Mombacho is a stratovolcano in Nicaragua, near the city of Granada. The Mombacho Volcano Nature Reserve is one of 78 protected areas of Nicaragua, Mombacho is not an extinct volcano but the last eruption occurred in 1570. There is no knowledge of earlier eruptions. The highest regions of the volcano are home to a cloud forest and dwarf forest, an increasingly popular tourist attraction, the volcano has fantastic views of Lake Nicaragua and the city of Granada. The volcano has two hiking trails, a one that circles the main crater, and another, more difficult trail. The more difficult trail is the way to see some features such as the dwarf forest. The trail is almost completely 45° inclines and declines for about two miles, more than 700 different plants are registered around Mombacho, including many species of orchids
The Almolonga volcano, usually called Cerro Quemado is an andesitic stratovolcano in the south-western department of Quetzaltenango in Guatemala. The volcano is located near the town of Almolonga, just south of Quetzaltenango, Almolonga stratovolcano is the oldest edifice and underwent collapse prior to the caldera forming eruption of Lake Atitlan, the major chronological marker of volcanism in the region. A lava dome emerged inside the collapse scar subsequently,1818 an eruption formed a block lava flow over half a year that travelled 2.5 km eastward. Lahars and further explosive activity are potential hazards from this volcano, list of volcanoes in Guatemala Almolonga. Siebert, Kimberly, Pullinger, Carlos R, the voluminous Acajutla debris avalanche from Santa Ana volcano, western El Salvador, and comparison with other Central American edifice-failure events. Geological Society of America Special Papers, michael Conway, F. Vallance, James W. Rose, William I. Cerro Quemado, the history and hazards of an exogenous volcanic dome complex.
Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research
Moyuta is a stratovolcano in southern Guatemala. It is located near the town of Moyuta in Santa Rosa Department, the volcano has an elevation of 1662 m and its summit is formed by three andesitic lava domes. The slopes of the complex have numerous cinder cones. Small fumaroles can be seen on the northern and southern slopes, the volcano is covered with forest and coffee plantations. List of volcanoes in Guatemala Moyuta
The Miravalles Volcano is an andesitic stratovolcano in Costa Rica. The caldera was formed during several major eruptions that produced voluminous dacitic-rhyolitic pyroclastic flows between about 1.5 and 0.6 million years ago. The only reported historical activity was a small steam explosion on the SW flank in 1946. High heat flow remains, and Miravalles is the site of the largest developed geothermal field in Costa Rica, the Miravalles Volcano reaches an elevation of 6,653 feet and is the highest mountain in the Guanacaste Mountains. The heat from the volcano helps power a geothermal energy plant at Las Hornillas, which is run by the Institute of Electricity
Turrialba Volcano is an active volcano in central Costa Rica that has been explosively eruptive in recent years including 2016 and in January and April 2017. The stratovolcano is 3,340 m high and is about 45 minutes from the Atlantic slope town of Turrialba, the summit has three craters, the largest of which has a diameter of 50 m. Below the summit is a range and montane forest, with ferns, lichens. Most of the forest is primary or secondary forest. Turrialba is adjacent to Irazú and both are among Costa Ricas largest volcanoes, Turrialba has had at least five large explosive eruptions in last 3500 years. On clear days both the Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea can be seen from the summit, the volcano is named after its canton, Turrialba, in Costa Ricas Cartago Province. There is no consensus on the origin of the name Turrialba. The general consensus is that Turrialba derives from the local Indian and this volcano is monitored by the Deep Earth Carbon Degassing Project. During the 19th century, the volcano erupted and emitted ash several times, the last major eruption was in 1866.
Small signs of activity start in 1996, in January 2001, the volcano reported increased activity, displaying strong fumarole activity at the central craters. The volcanic activities have increased since 2005, on March 31,2007, the volcano started to show some activity with ash eruptions. The National Park area opened for visitors was closed from 2009 to 2011, on January 8,2010, a phreatic eruption occurred, creating a new opening near the crater on the southwest, and the temperature increased from 200 to 600 °C. Two villages, La Central and El Retiro, were evacuated, on January,2012 a new opening on the west of the crater was created after a phreatic eruption. On April 12,2012, an eruption occurred. On May 21,2013, at 08,52, a gas explosion widened several openings near the crater that appeared in 2010 and 2012. In July 2013 researchers found that tremors around the area increased from about twenty earthquakes a day, on October 17,2014, the quantity of tremors increased from around 50-100 a day, to 200 a day.
On October 29,2014, at around 10,10 and this eruption sent a large amount of volcanic material to areas up to 40 km away. On March 12,2015, eruptions at around 11,00 and 14,12 sent ashes through all the Central Valley, the Juan Suantamaría and Tobías Bolaños international airports were closed due to visibility being less than 100 meters
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface. Earths volcanoes occur because its crust is broken into 17 major, therefore, on Earth, volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging. This type of volcanism falls under the umbrella of plate hypothesis volcanism, Volcanism away from plate boundaries has been explained as mantle plumes. These so-called hotspots, for example Hawaii, are postulated to arise from upwelling diapirs with magma from the boundary,3,000 km deep in the Earth. Volcanoes are usually not created where two plates slide past one another. Erupting volcanoes can pose hazards, not only in the immediate vicinity of the eruption. Historically, so-called volcanic winters have caused catastrophic famines, the word volcano is derived from the name of Vulcano, a volcanic island in the Aeolian Islands of Italy whose name in turn comes from Vulcan, the god of fire in Roman mythology.
The study of volcanoes is called volcanology, sometimes spelled vulcanology, at the mid-oceanic ridges, two tectonic plates diverge from one another as new oceanic crust is formed by the cooling and solidifying of hot molten rock. Most divergent plate boundaries are at the bottom of the oceans, most volcanic activity is submarine, black smokers are evidence of this kind of volcanic activity. Where the mid-oceanic ridge is above sea-level, volcanic islands are formed, for example, subduction zones are places where two plates, usually an oceanic plate and a continental plate, collide. In this case, the plate subducts, or submerges under the continental plate forming a deep ocean trench just offshore. In a process called flux melting, water released from the subducting plate lowers the temperature of the overlying mantle wedge. This magma tends to be very viscous due to its high content, so it often does not reach the surface. When it does reach the surface, a volcano is formed, typical examples of this kind of volcano are Mount Etna and the volcanoes in the Pacific Ring of Fire.
Because tectonic plates move across them, each volcano becomes dormant and is eventually re-formed as the plate advances over the postulated plume and this theory is currently under criticism, however. The most common perception of a volcano is of a mountain, spewing lava and poisonous gases from a crater at its summit, however. The features of volcanoes are more complicated and their structure. Some volcanoes have rugged peaks formed by lava domes rather than a summit crater while others have features such as massive plateaus
Cerro Negro is an active volcano in the Cordillera de los Maribios mountain range in Nicaragua, about 10 km from the village of Malpaisillo. It is a new volcano, the youngest in Central America. It consists of a gravelly basaltic cinder cone, which contrasts greatly with the surrounding verdant hillsides, and gives rise to its name, Cerro Negro has erupted frequently since its first eruption. One unusual aspect of several eruptions has been the emission of ash from the top of the cone, while lava erupts from fractures at the base. Cerro Negro is a cinder cone that is part of the Central America Volcanic Arc. It is the largest and southernmost of four cinder cones that have formed along a NW-SE trend line in the Cordillera de los Maribios mountain range, despite its youth, Cerro Negro has been one of the most active volcanoes in Nicaragua, with its latest eruption occurring in 1999. Since its birth in 1850, it has erupted approximately 23 times, the first recorded eruption of Cerro Negro occurred on April 13,1850 and volcanic activity lasted until May 27.
Central vent and explosive eruptions transpired, with flow and damage to land. The Volcanic Explosivity Index was recorded at 2 out of 8, the lava volume was recorded to be 5.4 x 10 and the tephra volume was 6.5 x 105 m3. Cerro Negro’s second eruption took place on November 14,1867, radial fissure and explosive eruptions occurred, with some lava flows, along the NE-SW trend line fissure. The VEI was recorded at 2, and the volume was 8.6 x 106 m3. The third eruption of Cerro Negro occurred 32 years and lasted from November 22 to November 29,1899, explosive eruptions resulted in damaged land, and the VEI was recorded as a 2. Finally, the volume was documented at 1.7 x 106 m3. From October 28 to November 3,1914, the volcano erupted explosively at the central vent, mudslides resulted in increased damage to the land, but there were no fatalities because they did not flow over any villages or towns. Although the VEI was yet again 2, the volume was a recorded 2.8 x 106 m3. Five years later, Cerro Negro erupted again from June 20–30,1919, no tephra or lava volumes were recorded at this time.
Just four years after that, from October 23 until December 11,1923, Cerro Negro erupted along the summit, Central vent and radial fissure explosions erupted during this time, and lava flows were recorded in this VEI3 sub-plinian eruption. It was the largest eruption in the history of the volcano, with the volume being 1.0 x 107 m3
It has a population of around 4.5 million, of whom nearly a quarter live in the metropolitan area of the capital and largest city, San José. Costa Rica was sparsely inhabited by people before coming under Spanish rule in the 16th century. Since then, Costa Rica has remained among the most stable, following a brief civil war, it permanently abolished its army in 1949, becoming one of only a few sovereign nations without a standing army. Costa Rica is a member of the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie. The country has consistently performed favourably in the Human Development Index, placing 69th in the world as of 2015 and its rapidly developing economy, once heavily dependent on agriculture, has diversified to include sectors such as finance and ecotourism. Costa Rica is known for its environmental policies, being the only country to meet all five UNDP criteria established to measure environmental sustainability. Costa Rica officially plans to become a country by 2021. In 2012, it became the first country in the Americas to ban recreational hunting, historians have classified the indigenous people of Costa Rica as belonging to the Intermediate Area, where the peripheries of the Mesoamerican and Andean native cultures overlapped.
More recently, pre-Columbian Costa Rica has described as part of the Isthmo-Colombian Area. The oldest evidence of occupation in Costa Rica is associated with the arrival of various groups of hunter-gatherers about 10,000 to 7,000 years BCE in the Turrialba Valley. The presence of Clovis culture type spearheads and arrows from South America opens the possibility that, in this area, agriculture became evident in the populations that lived in Costa Rica about 5,000 years ago. They mainly grew tubers and roots, for the first and second millennia BCE there were already settled farming communities. These were small and scattered, although the transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture as the livelihood in the territory is still unknown. The earliest use of pottery appears around 2,000 to 3,000 BCE, shards of pots, cylindrical vases, platters and other forms of vases decorated with grooves and some modelled after animals have been found. The impact of indigenous peoples on modern Costa Rican culture has been small compared to other nations.
Costa Rica was described as the poorest and most miserable Spanish colony in all America by a Spanish governor in 1719, for all these reasons, Costa Rica was, by and large and overlooked by the Spanish Crown and left to develop on its own. Costa Rica became a democracy with no oppressed mestizo or indigenous class. It was not long before Spanish settlers turned to the hills, where they found rich volcanic soil, like the rest of Central America, Costa Rica never fought for independence from Spain
San Salvador (volcano)
The San Salvador Volcano is a strato volcano situated northwest to the city of San Salvador. The crater has been filled with a relatively newer edifice. San Salvador is adjacent to the volcano and the section of the city actually lies among its slopes. Due to this proximity, any geological activity of the volcano, whether eruptive or not, has the potential to result in catastrophic destruction. Despite this, the volcano is iconic of the city, and several TV and radio antennas are situated on the El Picacho peaks, El Picacho, the prominent peak is the highest elevation. The Boquerón edifice formed between 700 and 1,000 years ago, filling up the G-1 eruption crater, the lavas of the Boquerón edifice contain more alkali element and iron oxide than the lavas of the san salvador edifice, allowing for a clear chemical distinction. Around 800 years ago, the present day crater was formed in a violent explosion, the crater, which gives it the present name is 1.5 km in diameter and 500m deep. Within the crater around the walls, crops are cultivated by the locals who live on the volcano.
The magma chamber which the volcano sits upon contains a number of fissures which protrude along the flanks, the citizens relocated to Nejapa and nowadays the eruption is celebrated annually. The most recent eruption in 1917 caused an eruption on the volcano along the N40W fissure. During this eruption, the lake inside the Boqueron evaporated. List of volcanoes in El Salvador San Salvador, williams, H. and Meyer-Abich, H.1955 Volcanisim in the southern part of El Salvador, University of California Publication in geological Sciences v.32 pp1–64 Sofield. D. Eruptive history and volcanic hazards of Volcan San Salvador, natural Hazards in El Salvador, Colorado, Geological Society of America Special Paper 375, pp 147–158. Fairbrothers G E. Carr M J. and Mayfield F G. Temporal Magmatic Variation at Boqueron Volcano, V67, pp 1–9 Topographical hazard zonation maps regarding the volcano and the city