A chancellor is a leader of a college or university either the executive or ceremonial head of the university or of a university campus within a university system. In most Commonwealth and former Commonwealth nations, the chancellor is a ceremonial non-resident head of the university. In such institutions, the chief executive of a university is the vice-chancellor, who may carry an additional title, such as "president & vice-chancellor"; the chancellor may serve as chairman of the governing body. In many countries, the administrative and educational head of the university is known as the president, principal or rector. In the United States, the head of a university is most a university president. In U. S. university systems that have more than one affiliated university or campus, the executive head of a specific campus may have the title of chancellor and report to the overall system's president, or vice versa. In both Australia and New Zealand, a chancellor is the chairman of a university's governing body.
The chancellor is assisted by a deputy chancellor. The chancellor and deputy chancellor are drawn from the senior ranks of business or the judiciary; some universities have a visitor, senior to the chancellor. University disputes can be appealed from the governing board to the visitor, but nowadays, such appeals are prohibited by legislation, the position has only ceremonial functions; the vice-chancellor serves as the chief executive of the university. Macquarie University in Sydney is a noteworthy anomaly as it once had the unique position of Emeritus Deputy Chancellor, a post created for John Lincoln upon his retirement from his long-held post of deputy chancellor in 2000; the position was not an honorary title, as it retained for Lincoln a place in the University Council until his death in 2011. Canadian universities and British universities in Scotland have a titular chancellor similar to those in England and Wales, with day-to-day operations handled by a principal. In Scotland, for example, the chancellor of the University of Edinburgh is Anne, Princess Royal, whilst the current chancellor of the University of Aberdeen is Camilla, Duchess of Rothesay.
In Canada, the vice-chancellor carries the joint title of "president and vice-chancellor" or "rector and vice-chancellor." Scottish principals carry the title of "principal and vice-chancellor." In Scotland, the title and post of rector is reserved to the third ranked official of university governance. The position exists in common throughout the five ancient universities of Scotland with rectorships in existence at the universities of St Andrews, Aberdeen and Dundee, considered to have ancient status as a result of its early connections to the University of St Andrews; the position of Lord Rector was given legal standing by virtue of the Universities Act 1889. Rectors appoint a rector's assessor a deputy or stand-in, who may carry out their functions when they are absent from the university; the Rector chairs meetings of the university court, the governing body of the university, is elected by the matriculated student body at regular intervals. An exception exists at Edinburgh, where the Rector is elected by staff.
In Finland, if the university has a chancellor, he is the leading official in the university. The duties of the chancellor are to promote sciences and to look after the best interests of the university; as the rector of the university remains the de facto administrative leader and chief executive official, the role of the chancellor is more of a social and historical nature. However some administrative duties still belong to the chancellor's jurisdiction despite their arguably ceremonial nature. Examples of these include the appointment of new docents; the chancellor of University of Helsinki has the notable right to be present and to speak in the plenary meetings of the Council of State when matters regarding the university are discussed. Despite his role as the chancellor of only one university, he is regarded as the political representative of Finland's entire university institution when he exercises his rights in the Council of State. In the history of Finland the office of the chancellor dates all the way back to the Swedish Empire, the Russian Empire.
The chancellor's duty was to function as the official representative of the monarch in the autonomous university. The number of chancellors in Finnish universities has declined over the years, in vast majority of Finnish universities the highest official is the rector; the remaining universities with chancellors are University of Åbo Akademi University. In France, chancellor is one of the titles of the rector, a senior civil servant of the Ministry of Education serving as manager of a regional educational district. In his capacity as chancellor, the rector awards academic degrees to the university's gradua
University of Oxford
The University of Oxford is a collegiate research university in Oxford, England. There is evidence of teaching as early as 1096, making it the oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's second-oldest university in continuous operation, it grew from 1167 when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled north-east to Cambridge where they established what became the University of Cambridge; the two'ancient universities' are jointly called'Oxbridge'. The history and influence of the University of Oxford has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world; the university is made up of 38 constituent colleges, a range of academic departments, which are organised into four divisions. All the colleges are self-governing institutions within the university, each controlling its own membership and with its own internal structure and activities, it does not have a main campus, its buildings and facilities are scattered throughout the city centre.
Undergraduate teaching at Oxford is organised around weekly tutorials at the colleges and halls, supported by classes, lectures and laboratory work provided by university faculties and departments. It operates the world's oldest university museum, as well as the largest university press in the world and the largest academic library system nationwide. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £2.237 billion, of which £579.1 million was from research grants and contracts. The university is ranked first globally by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings as of 2019 and is ranked as among the world's top ten universities, it is ranked second in all major national league tables, behind Cambridge. Oxford has educated many notable alumni, including 27 prime ministers of the United Kingdom and many heads of state and government around the world; as of 2019, 69 Nobel Prize winners, 3 Fields Medalists, 6 Turing Award winners have studied, worked, or held visiting fellowships at the University of Oxford, while its alumni have won 160 Olympic medals.
Oxford is the home of numerous scholarships, including the Rhodes Scholarship, one of the oldest international graduate scholarship programmes. The University of Oxford has no known foundation date. Teaching at Oxford existed in some form as early as 1096, but it is unclear when a university came into being, it grew from 1167 when English students returned from the University of Paris. The historian Gerald of Wales lectured to such scholars in 1188 and the first known foreign scholar, Emo of Friesland, arrived in 1190; the head of the university had the title of chancellor from at least 1201, the masters were recognised as a universitas or corporation in 1231. The university was granted a royal charter in 1248 during the reign of King Henry III. After disputes between students and Oxford townsfolk in 1209, some academics fled from the violence to Cambridge forming the University of Cambridge; the students associated together on the basis of geographical origins, into two'nations', representing the North and the South.
In centuries, geographical origins continued to influence many students' affiliations when membership of a college or hall became customary in Oxford. In addition, members of many religious orders, including Dominicans, Franciscans and Augustinians, settled in Oxford in the mid-13th century, gained influence and maintained houses or halls for students. At about the same time, private benefactors established colleges as self-contained scholarly communities. Among the earliest such founders were William of Durham, who in 1249 endowed University College, John Balliol, father of a future King of Scots. Another founder, Walter de Merton, a Lord Chancellor of England and afterwards Bishop of Rochester, devised a series of regulations for college life. Thereafter, an increasing number of students lived in colleges rather than in halls and religious houses. In 1333–34, an attempt by some dissatisfied Oxford scholars to found a new university at Stamford, was blocked by the universities of Oxford and Cambridge petitioning King Edward III.
Thereafter, until the 1820s, no new universities were allowed to be founded in England in London. The new learning of the Renaissance influenced Oxford from the late 15th century onwards. Among university scholars of the period were William Grocyn, who contributed to the revival of Greek language studies, John Colet, the noted biblical scholar. With the English Reformation and the breaking of communion with the Roman Catholic Church, recusant scholars from Oxford fled to continental Europe, settling at the University of Douai; the method of teaching at Oxford was transformed from the medieval scholastic method to Renaissance education, although institutions associated with the university suffered losses of land and revenues. As a centre of learning and scholarship, Oxford's reputation declined in the Age of Enlightenment. In 1636 William Laud, the chancellor and Archbishop of Canterbury, codified the university's statutes. These, to a large extent, remained its gove
Thomas Person was an American politician, Anti-Federalist organizer, Brigadier General in command of the Hillsborough District Brigade of the North Carolina militia during the American Revolution. Born January 19, 1733 in the Colony of Virginia to William and Ann Person, he married Johanna Philpot. General Thomas Person spent most of his life in service to North Carolina. In 1756, after several years working for Earl Granville as a surveyor, Thomas Person was recommended for the position of Justice of the Peace for Granville County. By the year 1762, he had become the county's sheriff. After his election to represent Granville County in the North Carolina General Assembly in 1764, Thomas Person would find himself on the side of the disaffected colonials in the War of the Regulation; when the Battle of Alamance ended in defeat for the Regulators, Governor William Tryon issued a series of amnesty proclamations for combatants and rioters, from which Thomas Person was excluded though he was not present at the battle.
Person was held for three weeks in Hillsborough but was released without trial, due either to lack of evidence or his personal friendship with Edmund Fanning. In spite of his issues with Governor Tryon, Representative Person continued to serve in the state General Assembly until the beginning of the American Revolution, when he was named to the extra-legal North Carolina Provincial Congress; this body would "concur with the delegates of the other colonies in declaring independency." On May 4, 1776, Person was commissioned a Brigadier General in command of the Hillsborough District Brigade of the North Carolina militia. His service consisted of raising troops and collecting supplies rather than fighting on the field, he turned over command the following year to John Butler, who would lead the unit in the Battle of Guilford Court House. Person spent the rest of the war serving on the North Carolina Council of State. After the war ended, Thomas Person became a leader of North Carolina's Anti-Federalists.
They opposed the ratification of the United States Constitution on the grounds "that the Senate would become a bastion of aristocratic privilege, that an imperial president would overawe a complacent Congress, that an intrusive federal court system would engender costly and oppressive litigation". Though there was broad support for the anti-federalists in North Carolina, the ratification by 11 of the other colonies and the formulation of the Bill of Rights made it clear that ratification was inevitable by the end of 1789. At the final constitutional convention in Fayetteville, North Carolina, Thomas Person would vote Nay. General Person was an early supporter of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, he granted them a gift of one thousand silver dollars to complete their chapel, which bore his name. He sat on the inaugural Board of Trustees and the Memorial to Founding Trustees outside Person Hall which bears his name; when Caswell County was divided in 1791, the newly formed Person County was named in honor of General Thomas Person.
He died on November 1800 at the home of his sister, Patty Person Taylor. The Patty Person Taylor House was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1975. By the time of his death in 1800, Thomas Person owned over 125 square miles of land in North Carolina and Tennessee, he owned at least 34 slaves that he kept at his estate, Goshen, in Granville County, North Carolina. Person's Ordinary at Littleton, North Carolina was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1973
John Hood (university administrator)
Sir John Antony Hood is a New Zealand businessman and administrator. He was Vice-Chancellor of the University of Oxford from 5 October 2004 until 30 September 2009, he was the first Vice-Chancellor to be elected from outside Oxford's academic body in 900 years, the first to have addressed the scholars' congregation via a webcast. In March 2007 New Zealand Prime Minister Helen Clark awarded him the World Class New Zealand supreme award to honour his contribution to profiling New Zealand and New Zealanders internationally. On 15 November 2007 he announced that he would not seek an extension to his five-year term as Vice Chancellor, that he would leave Oxford in September 2009. Born on 2 January 1952 in Napier, New Zealand, Hood attended Westlake Boys High School in Auckland, where a house has been named after him. During 1970 and 1976, Hood attended the University of Auckland, where he graduated with a B. E. in 1972 and a Ph. D. in Civil Engineering in 1976. He won a Rhodes Scholarship to Oxford, where he resided in Worcester College and studied for an M.
Phil. in Management. He won a Blue playing squash for Oxford University and played first-class cricket for Oxford University in 1977, he has held a number of directorships in prominent New Zealand companies and bodies, including Fonterra, Fletcher Challenge and the New Zealand Cricket review of 1995. His career at Fletcher Challenge is described in the book Battle of the Titans by Bruce Wallace. From 1998–2004, he was Vice-Chancellor of the University of Auckland. Hood's term as vice-chancellor of Oxford has been the subject of controversy. Hood had proposed to reform the 900-year-old tradition of complete self-governance by introducing a number of external members to council, by separating academic and financial boards; the initial proposal called for a majority of external members of council, bringing Oxford into line with all other UK universities except the University of Cambridge. Following a two-hour debate, the proposal was amended by Congregation to allow the election of a fellow insider to the council within five years, resulting in a majority of eight insiders to the 15-member council.
The amendment was supported by a majority of votes, with both supporters and opponents of the reforms claiming victory. The amended proposal was brought to vote by Congregation on 28 November 2006, was defeated by 730 to 456 votes. A postal vote was called on 5 December, with ballots being sent to all 3000 members of Congregation and votes being accepted until 18 December. On 19 December it was announced that the proposal had once again been defeated, this time by 1540 to 997 votes. Hood stated that he would not treat the defeat as a vote of no confidence, citing a need to "put aside division, continue dialogue with all shades of opinion and, in an atmosphere of trust and goodwill, promote the academic aims and ideals of Oxford"; the proposed reform met with opposition not because it would invite outside opinion on the university's financial and academic decisions, but because of the impression that control would be wrested from Congregation, thus threatening the university's academic reputation.
Furthermore, some opponents claimed that the reform would place too much power in the hands of the vice-chancellor. Other critics questioned the applicability of corporate models of governance in educational institutions. Lord Patten of Barnes has stated that without reforms to Oxford's governance it will be more difficult to raise money that the university needs to advance with respect to needs-based funding to support students from poorer backgrounds. Hood has stated that the issue is not "whether there has to be change, but what kind of change."Others have criticised the appointment of the Registrar, Julie Maxton, noted to be a former colleague of Hood. Maxton was chosen for the position of Registrar by way of a selection committee including consultants, external members of council, the vice-chancellor of Cambridge. Comparisons have been drawn with Lawrence Summers, the 27th President of Harvard University, who announced his resignation on 21 February 2006 following two motions of censure.
Although individual academic staff have been critical of John Hood no formal motions were brought forward calling for his resignation. However, an informal letter of confidence organised by his supporters in February 2006 attracted around 50 signatories from Members of Congregation. Contested elections to the Council of the University by Congregation have resulted in the election of three leading critics of Hood's proposals, namely Susan Cooper in 2005, Nicholas Bamforth in 2006 and Donald Fraser, elected unopposed in 2006. In June 2007 it was revealed that the University press office had been monitoring and editing comments in Hood's Wikipedia article in an attempt to protect his reputation. In the same month, two further critics of Hood, Colin Thompson and Peter Robbins, were elected to the Council. Andrew Hamilton, who had served as the Provost of Yale University, was nominated on 3 June 2008 to succeed John Hood as Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University from 1 October 2009, his appointment was confirmed on 16 June 2008.
He is a non-executive director of BG Group Plc, will be President and Chief Executive Officer of the Robertson Foundation from 2010. In December 2011, John Hood became Chair of Rhodes Trustees. In January 2012, the board of global private education provider Study Group appointed John Hood as chairman. In the 2014 Queen's Birthday Honours, Hood was appointed a Knight Companion of the New Zealand Order of Merit for services to tertiary education. Hood has son. List of Vice-Chancellors of the University of Oxford Lo
Henry George Liddell was dean of Christ Church, Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University, headmaster of Westminster School, author of A History of Rome, co-author of the monumental work A Greek–English Lexicon, known as "Liddell and Scott", still used by students of Greek. Lewis Carroll wrote Alice's Adventures in Wonderland for Henry Liddell's daughter Alice. Liddell received his education at Oxford, he gained a double first degree in 1833 became a college tutor, was ordained in 1838. Liddell was Headmaster of Westminster School from 1846 to 1855. Meanwhile, his life work, the great lexicon, which he and Robert Scott began as early as 1834, had made good progress, the first edition of Liddell and Scott's Lexicon appeared in 1843, it became the standard Greek–English dictionary, with the 8th edition published in 1897. As Headmaster of Westminster Liddell enjoyed a period of great success, followed by trouble due to the outbreak of fever and cholera in the school. In 1855 he accepted the deanery of Oxford.
In the same year he brought out his History of Ancient Rome and took a active part in the first Oxford University Commission. His tall figure, fine presence and aristocratic mien were for many years associated with all, characteristic of Oxford life. Coming just at the transition period when the "old Christ Church," which Pusey strove so hard to preserve, was becoming broader and more liberal, it was chiefly due to Liddell that necessary changes were effected with the minimum of friction. In 1859 Liddell welcomed the Prince of Wales when he matriculated at Christ Church, being the first holder of that title who had matriculated since Henry V. While Liddell was Dean of Christ Church, he arranged for the building of a new choir school and classrooms for the staff and pupils of Christ Church Cathedral School on its present site. Before the school was housed within Christ Church itself. In July 1846, Liddell married Lorina Reeve, with whom he had nine children including Alice Liddell of Lewis Carroll fame.
In conjunction with Sir Henry Acland, Liddell did much to encourage the study of art at Oxford, his taste and judgment gained him the admiration and friendship of Ruskin. In 1891, owing to advancing years, he resigned the deanery; the last years of his life were spent at Ascot, where he died on 18 January 1898. Two roads in Ascot, Liddell Way and Carroll Crescent honour the relationship between Henry Liddell and Lewis Carroll. Liddell was an Oxford "character" in years, he figures in contemporary undergraduate doggerel: I am the Dean, this Mrs Liddell. She plays first, I, second fiddle, she is the Broad, I am the High – We are the University. The Victorian journalist, George W. E. Russell, conveys something of Liddell's image: The Vice-Chancellor who matriculated me was the majestic Liddell, with his six feet of stately height draped in scarlet, his'argent aureole' of white hair, his three silver maces borne before him, always helped me to understand what Sydney Smith meant when he said, of some nonsensical proposition, that no power on earth and except the Dean of Christ Church, should induce him to believe it.
Henry George Liddell was the author of A Greek-English Dictionary Based on the German Work of Francis Passow, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1843, numerous editions of the same, including abridgments for student use, written with Robert Scott. A History of Rome from the Earliest Times to the Establishment of the Empire, Vols. I & II, London: John Murray, 1855 Life of Julius Caesar, New York: Sheldon & Co. 1860, excerpted from the Roman history. The Student's Rome: A History of Rome from the Earliest Times to the Establishment of the Empire, London: John Murray, 1865, excerpted from the Roman history and revised, his father was Henry Liddell, Rector of Easington, the younger son of Sir Henry Liddell, 5th Baronet and the former Elizabeth Steele. His father's elder brother, Sir Thomas Liddell, 6th Baronet, was raised to the Peerage as Baron Ravensworth in 1821, his mother was a daughter of Thomas Lyon and the former Mary Wren. On 2 July 1846, Henry married Lorina Reeve, they were parents of ten children: Edward Harry Liddell.
Lorina Charlotte'Ina' Liddell. James Arthur Charles Liddell. Alice Pleasance Liddell, for whom the story of the children's classic Alice's Adventures in Wonderland was told. Edith Mary Liddell. Rhoda Caroline Anne Liddell. Albert Edward Arthur Liddell. Violet Constance Liddell. Sir Frederick Francis Liddell: First Parliamentary Counsel and Ecclesiastical Commissioner. Lionel Charles Liddell. Lewis Carroll Alice Liddell Media related to Henry George Liddell at Wikimedia Commons A genealogical profile from thePeerage.com Two portraits, National Portrait Gallery