United States Marine Corps
The United States Marine Corps referred to as the United States Marines or U. S. Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting expeditionary and amphibious operations with the United States Navy as well as the Army and Air Force; the U. S. Marine Corps is one of the four armed service branches in the U. S. Department of Defense and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States; the Marine Corps has been a component of the U. S. Department of the Navy since 30 June 1834, working with naval forces; the USMC operates installations on land and aboard sea-going amphibious warfare ships around the world. Additionally, several of the Marines' tactical aviation squadrons Marine Fighter Attack squadrons, are embedded in Navy carrier air wings and operate from the aircraft carriers; the history of the Marine Corps began when two battalions of Continental Marines were formed on 10 November 1775 in Philadelphia as a service branch of infantry troops capable of fighting both at sea and on shore.
In the Pacific theater of World War II the Corps took the lead in a massive campaign of amphibious warfare, advancing from island to island. As of 2017, the USMC has around some 38,500 personnel in reserve, it is the smallest U. S. military service within the DoD. As outlined in 10 U. S. C. § 5063 and as introduced under the National Security Act of 1947, three primary areas of responsibility for the Marine Corps are: Seizure or defense of advanced naval bases and other land operations to support naval campaigns. This last clause derives from similar language in the Congressional acts "For the Better Organization of the Marine Corps" of 1834, "Establishing and Organizing a Marine Corps" of 1798. In 1951, the House of Representatives' Armed Services Committee called the clause "one of the most important statutory – and traditional – functions of the Marine Corps", it noted that the Corps has more than not performed actions of a non-naval nature, including its famous actions in Tripoli, the War of 1812, numerous counter-insurgency and occupational duties, World War I, the Korean War.
While these actions are not described as support of naval campaigns nor as amphibious warfare, their common thread is that they are of an expeditionary nature, using the mobility of the Navy to provide timely intervention in foreign affairs on behalf of American interests. The Marine Band, dubbed the "President's Own" by Thomas Jefferson, provides music for state functions at the White House. Marines from Ceremonial Companies A & B, quartered in Marine Barracks, Washington, D. C. guard presidential retreats, including Camp David, the Marines of the Executive Flight Detachment of HMX-1 provide helicopter transport to the President and Vice President, with the radio call signs "Marine One" and "Marine Two", respectively. The Executive Flight Detachment provides helicopter transport to Cabinet members and other VIPs. By authority of the 1946 Foreign Service Act, the Marine Security Guards of the Marine Embassy Security Command provide security for American embassies and consulates at more than 140 posts worldwide.
The relationship between the Department of State and the U. S. Marine Corps is nearly as old as the corps itself. For over 200 years, Marines have served at the request of various Secretaries of State. After World War II, an alert, disciplined force was needed to protect American embassies and legations throughout the world. In 1947, a proposal was made that the Department of Defense furnish Marine Corps personnel for Foreign Service guard duty under the provisions of the Foreign Service Act of 1946. A formal Memorandum of Agreement was signed between the Department of State and the Secretary of the Navy on 15 December 1948, 83 Marines were deployed to overseas missions. During the first year of the MSG program, 36 detachments were deployed worldwide; the Marine Corps was founded to serve as an infantry unit aboard naval vessels and was responsible for the security of the ship and its crew by conducting offensive and defensive combat during boarding actions and defending the ship's officers from mutiny.
Continental Marines manned raiding parties, both at ashore. America's first amphibious assault landing occurred early in the Revolutionary War on 3 March 1776 as the Marines gained control of Fort Montague and Fort Nassau, a British ammunition depot and naval port in New Providence, the Bahamas; the role of the Marine Corps has expanded since then. The Advanced Base Doctrine of the early 20th century codified their combat duties ashore, outlining the use of Marines in the seizure of bases and other duties on land to support naval campaigns. Throughout the late 19th and 20th centuries, Marine detachments served aboard Navy cruisers and aircraft carriers. Marine detachments served in their traditional duties as a ship's landing force, manning the ship's weapons and providing shipboard security. Marine detachments were augmented by members of the ship's company for landing parties, such as in the First Sumatran Expedition of 1832, continuing in the Caribbean and Mexican campaigns of the early 20th centuries.
Assault Amphibious Vehicle
The Assault Amphibious Vehicle —official designation AAV-P7/A1 —is a tracked amphibious landing vehicle manufactured by U. S. Combat Systems; the AAV-P7/A1 is the current amphibious troop transport of the United States Marine Corps. It is used by U. S. Marine Corps Assault Amphibian Battalions to land the surface assault elements of the landing force and their equipment in a single lift from assault shipping during amphibious operations to inland objectives and to conduct mechanized operations and related combat support in subsequent mechanized operations ashore, it is operated by other forces. Marines call them "amtracks", a shortening of their original designation, "amphibious tractor". In June 2018, the Marine Corps announced they had selected the BAE Systems/Iveco wheeled SuperAV for the Amphibious Combat Vehicle program to supplement and replace the AAV; the LVTP-7 was first introduced in 1972 as a replacement for the LVTP-5. In 1982, FMC was contracted to conduct the LVTP-7 Service Life Extension Program, which converted the LVT-7 vehicles to the improved AAV-7A1 vehicle by adding an improved engine and weapons system and improving the overall maintainability of the vehicle.
The Cummins VT400 diesel engine replaced the GM 8V53T, this was driven through FMC's HS-400-3A1 transmission. The hydraulic traverse and elevation of the weapon station was replaced by electric motors, which eliminated the danger from hydraulic fluid fires; the suspension and shock absorbers were strengthened as well. The fuel tank was made safer, a fuel-burning smoke generator system was added. Eight smoke grenade launchers were placed around the armament station; the headlight clusters were housed in a square recess instead of the earlier round type. The driver was provided with an improved instrument panel and a night vision device, a new ventilation system was installed; these upgraded vehicles were called LVT-7A1, but the Marine Corps renamed the LVTP-7A1 to AAV-7A1 in 1984. Another improvement was added starting in 1987 in the form of a Cadillac Gage weapon station or Up-Gunned Weapon Station, armed with both a.50 cal M2HB machine gun and a Mk-19 40 mm grenade launcher. Enhanced Applique Armor Kits were developed for the AAV-7A1 in 1989 and fitted by 1993, the added weight of the new armor necessitated the addition of a bow plane kit when operating afloat.
The Assault Amphibian Vehicle Reliability, Maintainability/Rebuild to Standard Program was approved in 1997. It encompassed all AAV systems and components to return the AAV to the original vehicle's performance specifications and ensure acceptable readiness until the EFV should become operational; the program replaced both the AAV engine and suspension with US Army M2 Bradley Fighting Vehicle components modified for the AAV. Ground clearance returned to 16 inches and the horsepower to ton ratio increased from 13 to 1 to its original 17 to 1; the introduction of the BFV components and the rebuild to standard effort was expected to reduce maintenance costs for the expected remaining life of the AAV through the year 2013. In March 2015, SAIC was awarded a contract to perform an AAV survivability upgrade. Marine Corps and SAIC officials unveiled the AAV SU prototype in January 2016, with survivability enhancements including replacing the angled Enhanced Applique Armor Kit with 49 advanced buoyant ceramic armor panels, a bonded spall liner, armor-protected external fuel tanks, an aluminum armor underbelly providing MRAP-equivalent blast protection, blast mitigating seats as well as a more powerful engine, new suspension system, increased reserve buoyancy.
The AAV SU program was intended to upgrade 392 out of the some 1,000-vehicle fleet to keep them operational through 2035 as the ACV entered service. However, in August 2018 the Marine Corps terminated the AAV upgrade program, instead opting for increased procurement of the ACV. Twenty U. S.-built LVTP-7s were used by Argentina during the 1982 invasion of the Falkland Islands with all of them returning to the Argentine mainland before the war ended. From 1982–1984, LVTP-7s were deployed with U. S. Marines as part of the multi-national peacekeeping force in Lebanon; as Marines became involved in hostilities, several vehicles sustained minor damage from shrapnel and small arms fire. On October 25, 1983 U. S. Marine LVTP-7s conducted a successful amphibious landing on the island of Grenada as part of Operation Urgent Fury, it was used in the 1991 Gulf War and Operation Restore Hope. After the 2003 invasion of Iraq, AAV-7A1s were criticized for providing poor protection for the crew and passengers compared with other vehicles, such as the M2 Bradley.
Eight were disabled or destroyed during the Battle of Nasiriyah, where they faced RPG, mortar and artillery fire. At least one vehicle was destroyed by fire from friendly A-10 Warthog attack planes. In August 2005, 14 U. S. Marines were killed. Renamed from the Advanced Assault Amphibious Vehicle in late 2003, the Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle was designed to replace the ageing AAV. Able to transport a full Marine rifle squad to shore from an amphibious assault ship beyond the horizon with three times the speed in water and about twice the armor of the AAV, superior firepower as well it was the Marine Corps' number one priority ground weapon system acquisition; the EFV was intended for deployment in 2015. However, in January 2011, United States Defense Secretary Robert Gates announced plans to cancel the Expeditionary Fighting Vehicle. In 20
A flatbed truck is a type of truck which can be either articulated or rigid. As the name suggests, its bodywork is just an flat, level'bed' with no sides or roof; this allows for quick and easy loading of goods, they are used to transport heavy loads that are not delicate or vulnerable to rain, for abnormal loads that require more space than is available on a closed body. A flatbed has a solid bed of wooden planks. There is no fixed sides. To retain the load there are low sides which may be hinged down for loading, as a'drop-side' truck. A'stake truck' has no sides but has steel upright pillars, which may be removable, again used to retain the load. Loads are retained by being manually tied down with ropes; the bed of a flatbed truck has tie-down hooks around its edge and techniques such as a trucker's hitch are used to tighten them. Weather protection is optionally provided by manually'sheeting' the load with a tarpaulin, held down by ropes; these manual loading techniques require some care and skill.
There is the risk that an improperly secured load may be shed in transit leading to accidents or road blockages. There is little theft protection for such a load; the slowness of loading loads like this led to the development of more efficient truck designs with enclosed bodies. Some improvement was made with the general replacement of ropes by flat webbing straps, tightened with a ratchet; these reduced the skill of'roping up' and improved the control of tension, leading to fewer shed loads. Flatbeds became rare in the 1980s as the majority of road freight changed to either containers or pallet loads carried on larger and more efficient trucks, optimised for quicker loading by fork-lift trucks. Containers are carried on specialised semi-trailers with twistlocks in the corners to retain the container. Pallet loads are carried in either box bodies, loaded through rear doors, or curtain-sided bodies loaded through the sides. Both of these protect loads from the weather and can be loaded with standard loads, but are more restrictive for single bulky loads, loaded by crane.
The haulage and logistics business changed around the same time as a greater proportion became more regular in nature, such as standard daily loads of equally-sized boxes from a distribution centre to a supermarket, rather than the unpredictable ad hoc nature or earlier road transport. Flatbeds are still in use, but are now used for more specialised cargoes, such as constructional steelwork or lighter abnormal loads, such as machinery. Low loaders, for construction machinery and heavy plant vehicles, are not considered as flatbeds. Neither are abnormal load carriers for heavy haulage. In North America, the length is 48 feet or 53 feet, the width is either 96 or 102 inches; some older trailers still in service are only 45 feet or shorter if used in sets of doubles or triples. Various lengths and combination setups can only be driven on turnpike/toll roads which are far too long for most roadways. Body and frame can be one of 3 general designs: the heaviest and sturdiest is all steel, Ever popular combo with steel frame and aluminium bed, these type have wood portions for nailing down dunnage boards), aluminium.
Light and expensive to purchase, all aluminium trailers are slippery when wet, flex more and are damaged. They have a natural upwards bend so that when loaded they straighten out to be more flat, rather than to sag in the middle under a load. Another popular type of flatbed trailer is a stepdeck with 2 feet lower deck and low profile wheels to accommodate taller loads, without hitting low bridges or tunnels; these stepdecks can come with loading ramps to allow vehicles to roll on and off of the back from ground level. Shorter trailers used for local jobs such as landscaping and building material delivery within urban or local areas can have a "hitchhiker" type forklift truck attached to the back in order for driver alone to deliver and unload pallet/skid items. A bulkhead or "headache rack" is sometimes be attached to the front of either a straight or a stepdeck trailer for load securement at the front of the deck. In the event of long pipes or steel or lumber coming loose in a hard braking incident, they save the operator and cab/sleeper in one of two manners in theory.
If attached to the trailer they bend while attempting to block forward motion of a loosened cargo, causing the long load to go above the cab and driver. If attached to the frame behind the cab or sleeper of the tractor, in theory they protect the back of the cab from impact and if unable to stop the load coming through the cab, they cause the cab to be knocked off of the frame, rather than impale the cab and kill or injure the driver. 48 and 53 foot lengths have two axles spread out to over 10 feet apart at the rear "California spread" in order to allow for more weight distribution on the rear of the deck. So-called Cali spread was designed to comply with bridge weight formulas in that state but has since been adopted in most other parts of the country; these spread axles take a far wider turning radius, if turning the combination tractor/trailer too the front axle tires of the trailer may damage the road/parking lot surface, or pop a tire bead off of the rim, or both. Some trailers have the capability of lifting or lowering the front axle independently to mitigate this risk.
Main battle tank
A main battle tank known as a battle tank or universal tank, is a tank that fills the armor-protected direct fire and maneuver role of many modern armies. Cold War-era development of more powerful engines, better suspension systems and lighter weight composite armor allowed a tank to have the firepower of a super-heavy tank, armor protection of a heavy tank, mobility of a light tank all in a package with the weight of a medium tank. Through the 1960s, the MBT replaced all other tanks, leaving only some specialist roles to be filled by lighter designs or other types of armored fighting vehicles. Today, main battle tanks are considered a key component of modern armies. Modern MBTs operate alone, as they are organized into armoured units which involve the support of infantry, who may accompany the MBTs in infantry fighting vehicles, they are often supported by surveillance or ground-attack aircraft. During World War I, combining tracks and guns into a functional vehicle pushed the limits of mechanical technology.
This limited the specific battlefield capabilities. A design might have armour, or firepower, but not all three at the same time. Facing the deadlock of trench warfare, the first tank designs focused on crossing wide trenches, requiring long and large vehicles, such as the British Mark I tank. Tanks that focused on other combat roles were smaller, like the French Renault FT. Many late-war and inter-war tank designs diverged from these according to new, though untried, concepts for future tank roles and tactics; each nation tended to create its own list of tank classes with different intended roles, such as "cavalry tanks", "breakthrough tanks", "fast tanks", "assault tanks". The British maintained cruiser tanks that focused on speed, infantry tanks that traded speed for more armour. After years of isolated and divergent development, the various interwar tank concepts were tested with the start of World War II. In the chaos of blitzkrieg, tanks designed for a single role found themselves forced into battlefield situations they were ill-suited for.
During the war, limited-role tank designs tended to be replaced by more general-purpose designs, enabled by improving tank technology. Tank classes became based on weight; this led to new definitions of heavy and light tank classes, with medium tanks covering the balance of those between. The German Panzer IV tank, designed before the war as a "heavy" tank for assaulting fixed positions, got redesigned during the war with armour and gun upgrades to allow it to take on anti-tank roles as well, was reclassified as a medium tank; the second half of World War II saw an increased reliance on general-purpose medium tanks, which became the bulk of the tank combat forces. These designs massed about 25–30 tonnes, were armed with cannons around 75 mm, powered by engines in the 400 to 500 hp range. Notable examples include the US M4 Sherman. Late war tank development placed increased emphasis on armour and anti-tank capabilities for medium tanks: The German Panther tank, designed to counter the Soviet T-34, had both armament and armour increased over previous medium tanks.
Unlike previous Panzer designs, its frontal armor was sloped for increased effectiveness. It was equipped with the high-velocity long-barreled 75 mm KwK 42 L/70 gun, able to defeat the armor of all but the heaviest Allied tank at long range; the powerful Maybach HL230 P30 engine and robust running gear meant that though the Panther tipped the scales at 50 tons – sizeable for its day – it was quite maneuverable, offering better off-road speed than the Panzer IV. However, its rushed development led to maintenance issues; the Soviet T-44 incorporated many of the lessons learned with the extensive use of the T-34 model, some of those modifications were used in the first MBTs, like a modern torsion suspension, instead of the Christie suspension version of the T-34, a transversally mounted engine that simplified its gearbox. It is seen as direct predecessor of the T-54, as the T-44 was the first Soviet tank with a suspension sturdy enough to be able to mount a 100 mm cannon; the T-54 was the first Soviet MBT, with the first prototype produced in 1945, "was used more extensively that any other Cold War or modern MBT to date... being associated with colonial or independence wars all around the globe and still one of the most common pieces of equipment of any armored force today".
The American M26 Pershing, a medium tank to replace the M4 Sherman, innovated many features common on post-war MBTs. These features include an automatic transmission mounted in the rear, torsion bar suspension and had an early form of a powerpack; the M26, suffered from a weak engine and was somewhat under powered. The design of the M26 had profound influence on American postwar medium and Main Battle tanks: "The M26 formed the basis for the postwar generation of U. S. battle tanks from the M46 through the M47, M48, M60 series." In Britain, tank development had continued down the parallel development of cruiser tanks and infantry tanks. Development of the Rolls-Royce Meteor engine for the Cromwell tank, combined with efficiency savings elsewhere in the design doubled the available horsepower for cruiser tanks; this increase led to speculation of a "Universal Tank", able to take on the roles of both a cruiser and an infantry tank by combining both armor and maneuverability. Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery is acknowledged as the main advocate of the British universal ta
Backscatter X-ray is an advanced X-ray imaging technology. Traditional X-ray machines detect hard and soft materials by the variation in x-ray intensity transmitted through the target. In contrast, backscatter X-ray detects the radiation, it has potential applications where less-destructive examination is required, can operate if only one side of the target is available for examination. The technology is one of two types of whole-body imaging technologies that have been used to perform full-body scans of airline passengers to detect hidden weapons, liquids, narcotics and other contraband. A competing technology is millimeter wave scanner. One can refer to an airport security machine of this type as a "body scanner", "whole body imager", "security scanner" or "naked scanner". In the United States, the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 required that all full-body scanners operated in airports by the Transportation Security Administration use "Automated Target Recognition" software, which replaces the picture of a nude body with the cartoon-like representation.
As a result of this law, all backscatter X-ray machines in use by the Transportation Security Administration were removed from airports by May 2013, since the agency said the vendor did not meet their contractual deadline to implement the software. In the European Union, backscatter X-ray screening of airline passengers was banned in 2012 to protect passenger safety, the deployment at Manchester Airport was removed. Backscatter technology is based on the Compton scattering effect of X-rays, a form of ionizing radiation. Unlike a traditional X-ray machine, which relies on the transmission of X-rays through the object, backscatter X-ray detects the radiation that reflects from the object and forms an image; the backscatter pattern is dependent on the material property and is good for imaging organic material. In contrast to millimeter wave scanners, which create a 3D image, backscatter X-ray scanners will only create a 2D image. For airport screening, images are taken from both sides of the human body.
Backscatter X-ray was first applied in a commercial low-dose personnel scanning system by Dr. Steven W. Smith. Smith developed the Secure 1000 whole-body scanner in 1992 and sold the device and associated patents to Rapiscan Systems, who now manufactures and distributes the device; the following companies manufacture commercial backscatter X-ray devices that are used in security scanning applications with price ranging from $250,000 to $2,000,000: Heuresis Corporation Rapiscan Systems, a subsidiary of OSI Systems Inc. American Science and Engineering Tek84 Engineering Group LLC Spectrum San Diego Inc. Nucsafe Inc; some backscatter X-ray scanners can scan much larger objects, such as containers. This scan is much faster than a physical search and could allow a larger percentage of shipping to be checked for smuggled items, drugs, or people; the "Z Backscatter Van", or ZBV, from AS&E is a mobile backscatter X-ray machine in a van, which "from the outside looks like an ordinary delivery van, allowing it to blend in to urban and other landscapes".
It is being promoted as a means of examining the contents of vehicles and dumpsters. Unlike many of the truck-based scanners, it has no "arm" that deploys from the van to be able to scan other vehicles passing through, therefore allowing larger items and objects to be scanned in comparison to the limitations in width and height of "scanning arms". Other companies in the industry are Smiths Rapiscan. There are gamma-ray-based systems coming to market, like the MVACIS. In May 2011, the Electronic Privacy Information Center filed suit against the United States Department of Homeland Security under the Freedom of Information Act, claiming that DHS had withheld nearly 1000 pages of documents related to the Z backscatter vans and other mobile backscatter devices. Since in addition to weapons, these machines are designed to be capable of detecting drugs and contraband, which have no direct effect on airport security and passenger safety, some have argued that the use of these full body scanners is a violation of the 4th Amendment to the United States Constitution and can be construed as an illegal search and seizure.
Backscatter x-ray technology has been proposed as an alternative to personal searches at airport and other security checkpoints penetrating clothing to reveal concealed weapons. It raises privacy concerns about; some worry that viewing the image violates confidential medical information, such as the fact a passenger uses a colostomy bag, has a missing limb or wears a prosthesis, or is transgender. The ACLU and the Electronic Privacy Information Center are opposed to this use of the technology; the ACLU refers to backscatter x-rays as a "virtual strip search". According to the Transportation Security Administration, in one trial 79 percent of the public opted to try backscatter over the traditional pat-down in secondary screening, it is "possible for backscatter X-raying to produce photo-quality images of what's going on beneath our clothes", many software implementations of the scan have been designed to distort private areas. According to the TSA, further distortion is used in the Phoenix airport's trial system where photo-quality images are replaced by chalk outlines.
The TSA has commented that screening procedures such as having the screener viewing the image located far away from the person being screened could be a possibility. In light of this, some journalists have e
Oshkosh Logistic Vehicle System Replacement (LVSR)
The Logistic Vehicle System Replacement is a family of vehicles, based on a common 5-axle ten-wheel drive 10x10 chassis, that vary in individual configuration by mission requirements. The LVSR is manufactured by Oshkosh Defense. LVSR is a purpose-designed military vehicle and there are three variants in service, a cargo, a wrecker and a tractor truck; the first LVSRs were ordered in 2006. The LVSR is the U. S. Marines’ equivalent of the U. S. Army's Oshkosh Palletized Load System; the Marines do not use the HEMTT or PLS and the Army does not use the LVSR, but both services use a common trailer with all three truck types. The predecessor of the LVSR, the MK48 Logistics Vehicle System, had entered service with the US Marine Corps from 1985 and in the late 1990s a project to replace the LVS was started; as a precursor to a formal LVS replacement programme a number of manufacturers co-operated with the USMC to build and evaluate an Advanced Technology Demonstrator. The ATD was built during 1998 at the Nevada Automotive Test Centre.
LVS Modification Demonstrators were built, these integrating commercially proven automotive components and technologies. In April 2001, Logistics Management Institute completed their final report for the'Analysis of Alternatives for the USMC Logistics Vehicle System Replacement, concluding the best option was to rebuy a vehicle similar to the technology demonstrator. Five alternative options had been considered, these were: Inspect and Replace Only As Necessary for the LVS. Around this time it was suggested that 2,000-3,000 vehicles might be required, although throughout the program numbers would fluctuate. An LVSR industry day was held in late 2001, a formal solicitation to industry was released in early 2003; this had been delayed from an expected April 2002. The LVSR Request for Information had been expected in May 2000. In March 2004 Oshkosh Truck Corporation announced that the US Marine Corps had awarded the company a Phase I System Development and Demonstration Contract to supply three LVSR trucks.
These were to be delivered to the Marines for extensive endurance and performance testing within 12 months. This award was the first phase of a two-phase acquisition competition valued in March 2004 at $783 million for up to 1,581 vehicles. Competition for the Phase II production award was limited to those companies that completed Phase I evaluation; the other company selected for the Phase I evaluation was the American Truck Company with a TATRA-based design. Phase 1 testing was completed in 2005 and in late-May 2006, the USMC awarded the LVSR Phase II contract to Oshkosh Truck Corporation. An initial LVSR order issued on 31 May 2006 was valued at $28 million and ordered 22 cargo, two wrecker, tractor truck LVSR variants, plus vehicle kits, test support-production verification testing cargo and contract data requirements; the first LVSR cargo variant began testing at the Aberdeen Proving Ground in June 2007. Tractor and wrecker prototype vehicles began testing in April 2008 respectively. An additional 123 cargo variants, which completed low rate initial production quantities, were subsequently ordered under option year two of the production contract.
In January 2009, Oshkosh announced an LVSR delivery order valued at $176 million. This transitioned LVSR from LRIP into full-rate production. LVSR fielding began in April 2009 for user trials and testing and the first vehicle was fielded to Afghanistan in September 2009. LVSR deliveries were completed in September 2013. Orders totalled 2,022, with the total order value around $965.78 million. Deliveries included 1,505 MKR18 cargo variants, 355 MKR16 tractor trucks, 162 MKR15 wreckers; the requirement for an LVSR companion trailer for the USMC has been provided by Oshkosh. The M1076, in service with the US Army, is the selected trailer. In May 2009, it was announced that the Marine Corps would receive an initial 30 M1076 PLST for use with the LVSR. By early 2016 the USMC had purchased a total of 687 PLST through a separate contract with the US Army; the LVSR is powered by a 15.2-litre Caterpillar C15 six-cylinder in-line turbocharged, water-cooled four-stroke diesel, developing 600 hp. This is coupled to a seven-speed Allison automatic gearbox and Oshkosh single-speed transfer case.
Suspension is Oshkosh TAK-4 independent all-round, by coil springs on the front two axles, hydraulic on the rear three. The LVSR is based on a conventional C-section rigid chassis and to achieve the required turning radius, axles one, two and five steer, the rear two axles steering mechanically and not electronically; the two-seat cab fitted to the LVSR was designed from the outset to accept add-on armor. The LVSR cargo variant is fitted with a hooklift-type load handling system, all adapters and lift hardware are stored on the vehicle; the load handling system fitted is the same system fitted to Oshkosh M1074/M1075 PLS and M1120 HEMTT, these systems being a licence-produced and revised version of the Multilift Mark 4 system fitted to the British Army's De-mountable Rack Off-loading and Pick-up System. The LVSR has been designed to complement the USMC Oshkosh MTVR fleet with both types sharing some common parts and similar maintenance training. Wheels, front axles, TAK-4 suspension are common with
Oshkosh P-19R Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting vehicle
The Oshkosh P-19R is an Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting vehicle and it was selected by the U. S. Marines in 2013; the first delivery occurred in June 2017, Initial Operating Capability followed in February 2018, in service the P-19R serves as a first-response vehicle in aircraft fire emergencies at military bases and expeditionary airfields. Oshkosh announced on May 30, 2013 that it had been selected by the US Marine Corps to supply its next-generation Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting vehicles; the P-19 Replacement will replace the Oshkosh P-19A fleet, first fielded in 1984 and is reaching the end of its service life. The P-19R contract has a total estimated value of $192 million. Following the delivery of three prototype vehicles in December 2013 for testing, in April 2015 it was disclosed the P-19R had completed all required government development testing and evaluation and readiness reviews required to move the program through Milestone C approval and into Low Rate Initial Production. A delivery order was placed and LRIP commenced that month, with vehicles slated for delivery to support Product Verification Testing.
Six LRIP vehicles were delivered in February 2016 to the Aberdeen Test Center in Aberdeen Maryland for PVT and Cherry Point North Carolina for First Unit Equipped testing. Testing was conducted from March 2016 through June 2016. A Full Rate Production decision was announced by Oshkosh on August 18, 2016. On 22 May 2017 Oshkosh announced that the U. S. Marine Corps has awarded the company a delivery order valued at more than $33 million for an additional 54 P-19Rs. Oshkosh stated the company expected to deliver the first P-19Rs in June 2017 and in total would deliver 164 P-19Rs through 2019. On 27 July 2017 Oshkosh announced that the U. S. Marine Corps had awarded the company a delivery order valued at more than $16 million for an additional 23 P-19Rs. On 2 November 2017 Oshkosh announced that the U. S. Marine Corps had awarded the company a delivery order valued at more than $19 million for an additional 31 P-19Rs for delivery through 2019. Oshkosh announced on 6 February 2018 that the P-19R had reached its Initial Operating Capability milestone.
The P-19R contract extends through 2018 and between 164 and 200 vehicles can be ordered, with 60 vehicles delivered by February 2018. The P-19R is based on a conventional C-section rigid chassis, the wheelbase of, 4.851 m. Motive power is provided by a rear-mounted transverse 15.2-litre Caterpillar C15 six-cylinder in-line turbocharged, water-cooled four-stroke diesel, developing 600 hp, this coupled to an Allison 4700 SP seven-speed automatic transmission and Oshkosh 35000 Series single-speed transfer case. This set-up is shared with Oshkosh’s Logistic Vehicle System Replacement, in service with the Marines. Suspension is Oshkosh TAK-4 independent double wishbone all-round, by coil springs with 16-inches of independent wheel travel. TAK-4 suspension is fitted to the Marines’ LVSR and Medium Tactical Vehicle Replacement fleets, is fitted to the Oshkosh M-ATVs and upgraded Cougar MRAPs that are being retained by the Marines post-Afghanistan; the P-19R is fitted with Michelin XZL 16.00 R 20 tires.
A Dana central tire inflation system is fitted, this allowing the driver to adjust tire pressures to suit the terrain being crossed. A spare wheel/tire is carried at the rear of the vehicle; the cab seats a driver and three crew. The driver sits centrally; the P-19R is equipped with a power divider that allows the vehicle to pump simultaneously. In addition to hoses and other fire and rescue equipment, the P-19R carries 1000 gallons of water, 130 gallons of foam agent, 500 lb of Halotron auxiliary firefighting agent; the roof and bumper turrets combined, will discharge up to 750 gallons of water per minute, at up to 1000 ft from a fire. Cross-lay hose beds in the main body offer convenient access to fire hoses that can be used for structural fires or to draw water from a hydrant or natural source such as a river or pond. On the underside of the P-19R there are nozzles that can discharge 56 liters of water and foam to extinguish a fire or fuel spill underneath the vehicle. In front of the vehicle Oshkosh has installed nozzles that spray water and foam on the windshield to keep it cool.
The P-19R is equipped with Oshkosh's Command Zone integrated control and diagnostic system developed for the company's commercial fire-fighting vehicle in 1999. Command Zone is a computer-controlled, electronics technology that operates and diagnoses all major vehicle networks; the backbone of the system is multiplexing technology that allows vehicle components to work in concert, streamlining diagnostic and troubleshooting efficiencies. Both a local and remote monitoring system, it allows real-time access to critical vehicle information via command and control networks, laptops, on-board display screens or hand-held personal digital devices. Oshkosh P-19R Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting vehicle Oshkosh Corporation Oshkosh TAK-4 Independent Suspension System Aircraft rescue and firefighting Oshkosh Logistic Vehicle System Replacement Oshkosh Striker Airport crash tender Oshkosh P-19R Oshkosh P-19R