardis the monasteries of Säckingen, of St. Felix and of Regula in Zürich as a royal estate; this land grant included a large estate. This estate covered land in the Rhine and Frick valleys, the southern Hotzenwald, land in Zürich, along Lake Walen and the valley of Glarus.
Glarus remained under the Säckingen Abbey until 1395, when the Glarus valley broke away from the Abbey and became independent. It became the capital of the Linth valley in 1419. In the 18th and 19th centuries, the valley began to be industrialized. Huldrych Zwingli a leader of the Reformation in Switzerland served in his first, Roman Catholic, ecclesiastical post in Glarus, starting around 1506, he served there for ten years. It was in Glarus, whose soldiers were used as mercenaries in Europe, that Zwingli became involved in politics; the Swiss Confederation was embroiled in various campaigns with its neighbours: the French, the Habsburgs, the Papal States. Zwingli placed himself solidly on the side of the Holy See. In return, Pope Julius II honoured Zwingli by providing him with an annual pension, he took the role of chaplain in several campaigns in Italy, including the Battle of Novara in 1513. However, the decisive defeat of the Swiss in the Battle of Marignano caused a shift in mood in Glarus in favour of the French rather than the pope.
Zwingli, the papal partisan, found himself in a difficult position and he decided to retreat to Einsiedeln in the canton of Schwyz. While he was not a reformer at Glarus, there he began to develop the ideas that would lead to the break with the Catholic Church in Zürich In 1528 the Reformation gained a foothold in Glarus, directed by Zwingli in Zürich. Though he had preached in Glarus for 10 years, the town remained Catholic. However, following the Second war of Kappel in 1531 both the Catholic and Protestant residents were given the right to worship in town; this led to both religious groups using the town church an arrangement that caused numerous problems. By the 18th Century both the groups had separate organs. In 1697 there were two financially and theologically independent parishes meeting in the city church. Following the French invasion in 1798, Glarus became the capital of the Canton of Linth in the Helvetic Republic; the administration of the Canton moved into Glarus. However, the new administrators had difficulties in enforcing any new regulations.
In August 1802 the administrators of the new Canton left Glarus for Rapperswil due to the difficulties they had faced in Glarus. In 1803, with the Act of Mediation, the Canton of Linth was dissolved and Glarus became the capital of the smaller Canton of Glarus. In 1859, the railway reached Glarus from Weesen; the extension to Schwanden and Linthal opened in 1879. On the 10/11 May 1861, the town was devastated by a fire, fanned by a violent Föhn or south wind, rushing down from the high mountains through the natural funnel formed by the Linth valley; the total loss is estimated at about half a million sterling, of which about £100,000 were made up by subscriptions that poured in from every side. About two-thirds of Glarus were destroyed in the big fire. After this incident, Glarus was rebuilt in block fashion according to construction plans by Bernhard Simon and Johann Caspar Wolff. In 1864, the first European labor law to protect workers was introduced in Glarus, prohibiting workers from working more than 12 hours a day.
The town is located in the Glarner Mittelland on a broad valley floor between the Glärnisch and the Linth. The municipality Glarus before 2011 had an area of 69.2 km2. Of this area, 23 % was used for agricultural purposes. With the incorporation of Ennenda and Riedern in 2011, the municipality Glarus now has an area of 103.67 km2. Based on the 2004/09 survey, about 26.3% of the total area is used for agricultural purposes, while 34.3% is forested. Of the rest of the land, 4.1% is settled and 35.2% is unproductive land. Over the past two decades the amount of land, settled has increased by 42 ha and the agricultural land has decreased by 60 ha. Glarus has a population of 12,521; as of 2013, 24.9% of the population are resident foreign nationals. Over the last 3 years the population has changed at a rate of 2.07%. The birth rate in the municipality, in 2013, was 9.8 while the death rate was 8.4 per thousand residents. As of 2013, children and teenagers make up 20.6% of the population, while adults are 61
The Danube is Europe's second longest river, after the Volga. It is located in Eastern Europe; the Danube was once a long-standing frontier of the Roman Empire, today flows through 10 countries, more than any other river in the world. Originating in Germany, the Danube flows southeast for 2,850 km, passing through or bordering Austria, Hungary, Serbia, Bulgaria and Ukraine before draining into the Black Sea, its drainage basin extends into nine more countries. The Danube river basin is home to fish species such as pike, huchen, Wels catfish and tench, it is home to a large diversity of carp and sturgeon, as well as salmon and trout. A few species of euryhaline fish, such as European seabass and eel, inhabit the Danube Delta and the lower portion of the river. Since ancient times, the Danube has become a traditional trade route in Europe, nowadays 2,415 km of its total length being navigable; the river is an important source of energy and drinking water. Danube is an Old European river name derived from a Proto-Indo-European *dānu.
Other river names from the same root include the Dunaj, Dzvina/Daugava, Donets, Dniestr, Dysna and Tuoni. In Rigvedic Sanskrit, dānu means "fluid, drop", in Avestan, the same word means "river". In the Rigveda, Dānu once appears as the mother of Vrtra, "a dragon blocking the course of the rivers"; the Finnish word for Danube is Tonava, most derived from the word for the river in Swedish and German, Donau. Its Sámi name Deatnu means "Great River", it is possible that dānu in Scythian as in Avestan was a generic word for "river": Dnieper and Dniestr, from Danapris and Danastius, are presumed to continue Scythian *dānu apara "far river" and *dānu nazdya- "near river", respectively. The river was known to the ancient Greeks as the Istros a borrowing from a Daco-Thracian name meaning "strong, swift", from a root also encountered in the ancient name of the Dniester and akin to Iranic turos “swift” and Sanskrit iṣiras "swift", from the PIE *isro-, *sreu “to flow”. In the Middle Ages, the Greek Tiras was borrowed into Italian as Tyrlo and into Turkic languages as Tyrla, the latter further borrowed into Romanian as a regionalism.
The Thraco-Phrygian name was Matoas, "the bringer of luck". In Latin, the Danube was variously known as Ister; the Latin name is masculine, except Slovenian. The German Donau is feminine, as it has been re-interpreted as containing the suffix -ouwe "wetland". Romanian differs from other surrounding languages in designating the river with a feminine term, Dunărea; this form was not inherited from Latin. To explain the loss of the Latin name, scholars who suppose that Romanian developed near the large river propose that the Romanian name descends from a hypotetical Thracian *Donaris that shares the same PIE root with the Iranic don-/dan-, with the suffix -aris encountered in the ancient name of the Ialomița River, in the unidentified Miliare river mentioned by Jordanes in his Getica. Gábor Vékony says that this hypothesis is not plausible, because the Greeks borrowed the Istros form from the native Thracians, he proposes. The modern languages spoken in the Danube basin all use names related to Dānuvius: German: Donau.
Dunav. Dunai. Classified as an international waterway, it originates in the town of Donaueschingen, in the Black Forest of Germany, at the confluence of the rivers Brigach and Breg; the Danube flows southeast for about 2,730 km, passing through four capital cities before emptying into the Black Sea via the Danube Delta in Romania and Ukraine. Once a long-standing frontier of the Roman Empire, the river passes through or touches the borders of 10 countries: Romania, Serbia, Germany, Slovakia, Croatia and Moldova, its drainage basin extends into nine more. In addition to the bordering countries, the drainage basin includes parts of nine more countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina, the Czech Republic, Montenegro, Italy, North Macedonia and Albania, its total drainage basin is 801,463 km2. The highest point of the drainage basin is the summit of Piz Bernina at the Italy–Switzerland border, at 4,049 metres; the land drained by the Danube extends into many other countries. Many Danubian tributaries are important rivers in their own right, navigable by barges and other shallow-draught boats.
From its source to its outlet into the Black Sea, its main tribu
The Mur or Mura is a river in Central Europe rising in the Hohe Tauern national park of the Central Eastern Alps in Austria with its source being 1,898 m above sea level. It is a tributary of the Drava and subsequently the Danube; the Mur's total length is around 464 kilometres. About 326 km are within the interior of Austria; the largest city on the river is Austria. Its basin covers an area of 13,800 km2. Tributaries of the Mur include the Sulm, the Ščavnica, the Ledava and the Trnava, its name comes from Proto-Indo-European word *morgj, meaning "mud". The river rises in a remote valley within the Lungau region of Austrian state of Salzburg; the river flows eastwards through Tamsweg before crossing the border into the state of Styria. Between Tamsweg and Unzmarkt-Frauenburg the river flows through a rural mountain valley and is paralleled by the 65 km long narrow gauge Murtalbahn railway. From Unzmarkt the river continues in an easterly direction through the industrial towns of Leoben and Bruck an der Mur.
At Bruck an der Mur the Mürz joins the Mur, which turns south to flow through the city of Graz. The river flows through the centre of Graz, passing underneath the Schloßberg and by the historic Inner City; as a result of being the European Capital of Culture for 2003, an artificial island known as the Murinsel was constructed in the middle of the river. Once polluted by several paper mills on the shore and by the ironworks around Leoben, the water quality has improved since the 1980s and the river is now seen as an asset to the city. From Graz the river continues to flow south, past the town of Leibnitz to its nearby confluence with the Sulm, where it adopts a more easterly course. Near Spielfeld, the river forms the border between Austria and Slovenia, a role it retains until just after the twin towns of Bad Radkersburg and Gornja Radgona, where it passes into Slovenia. In Slovenia it passes the towns of Radenci, Veržej; the river gives its name to the Croatian region of Međimurje. Cable ferries and ship mills are still found in this area.
In the upper Međimurje area, in the western part of the region, the Mur floods and changes its course rather moving toward the north on its left. Here, the biggest forest along the river, the Murščak, is located between Domašinec and Donji Hrašćan. After receiving its last significant tributary Trnava, the river ends near Legrad in Koprivnica-Križevci county, where it flows into the Drava River. Since the 4th century BC, there have been reports of floating mills powered by the streams of the river; the ancient technology was adopted by arriving Slavs and by Magyars. Several decades ago, in the 1920s and 1930s, many of these mills were still operating along the river. At least one of the old mills, the Babič Mill near Veržej, continues to operate to this day; the Mur is known to carry small quantities of gold, not enough to be suitable for exploitation today, but this was a focus of activity for many people since ancient times. Organized research and exploitation of gold and other local resources was encouraged for the first time in 1772.
In Austria, several hydroelectric dams have been constructed for the production of renewable energy. The word "renewable" may be misleading in the case of smaller hydroelectric plants whose output is small by comparison to the environmental cost of construction. In 2017, a hydroelectric dam is under construction in Puntigam, a few km south of the Graz city centre; the plan includes a massive sewage pipe between the city centre and the new dam, necessitating the felling of thousands of trees. The project is controversial and environmental groups are resisting it. Both environmental impact and economic studies have found the project to be neither ecologically nor economically viable. Additional hydroelectric plants are planned for Slovenia; the hydrological parameters of the Mur are monitored in Croatia at Mursko Središće. Media related to Mur at Wikimedia Commons Condition of Mur at Gornja Radgona and Petanjci - graphs, in the following order, of water level and temperature data for the past 30 days