List of volcanoes in Panama
1. Keyhole Markup Language – Keyhole Markup Language is an XML notation for expressing geographic annotation and visualization within Internet-based, two-dimensional maps and three-dimensional Earth browsers. KML was developed for use with Google Earth, which was originally named Keyhole Earth Viewer and it was created by Keyhole, Inc, which was acquired by Google in 2004. KML became a standard of the Open Geospatial Consortium in 2008. Google Earth was the first program able to view and graphically edit KML files, other projects such as Marble have also started to develop KML support. The KML file specifies a set of features for display in Here Maps, Google Earth, Maps and Mobile, each place always has a longitude and a latitude. Other data can make the more specific, such as tilt, heading, altitude. KML shares some of the same grammar as GML. Some KML information cannot be viewed in Google Maps or Mobile, KML files are very often distributed in KMZ files, which are zipped KML files with a. kmz extension. These must be legacy compression compatible, otherwise the. kmz file might not uncompress in all geobrowsers. The contents of a KMZ file are a single root KML document and optionally any overlays, images, icons, the root KML document by convention is a file named doc. kml at the root directory level, which is the file loaded upon opening. By convention the root KML document is at level and referenced files are in subdirectories. An example KML document is, The MIME type associated with KML is application/vnd. google-earth. kml+xml, the longitude, latitude components are as defined by the World Geodetic System of 1984. The vertical component is measured in meters from the WGS84 EGM96 Geoid vertical datum, if altitude is omitted from a coordinate string, e. g. then the default value of 0 is assumed for the altitude component, i. e. A formal definition of the reference system used by KML is contained in the OGC KML2.2 Specification. This definition references well-known EPSG CRS components, the KML2.2 specification was submitted to the Open Geospatial Consortium to assure its status as an open standard for all geobrowsers. In November 2007 a new KML2.2 Standards Working Group was established within OGC to formalize KML2.2 as an OGC standard. Comments were sought on the standard until January 4,2008. The OGC KML Standards Working Group finished working on change requests to KML2.2, the official OGC KML2.3 standard was published in August 4,2015Keyhole Markup Language – Keyhole Markup Language
2. GPS eXchange Format – GPX, or GPS Exchange Format, is an XML schema designed as a common GPS data format for software applications. It can be used to describe waypoints, tracks, and routes, the format is open and can be used without the need to pay license fees. Location data is stored in tags and can be interchanged between GPS devices and software, common software applications for the data include viewing tracks projected onto various map sources, annotating maps, and geotagging photographs based on the time they were taken. These are the data contained in GPX files. Ellipsis means that the element can be repeated. Additional data may exist within every markup but is not shown here and it consists of the WGS84 coordinates of a point and possibly other descriptive information. TrkType is a track, made of at least one segment containing waypoints, that is, a Track Segment holds a list of Track Points which are logically connected in order. To represent a single GPS track where GPS reception was lost, or the GPS receiver was turned off, rteType is a route, an ordered list of routepoint leading to a destination. Conceptually, tracks are a record of where a person has been, technically, a track is made of a sufficient number of trackpoints to precisely draw every bend of a path on a bitmap. The routepoints may be crossings or junctions or as distant as stopover towns, hence, such a project can be saved and reloaded in a GPX file. A process called routing computes a route and may produce a GPX route made of the routepoints where some driver action takes place, the GPX points may contain the text of those instructions. The GPX file may contain both route and track so that a program can get points from the track even if it has no access to a vector map. The minimum properties for a GPX file are latitude and longitude for every single point. Some vendors, such as Humminbird and Garmin, use extensions to the GPX format for recording street address, phone number, business category, air temperature, depth of water, and other parameters. Latitude and longitude are expressed in degrees, and elevation in meters. Dates and times are not local time, but instead are Coordinated Universal Time using ISO8601 format, the following is a truncated GPX file produced by a Garmin Oregon 400t hand-held GPS unit. Concepts Point of Interest OpenStreetMap, a project to create free editable maps using, among others. File formats Exchangeable image file format Geography Markup Language KML, the equivalent format compatible with Google Earth, NMEA0183 NMEA2000 TCX, Garmin Training Center XML Software GPSBabel, used to upload/download/convert GPX files GPX, the GPS Exchange FormatGPS eXchange Format – Waypoints, routes and tracks recorded by GPS receivers.
3. Volcano – A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface. Earths volcanoes occur because its crust is broken into 17 major, therefore, on Earth, volcanoes are generally found where tectonic plates are diverging or converging. This type of volcanism falls under the umbrella of plate hypothesis volcanism, Volcanism away from plate boundaries has also been explained as mantle plumes. These so-called hotspots, for example Hawaii, are postulated to arise from upwelling diapirs with magma from the boundary,3,000 km deep in the Earth. Volcanoes are usually not created where two plates slide past one another. Erupting volcanoes can pose hazards, not only in the immediate vicinity of the eruption. Historically, so-called volcanic winters have caused catastrophic famines, the word volcano is derived from the name of Vulcano, a volcanic island in the Aeolian Islands of Italy whose name in turn comes from Vulcan, the god of fire in Roman mythology. The study of volcanoes is called volcanology, sometimes spelled vulcanology, at the mid-oceanic ridges, two tectonic plates diverge from one another as new oceanic crust is formed by the cooling and solidifying of hot molten rock. Most divergent plate boundaries are at the bottom of the oceans, therefore, most volcanic activity is submarine, black smokers are evidence of this kind of volcanic activity. Where the mid-oceanic ridge is above sea-level, volcanic islands are formed, for example, subduction zones are places where two plates, usually an oceanic plate and a continental plate, collide. In this case, the plate subducts, or submerges under the continental plate forming a deep ocean trench just offshore. In a process called flux melting, water released from the subducting plate lowers the temperature of the overlying mantle wedge. This magma tends to be very viscous due to its high content, so it often does not reach the surface. When it does reach the surface, a volcano is formed, typical examples of this kind of volcano are Mount Etna and the volcanoes in the Pacific Ring of Fire. Because tectonic plates move across them, each volcano becomes dormant and is eventually re-formed as the plate advances over the postulated plume and this theory is currently under criticism, however. The most common perception of a volcano is of a mountain, spewing lava and poisonous gases from a crater at its summit, however. The features of volcanoes are more complicated and their structure. Some volcanoes have rugged peaks formed by lava domes rather than a summit crater while others have features such as massive plateausVolcano – Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station, May 2006
4. Panama – Panama, officially called the Republic of Panama, is a country usually considered to be entirely in North America or Central America. It is bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north, the capital and largest city is Panama City, whose metropolitan area is home to nearly half of the countrys 4.1 million people. Panama was inhabited by indigenous tribes prior to settlement by the Spanish in the 16th century. Panama broke away from Spain in 1821 and joined a union of Nueva Granada, Ecuador, when Gran Colombia dissolved in 1831, Panama and Nueva Granada remained joined, eventually becoming the Republic of Colombia. With the backing of the United States, Panama seceded from Colombia in 1903, in 1977 an agreement was signed for the total transfer of the Canal from the United States to Panama by the end of the 20th century, which culminated on 31 December 1999. Revenue from canal tolls continues to represent a significant portion of Panamas GDP, although commerce, banking, in 2015 Panama ranked 60th in the world in terms of the Human Development Index. Since 2010, Panama remains the second most competitive economy in Latin America, covering around 40 percent of its land area, Panamas jungles are home to an abundance of tropical plants and animals – some of them to be found nowhere else on the planet. There are several theories about the origin of the name Panama, some believe that the country was named after a commonly found species of tree. Others believe that the first settlers arrived in Panama in August, when butterflies abound, the best-known version is that a fishing village and its nearby beach bore the name Panamá, which meant an abundance of fish. Captain Antonio Tello de Guzmán, while exploring the Pacific side in 1515, in 1517 Don Gaspar De Espinosa, a Spanish lieutenant, decided to settle a post there. In 1519 Pedrarias Dávila decided to establish the Empires Pacific city in this site, the new settlement replaced Santa María La Antigua del Darién, which had lost its function within the Crowns global plan after the beginning of the Spanish exploitation of the riches in the Pacific. Blending all of the above together, Panamanians believe in general that the word Panama means abundance of fish and this is the official definition given in social studies textbooks approved by the Ministry of Education in Panama. However, others believe the word Panama comes from the Kuna word bannaba which means distant or far away, at the time of the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, the known inhabitants of Panama included the Cuevas and the Coclé tribes. These people have disappeared, as they had no immunity from European infectious diseases. The earliest discovered artifacts of indigenous peoples in Panama include Paleo-Indian projectile points, later central Panama was home to some of the first pottery-making in the Americas, for example the cultures at Monagrillo, which date back to 2500–1700 BC. These evolved into significant populations best known through their spectacular burials at the Monagrillo archaeological site, the monumental monolithic sculptures at the Barriles site are also important traces of these ancient isthmian cultures. Before Europeans arrived Panama was widely settled by Chibchan, Chocoan, the largest group were the Cueva. The size of the population of the isthmus at the time of European colonization is uncertainPanama – Vasco Núñez de Balboa, a recognized and popular figure of Panamanian history
5. Geographic coordinates – A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols. The coordinates are chosen such that one of the numbers represents a vertical position. A common choice of coordinates is latitude, longitude and elevation, to specify a location on a two-dimensional map requires a map projection. The invention of a coordinate system is generally credited to Eratosthenes of Cyrene. Ptolemy credited him with the adoption of longitude and latitude. Ptolemys 2nd-century Geography used the prime meridian but measured latitude from the equator instead. Mathematical cartography resumed in Europe following Maximus Planudes recovery of Ptolemys text a little before 1300, in 1884, the United States hosted the International Meridian Conference, attended by representatives from twenty-five nations. Twenty-two of them agreed to adopt the longitude of the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, the Dominican Republic voted against the motion, while France and Brazil abstained. France adopted Greenwich Mean Time in place of local determinations by the Paris Observatory in 1911, the latitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle between the equatorial plane and the straight line that passes through that point and through the center of the Earth. Lines joining points of the same latitude trace circles on the surface of Earth called parallels, as they are parallel to the equator, the north pole is 90° N, the south pole is 90° S. The 0° parallel of latitude is designated the equator, the plane of all geographic coordinate systems. The equator divides the globe into Northern and Southern Hemispheres, the longitude of a point on Earths surface is the angle east or west of a reference meridian to another meridian that passes through that point. All meridians are halves of great ellipses, which converge at the north and south poles, the prime meridian determines the proper Eastern and Western Hemispheres, although maps often divide these hemispheres further west in order to keep the Old World on a single side. The antipodal meridian of Greenwich is both 180°W and 180°E, the combination of these two components specifies the position of any location on the surface of Earth, without consideration of altitude or depth. The grid formed by lines of latitude and longitude is known as a graticule, the origin/zero point of this system is located in the Gulf of Guinea about 625 km south of Tema, Ghana. To completely specify a location of a feature on, in, or above Earth. Earth is not a sphere, but a shape approximating a biaxial ellipsoid. It is nearly spherical, but has an equatorial bulge making the radius at the equator about 0. 3% larger than the radius measured through the poles, the shorter axis approximately coincides with the axis of rotationGeographic coordinates – Longitude lines are perpendicular and latitude lines are parallel to the equator.
6. El Valle (volcano) – El Valle is a stratovolcano in central Panama and is the easternmost volcano along the Central American Volcanic Arc which has been formed by the subduction of the Nazca Plate below Central America. Some time prior to 200,000 years ago, the volcano underwent a huge event that caused the top of the volcano to collapse into the empty magma chamber below forming a large caldera. Several lava domes have developed inside the caldera since the collapse—forming Cerro Pajita, Cerro Gaital, prior to research in the early 1990s, it was thought that no active volcanism existed within Panama. But radioactive dates from El Valle show that the volcano last erupted as recently as 200,000 years ago, work by de Boer et al. and Defant et al. of other volcanoes within Panama have shown that there are two episodes of volcanism—young and old groups. The young volcanism consists of adakites whereas the older volcanism appears to be normal calc-alkaline volcanism, list of volcanoes in Panama El Valle de Antón, a nearby town APROVACA El Valle. Website of El Valle de AntonEl Valle (volcano) – El Valle in 1998
7. La Yeguada – La Yeguada is a massive stratovolcano located in Veraguas Province, Panama, north of the Azuero Peninsula. De Boer et al. were the first to show that La Yeguada volcano is active, further detailed work on the geochemistry of the lavas from La Yeguada and other volcanoes in Panama was completed by Defant et al. They substantiated, based on geochemistry, that the lavas were derived by subduction, radiometric dates also showed that the volcanism falls into two groups that range from 20 million years to recent. They also showed that the youngest volcanism consists primarily of adakites whereas the older volcanism is normal calc-alkaline lavas, the woods in the valley is where most of the Panamanian cedro wood is producedLa Yeguada – La Yeguada (foreground) in 1994. Laguna La Yeguada is also visible.
8. List of volcanoes in Costa Rica – This is a list of active and extinct volcanoes in Costa Rica. Volcanoes of the World, an Illustrated Catalog of Holocene Volcanoes, smithsonian Institution, Global Volcanism Program Digital Information Series, GVP-3. Observatorio Vulcanológico y Sismológico de Costa RicaList of volcanoes in Costa Rica – Guatemala
9. History of Panama – The earliest artifacts discovered off in Panama have included Paleo-Indians projectile points. Later central Panama was home to some of the first pottery-making in the Americas and these evolved into significant populations that are best known through the spectacular burials at the Monagrillo archaeological site, and the beautiful polychrome pottery of the Gran Coclé style. The monumental monolithic sculptures at the Barriles site are important evidence of the ancient isthmian cultures. Prior to the arrival of Europeans, Panama was widely settled by Chibchan, Chocoan, there is no accurate knowledge of the size of the Pre-Columbian indigenous population of the isthmus at the time of the European conquest. Estimates range as high as two people, but more recent studies place that number closer to 200,000. Archaeological finds, as well as testimonials by early European explorers, describe diverse native isthmian groups exhibiting cultural variety, the indigenous people of Panama lived by hunting, gathering edible plants & fruits, growing corn, cacao, and root crops. They lived in huts made of palm leaves over a rounded branch structure. In 1501, Rodrigo de Bastidas was the first European to explore the Isthmus of Panama sailing along the eastern coast. A year later Christopher Columbus on his voyage, sailing south and eastward from upper Central America, explored Bocas del Toro, Veragua. Soon Spanish expeditions would converge upon Tierra Firma which served in Spanish colonial times as the name for the Isthmus of Panama. In 1509, authority was granted to Alonso de Ojeda and Diego de Nicuesa to colonize the territories between the west side of the Gulf of Uraba to Cabo Gracias a Dios in present-day Honduras. The idea was to create a unitary administrative organization similar to what later became Nueva España. Tierra Firme later received control over territories, the Isla de Santiago the Cayman Islands, Roncador, Quitasueño. In September 1510, the first permanent European settlement, Santa María la Antigua del Darién on the Americas mainland was founded, vasco Nuñez de Balboa and Martín Fernández de Enciso agreed on the site near the mouth of the Tarena River on the Atlantic. Balboa maneuvered and was appointed Mayor on the first official cabildo abierto held on the mainland, on August 28,1513, the Santa María de La Antigua del Darién mission was erected with Fray Juan de Quevedo as the first Catholic Bishop in the continental Americas. On September 25,1513 the Balboa expedition verified claims by people that the Panama isthmus had another coast to the southwest along another ocean. Balboa was the first known European to see the Pacific Ocean, the fantastic descriptions of the isthmus by Balboa, as well as by Columbus and other explorers, impressed Ferdinand II of Aragon and Castilla, who named the territory Castilla Aurifica. He assigned Pedro Arias Dávila as Royal Governor, Pedrarias arrived in June 1514 with a 22 vessel,1,500 men armadaHistory of Panama – Vasco Núñez de Balboa claiming possession of the South Sea.
10. History of Panama (to 1821) – In the history of Panama, the earliest known inhabitants were the Cueva and Coclé tribes, but they were drastically reduced by disease and fighting when the Spanish arrived in the 16th century. But \some moved out of Panama to have children and increase population, rodrigo de Bastidas, sailing westward from Venezuela in 1501 in search of gold, was the first European to explore the Isthmus of Panama. A year later, Christopher Columbus visited the Isthmus and established a settlement in the Darién. Gold and silver were brought by ship from South America, hauled across the Isthmus, and loaded aboard ships for Spain. The route became known as the Camino Real, or Royal Road, Panama was part of the Spanish empire for nearly 300 years, from 1538 to 1821. From the outset, Panamanian identity was based on a sense of geographic destiny, estimates vary greatly of the number of Indians who inhabited the isthmus when the Spanish explorers arrived. By some accounts, the population was greater than that of contemporary Panama. Besides the Cuna, which constituted by far the largest group in the area, the Guaymí, of the highlands near the Costa Rican border, are believed to be related to Indians of the Nahuatlan and Mayan nations of Mexico and Central America. The Chocó on the Pacific side of Darién Province appear to be related to the Chibcha of Colombia, various ethnologists have indicated the possibility of a linguistic connection between the name Cuna and certain Arawak and Carib tribal names. The possibility of links with the Andean Indians has been postulated. The implication in terms of settlement patterns is that the valleys of Colombia. Lines of affiliation have also traced to the Cueva and Coiba tribes. Some Cuna believe themselves to be of Carib stock, while others trace their origin to creation by the god Olokkuppilele at Mount Tacarcuna, among all three Indian groups — the Cuna, Guaymí, and Chocó — land was communally owned and farmed. In addition to hunting and fishing, the Indians raised corn, cotton, cacao, various crops and other vegetables. They lived then — as many still do — in circular thatched huts, villages specialized in producing certain goods, and traders moved among them along the rivers and coastal waters in dugout canoes. The Indians were skillful potters, stonecutters, goldsmiths, and silversmiths, the ornaments they wore, including breastplates and earrings of beaten gold, reinforced the Spanish myth of El Dorado, the city of gold. Rodrigo de Bastidas, a notary public from Seville, was the first of many Spanish explorers to reach the isthmus. Sailing westward from Venezuela in 1501 in search of gold, he explored some 150 kilometers of the area before heading for the West IndiesHistory of Panama (to 1821) – Pre-Columbian ceramic figure from Talamancan, Panama
11. Panama during World War II – The history of Panama during World War II begins in 1939. It provided a link between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans that was vital to both commerce and the defense of the Western Hemisphere. Therefore, the defense of the Canal Zone was the United States chief concern in the American Theater, according to Thomas M. Leonards Latin America during World War II, the war had a major impact on the Panamanian economy. Commercial transit through the canal dropped more than a third between 1940 and 1945, resulting in a decrease in toll revenues. In contrast, Panamas domestic production rose, due to an increased demand caused by the war, production of sugar, milk, and slaughtered cattle nearly doubled between 1939 and 1946. The government accelerated the take off by quadrupling expenditures, but the real catalyst was the influx in American dollars, between 1930 and 1943, American capital investments dropped sharply in every Latin American country except oil-rich Venezuela and Panama. Leonard says that Panama enjoyed the higher percentage increase of the two, as investment multiplied threefold to $514 million, mostly in banking and utilities, the number of American-controlled enterprises increased from twenty-two in 1929 to seventy-nine in 1943. Additionally, an estimated 12.5 percent of the Panamanian workforce was employed in the Canal Zone, in 1939, there were 3,511 gold roll workers in the zone, and 11,246 silver roll workers. By 1942 the numbers had grown to 8,550 and 28,686, the influx of workers to the Canal Zone and to Panama City and Colón was so large that the Panamanian government complained about the scarcity of teachers and other skilled employees. Panamanians were employed in the construction of a set of locks for the canal, numerous highways. The highway construction included a stretch of road from Panama City to Río Hato Field in the west, along with the increased number of Panamanians, the United States also importated thousands of workers from other Central American nations and the West Indies. The additional workers and military personnel prompted the American government to purchase huge amounts of food and other goods, elected in 1940, Arnulfo Arias was the President of Panama during two of the first years of the war. He was an overt fascist and regarded as pro-Axis by the Allies for his hostility to the United States, Arias demanded compensation in the form of cash and the transfer to Panama of various properties, but for the United States the price was too high. Negotiations dragged on for the two years. The cost of meeting these demands was estimated to be $25–30 million, there was also a serious disagreement over the length of the leases for the new defense sites. Most agreed that 999 years was simply way too long, another controversial issue was the United States governments request to arm ships registered in Panama. The Battle of the Atlantic was taking its toll on the lines from America to Britain. Because Panama was officially neutral at this point in the war, President Arias refused to help, however, and American plans to use US-owned ships flying a Panamanian flag to supply the British were interruptedPanama during World War II – A 16-inch M1919 Coastal Defense Gun and crew in the Panamanian jungle in 1939. The caption says: "Hidden in deep jungle foliage is 16-in. rifle, the Army's biggest gun"
12. Geography of Panama – Panama is a country located in the Central America region of North America, bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Pacific Ocean, between Colombia and Costa Rica. Panama is located on the narrow and low Isthmus of Panama and this S-shaped isthmus is situated between 7° and 10° north latitude and 77° and 83° west longitude. Panama encompasses approximately 77,082 square kilometers, is 772 kilometers in length, the dominant feature of Panamas landform is the central spine of mountains and hills that forms the continental divide. The divide does not form part of the mountain chains of North America. The spine that forms the divide is the highly eroded arch of an uplift from the sea bottom, the mountain range of the divide is called the Cordillera de Talamanca near the Costa Rican border. Farther east it becomes the Serranía de Tabasará, and the portion of it closer to the saddle of the isthmus. As a whole, the range between Costa Rica and the canal is referred to by Panamanian geographers as the Cordillera Central. The highest point in Panama is the Volcán Barú, which rises to 3,475 meters, the apex of a highland that includes Panamas richest soil, the Volcán Barú is still referred to as a volcano, although it has been inactive for millennia. It offers a view of both the Pacific Ocean and the Atlantic Ocean, temperatures are uniformly high—as is the relative humidity—and there is little seasonal variation. Diurnal ranges are low, on a typical day in the capital city, the early morning minimum may be 24 °C. The temperature seldom exceeds 32 °C for more than a short time, temperatures on the Pacific side of the isthmus are somewhat lower than on the Caribbean, and breezes tend to rise after dusk in most parts of the country. Temperatures are markedly cooler in the parts of the mountain ranges. Climatic regions are determined less on the basis of temperature than on rainfall, almost all of the rain falls during the rainy season, which is usually from May through November, but varies in length from seven to nine months, with certain exception due to Monsoons. A third influence that is present during the autumn is the southwest wind off the Pacific. This wind brings some precipitation to the Pacific lowlands, modified by the highlands of the Península de Azuero, rainfall is generally much heavier on the Caribbean than on the Pacific side. The annual average in Panama City is little more than half of that in Colón, although rainy-season thunderstorms are common, the country is outside the hurricane belt. Vegetation Panamas tropical environment supports an abundance of plants, forests dominate, interrupted in places by grasslands, scrub, and crops. Nearly 40 percent of Panama is wooded, deforestation is a continuing threat to the rain-drenched woodlandsGeography of Panama – Panama's vegetation, 1981.
13. List of cities in Panama – This is a list of cities in Panama. These are the largest 20 Panamanian cities and towns, listed in descending order, all figures are accurate As of 2010 and provincial capitals are shown in bold. Most of the largest cities are part of Panama City Metropolitan Area, lists of cities in Central America This article incorporates information from the French Wikipedia Media related to Cities in Panama at Wikimedia CommonsList of cities in Panama – Panama City, Panama's capital city.
14. Politics of Panama – Executive power is exercised by the president. Legislative power is vested in the National Assembly, the Judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislature. The Executive Branch includes a president and one vice-president, president and vice-president are elected on a single ballot for one non-renewable five-year term by direct popular vote. Minister of Agricultural and Livestock Development, Enrique Carles Minister of Canal Affairs, Roberto Roy Minister of Commerce and Industries, the legislative branch consists of a unicameral National Assembly, composed of 71 members elected to five-year terms from single- and multi-seat constituencies. The Judicial Organ administers justice in a permanent, free, and it comprises the Supreme Court of Justice, the Tribunals, and the judges established by law, according to the constitution of Panama. An autonomous Electoral Tribunal supervises voter registration, the process. Everyone over the age of 18 is required to vote, although those who fail to do so are not penalized, the dominant political parties in Panamanian history have been the PRD and the Panameñista. Even though these leaders died years ago, their aura is revived by their followers, Panamanian politics have historically been corrupt. Lately, the Panamanian society and press are auditing and fighting for improvements, a sign of this is the lack of young votes in the referendum of October 22,2006, showing a lack of confidence in Panamanian politics and politicians. Foreign relations of Panama Harding, Robert C, National Assembly of Panama Presidency of PanamaPolitics of Panama – The National Assembly of Panama.
15. Constitution of Panama – Panama is governed under the Constitution of Panama of 1972 as amended in 1978,1983,1993,1994, and 2004. This is Panamas fourth constitution, previous constitutions having been adopted in 1904,1941, the differences among these constitutions have been matters of emphasis and have reflected the political circumstances existing at the time of their formulation. Panamas successive constitutions have been respected to varying degrees by the republics governments, the creation of public confidence in the rule of law established by the constitution posed one of the major challenges to the government in the late 1980s. The 1904 constitution, in Article 136, gave the United States the right to intervene in any part of Panama, to public peace. Reflecting provisions of the Hay–Bunau-Varilla Treaty, this confirmed Panamas status as a de facto protectorate of the United States, in 1939 the United States abrogated its right of intervention in internal Panamanian affairs with the ratification of the Hull-Alfaro Treaty. Power was concentrated in the hands of the president, whose term, citizenship requirements were added that discriminated against the nations English-speaking black community and other non-Hispanic minorities. In October 1941, President Arias was deposed by the National Police, in 1946, President de la Guardia promulgated a new constitution, which was basically a return to the 1904 document without the offensive Article 136. The 1946 constitution was in effect for 26 years, the 1972 constitution was promulgated by General Torrijos and reflected the dominance of the political system by the general and the military. In 1983 a commission representing various parties was created to further amend the constitution in preparation for the 1984 elections. The 16-member commission changed nearly half of the articles, producing several significant alterations. Article 2 had given the military a special role. The independence of the judiciary and the Electoral Tribunal were strengthened, the term of the president was reduced to five years, guarantees of civil liberties were strengthened, and official support for candidates in elections was, at least in theory, severely restricted. The amended constitution contains 312 articles, power emanates from the people and is exercised by the three branches of government, each of which is limited and separate, but all of which, in theory, work together in harmonious collaboration. The national territory is defined as the area, the territorial sea, the submarine continental shelf, the subsoil. Any ceding, leasing, or other alienation of this territory to any state is expressly forbidden. Spanish is the national language. Citizenship may be acquired by birth or naturalization, articles 17–50 guarantee a broad range of individual rights, including property rights, but Article 51 gives the president power to suspend many of these by declaring a state of emergency. Engaging in economic activities, for example, is primarily the function of private individuals, with the object of increasing national wealth and to ensure its benefits for the largest possible number of the nations inhabitantsConstitution of Panama – Panama
16. Elections in Panama – Elections in Panama gives information on election and election results in Panama. Panama elects on national level a head of state - the president -, the president and the vice-president are elected on one ballot for a five-year term by the people. The National Assembly has 71 members, elected for a term in single-seat and multi-seat constituencies. Panama has a multi-party system, with parties in which no one party often has a chance of gaining power alone. Politics of Panama Adam Carrs Election ArchiveElections in Panama – Panama
17. Foreign relations of Panama – Panamas foreign relations are conventional in outlook, with Panama being especially aligned with United States since the 1989 US invasion to topple the regime of General Manuel Noriega. The United States cooperates with the Panamanian government in promoting economic, political, security, Panama is a member of the UN General Assembly and has served three terms in the UN Security Council. In November 2006 it was elected to serve a term on the Security Council. It maintains membership in international financial institutions, including the World Bank, the Inter-American Development Bank. Panama is a member of the Organization of American States and was a member of the Rio Group. Panama also is one of the members of the Union of Banana Exporting Countries. Panama is a member of the Central American Parliament as well as the Central American Integration System, Panama is also a member of the International Criminal Court with a Bilateral Immunity Agreement of protection for the US-military. List of diplomatic missions in Panama List of diplomatic missions of PanamaForeign relations of Panama – Panama
18. Law enforcement in Panama – Panama abolished its army in 1990, confirmed by a unanimous vote by the National Assembly of Panama for constitutional change in 1994. Some units within the Public Force have limited warfare capabilities, the Panamanian National Police are structured para-militarily, in terms of ranks. Ranks are similar to police ranking in the United States, Police stations are present in every district, and the country as a whole is divided into Zonas Policiales which cover a major city or province. The National Police is watched over by Comisionado Omar A. Pinzón M. the Commissioner of Police, the police in Panama have numerous vehicles at their disposal. The police recently went through a change from white with blue trim to a navy blue/ white color. Panamanian authorities have adopted a policy for youths under age 18. Students who are attending night classes must carry a permit or identification card, youths under 18 who are caught without them are subject to detention at a police station until they are released to their legal guardians. A fine around $50.00 is issued to the legal guardians if the youth is apprehended for the first time, curfews consist of special strategic checkpoints around the main streets in Panama. Each person inside a vehicle must carry their cards or be accompanied by their legal guardians. Authorities have helped slowly decrease the amount of unattended youths loitering around the streets, most thefts and kidnappings are carried out by minors. Canal Zone Police Penal system of Panama Crime in Panama World Police Encyclopedia,2004, World Encyclopedia of Police Forces and Correctional Systems, 2nd. 2006 Sullivan, Larry E. et alLaw enforcement in Panama – National Police of Panama.
19. Panamanian Public Forces – The Panamanian Public Forces are the national security forces of Panama. Panama is the country in Latin America to permanently abolish standing armies. This came as a result of a U. S. invasion that overthrew a military dictatorship which ruled Panama from 1968 to 1989. The final military dictator, Manuel Noriega, had been belligerent toward the U. S. culminating in the killing of a U. S. Marine lieutenant, Panama maintains armed police and security forces, and small air and maritime forces. They are tasked with law enforcement and can perform limited military actions, since 2010 they have reported to the Ministry of Public Security. Panamas first army was formed in 1903, when the commander of a brigade of the Colombian army defected to the side during Panamas fight for independence. His brigade became the Panamanian army, in 1904, the army tried to overthrow the government, but failed. The United States persuaded Panama that an army could threaten the security of the Panama Canal Zone. Instead, the set up a National Police. For 48 years, this was the armed force in Panama. However, starting in the late 1930s, the National Police attracted several new recruits who had attended military academies in other Latin American countries, combined with increased spending on the police, this began a process of militarization. The process sped up under José Remón, who became the Polices commandant in 1947 and he himself had graduated from Mexicos military academy. He began promoting fewer enlisted men to officer rank, giving the police a more military character, after playing a role in overthrowing two presidents, Remón resigned his commission and ran for president for a coalition that won the elections in 1952. One of his first acts as President was to reorganize the National Police along military lines with a new name, the new grouping retained police functions as well. With a new name came increased American funding and they completed the process of converting the Guard into a full-fledged army. In the process, they promoted themselves to full colonels, torrijos thrust Martínez aside in 1969, promoted himself to brigadier general, and was de facto ruler of the country until his death in a 1981 plane crash. He built the PDF into a force, and further consolidated his political power. Under Noriega, the PDF was more a tool of control, than a force dedicated to national defensePanamanian Public Forces – A BMW X6, one of several deluxe vehicles, impounded in high profile cases converted to patrol vehicle of the National Police force.
20. National Assembly (Panama) – The National Assembly, formerly the Legislative Assembly, is the legislative branch of the government of the Republic of Panama. It is a legislature, currently made up of 71 members. Legislators from outlying districts are chosen on a plurality basis, while districts located in more populous towns. Panamas legislative elections are held simultaneous with its presidential elections, Panama also returns a delegation of 20 deputies to the supranational Central American Parliament. *,11 seats that the party originally won were annulled by the body of PanamaNational Assembly (Panama)
21. Economy of Panama – The economy of Panama is a fully dollarized free market economy with a history of low inflation. It is based mainly on the industry, heavily weighted toward banking, commerce. The hand-over of the canal and military installations by the United States has given rise to new construction projects, Panamas economy is based primarily on a well-developed services sector that accounts for nearly 80% of its GDP. Services include the Panama Canal, banking, the Colón Free Trade Zone, insurance, container ports, and flagship registry, medical and health, the countrys industry includes, manufacturing of aircraft spare parts, cements, drinks, adhesives, and textiles. Also the leading exports for Panama are bananas, shrimp, sugar, coffee, and clothing. Nominal GDP per capita in Panama was 11,691 in 2002,13,099 in 2004,14,004 in 2005,15,141.9 in 2006, as reported by Office of Statistics and Census, Government of Panama. Growth from 2002 to 2006 was especially strong in the transport and communications sector, real GDP rose 7. 5%,6. 9%,8. 1%. GDP growth in 2008 was 9. 2%, reflecting a slowing of the robust growth of 11. 5% seen in 2007. Although growth slowed to 2. 4% in the first half of 2009, due to the economic downturn. Growth has been fueled by the sector, transportation, port and Panama Canal-related activities. As a result of growth, government deficit as a percentage of GDP dropped to 43% in 2009. A recent United Nations report highlighted progress in poverty reduction from 2001 to 2007—overall poverty fell from 37% to 29%, however, Panama still has the second-most unequal income distribution in Latin America. Since the early 16th century, Panamanians have relied on the countrys comparative advantage—its geography, exploitation of this advantage began soon after the Spanish arrived, when the conquistadors used Panama to transport gold and silver from Peru to Spain. Ports on each coast and a trail between them handled much of Spains colonial trade from which the inhabitants of the cities prospered. This was the beginning of the countrys dependence on world commerce for prosperity. Agriculture received little attention until the twentieth century, and by the 1980s had—for much of the population—barely developed beyond indigenous Indian techniques, Industry developed slowly because the flow of goods from Europe and later from North America created a disincentive for local production. Panama has been affected by the nature of international trade. The economy stagnated in the 18th century as colonial exchange via the isthmus declined, in the mid-19th century, Panamas economy boomed as a result of increased cargo and passengers associated with the California gold rushEconomy of Panama – Panama City is the capital and financial center of Panama
22. Agriculture in Panama – Agriculture in Panama is an important sector of the Panamanian economy. Major agricultural products include bananas, cocoa beans, coffee, coconuts, timber, beef, chicken, shrimp, corn, potatoes, rice, soybeans, in 2009 agriculture and fisheries made up 7. 4% of Panamas GDP. Panama is a net food importer and the U. S. is its main supplier, agriculture employs a large number of Panamanians because many farmers are engaged in subsistence farming. Major agricultural products in Panama include bananas and other fruit, corn, sugar, rice, coffee, shrimp, timber, vegetables, as of 1996, the important agricultural product exports included bananas, shrimp, sugar, coffee, and beef. In 2000/2001, there were 1,600 domestic rice producers who planted 71,000 hectares, total production was 285,091 metric tons, rough basis in 2000/2001, compared to 269,500 tons in 1999/2000. These figures include only mechanized production and that small volume is produced by traditional labor. As production of rice barely supplies total consumption, stocks run very low each year prior to harvest in September, rice is the main staple and can be seen at the table at all hours, including at breakfast in some areas of the country. Therefore, politicians have made a tradition of including protection to farmers in all political platforms. Asian immigrants add to traditional high per capita consumption, Panama is expected to produce 2 million tons of sugar cane in marketing year 2000 yielding 185.6 tons of raw sugar. All four Panamanian sugar mills are private with the last two government-owned mills privatized in 1999, two of the new players have created tension within the sector by introducing innovative business practices thereby increasing competition and triggering a battle with the more traditional mills. One result is there is no longer the exchange of information that used to take place. Although production has been increasing, Panama had been exporting smaller quantities in recent years and has even been importing refined sugar. For example, in 1999, Panama imported 3,500 tons of refined sugar with a value of $1.7 million from Mexico and 153 tons with a value of $23,000 from Colombia, both refined sugar. In 1997, the value of exports from Panama was $59.8 million. This amounted to a total of $165 million exported during 1998, in that year, shrimp exports were bigger than traditional banana exports for the first time. For the export season ending in 2007, Panama generated $15.1 million in sales, the majority of these exports went to the U. S. with Canada, Europe and Asia being purchasers as well. The main livestock products in Panama are beef, veal, chicken, Panama has the highest rate of chicken consumption per capita in Latin America. As of 1997, there were 1,362,000 head of cattle in Panama and that year, Panama slaughtered 320,803 head and exported 5,280 headAgriculture in Panama – Maize cultivation in Panama.
23. Panamanian balboa – The balboa is, along with the United States dollar, one of the official currencies of Panama. It is named in honor of the Spanish explorer/conquistador Vasco Núñez de Balboa, the balboa is subdivided into 100 centésimos. The balboa replaced the Colombian peso in 1904 following the countrys independence, the balboa has been tied to the United States dollar at an exchange rate of 1,1 since its introduction and has always circulated alongside dollars. In 1904, silver coins in denominations of 2 1⁄2,5,10,25 and these coins were weight-related to the 25 gram 50 centésimos, making the 2 1⁄2 centésimos coin 1 1⁄4 grams. Its small size led to it being known as the Panama pill or the Panama pearl, in 1907, copper-nickel 1⁄2 and 2 1⁄2 centésimos coins were introduced, followed by copper-nickel 5 centésimos in 1929. In 1930, coins for 1⁄10, 1⁄4, and 1⁄2 balboa were introduced, followed by 1 balboa in 1931, in 1935, bronze 1 centésimo coins were introduced, with 1 1⁄4 centésimo pieces minted in 1940. In 1966, Panama followed the U. S. in changing the composition of their coins, with copper-nickel clad 1⁄10 and 1⁄4 balboa. 1 balboa coins, at.900 fineness silver, were issued that year for the first time since 1947, in 1973, copper-nickel clad 1⁄2 balboa coins were introduced. 1973 also saw the revival of the 2 1⁄2 centésimos coin, which had a similar to that of the U. S. half dime. In 1983,1 centésimo coins followed their U. S. counterpart by switching from copper to copper plated zinc, further issues of the 1 balboa coins have been made since 1982 in copper-nickel without reducing the size. Modern 1 and 5 centésimos and 1⁄10, 1⁄4, and 1⁄2 balboa coins are the weight, dimensions, and composition as the U. S. cent, nickel, dime, quarter. In 2011, new 1 and 2 balboa bimetallic coins were issued, in addition to the circulating issues, commemorative coins with denominations of 5,10,20,50,75,100,150,200, and 500 balboas have been issued. In 1941, President Arnulfo Arias pushed the government to enact Article 156 to the constitution, authorizing official, as a result, on 30 September 1941, El Banco Central de Emisión de la República de Panamá was established. The bank was authorized to issue up to 6,000,000 balboas worth of paper notes, a week later, Ricardo Adolfo de la Guardia Arango replaced Arias as president in a coup supported by the United States. The new government immediately closed the bank, withdrew the issued notes, very few of these so-called “Arias Seven Day” notes escaped incinerationPanamanian balboa – 1 ⁄ 2 balboa (front)
24. Panama Canal – The Panama Canal is an artificial 48-mile waterway in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean. The canal cuts across the Isthmus of Panama and is a key conduit for maritime trade. The original locks are 33.5 metres wide, a third, wider lane of locks was constructed between September 2007 and May 2016. The expanded canal began operation on June 26,2016. The new locks allow transit of larger, Post-Panamax ships, capable of handling more cargo, France began work on the canal in 1881 but stopped due to engineering problems and a high worker mortality rate. The United States took over the project in 1904 and opened the canal on August 15,1914, Colombia, France, and later the United States controlled the territory surrounding the canal during construction. The U. S. continued to control the canal and surrounding Panama Canal Zone until the 1977 Torrijos–Carter Treaties provided for handover to Panama. After a period of joint American–Panamanian control, in 1999 the canal was taken over by the Panamanian government and is now managed and operated by the government-owned Panama Canal Authority. Annual traffic has risen from about 1,000 ships in 1914, by 2012, more than 815,000 vessels had passed through the canal. It takes six to eight hours to pass through the Panama Canal, the American Society of Civil Engineers has called the Panama Canal one of the seven wonders of the modern world. Such a route would have given the Spanish a military advantage over the Portuguese, during an expedition from 1788 to 1793, Alessandro Malaspina outlined plans for its construction. Given the strategic location of Panama and the potential offered by its narrow isthmus separating two great oceans, other links in the area were attempted over the years. The ill-fated Darien scheme was launched by the Kingdom of Scotland in 1698 to set up a trade route. Generally inhospitable conditions thwarted the effort, and it was abandoned in April 1700, another effort was made in 1843. They referred to it as the Atlantic and Pacific Canal and it was a wholly British endeavor and it was expected to be completed in five years, but the plan was never carried out. At nearly the same time, other ideas were floated, including a canal across Mexicos Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Nothing came of that plan either. )In 1846 the Mallarino–Bidlack Treaty, negotiated between the U. S. and New Granada, granted the United States transit rights and the right to intervene militarily in the isthmus. In 1849, the discovery of gold in California created great interest in a crossing between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, the Panama Railway was built by the United States to cross the isthmus and opened in 1855Panama Canal – Satellite image showing location of Panama Canal. Dense jungles are visible in green.
25. Tourism in Panama – Tourism represents one of the main activities of Panama. The main areas of tourism in the focus on business tourism, beaches and trade Most of the tourists come from United States, Canada, Europe, Central America. Annual tourism generates profits of approximately 1,400 million USD and this figure has increased rapidly since the 2004 arrived the million tourist. 2011 saw the arrival of 2 million tourists, Panama was in 2013 visited by about 1,527,228 tourists at the airport of Tocumen. In Panama a tourist, on average, spends 365-385 USD per day, in 2011, Panama was visited by more than 2 million tourists, an increase of 18% compared to 2010. The New York Times magazine placed Panama as the best place to visit in 2012 as the economy is working well. For the daily the hallmark of the country is the way and its extensionTourism in Panama – Ave. Balboa, Panamá City
26. Transport in Panama – Transport in Panama is fairly well developed. The majority of the trips are done by car while a part in public transport. The public transportation system is in need of modernization and other improvements, in Panama there are 4 expressways working, all of them requiring toll payment, Corredor Sur, Runs from Panama City to the Tocumen International Airport. Corredor Norte, Runs from Panama City to Colinas de Cerro Viento and it has a length of 20 km. Autopista La Chorrera, Runs from Panama City to La Chorrera and it has a length of 44 km. Colón Expressway, Runs from Panama City to Colón and it has a length of 59 km. Furthermore, the Pan-American highway, has upgraded to a 4-lane, dual carriageway highway on its stretch from Panama City to Santiago de Veraguas. Also, a section of the Pan-American highway from Tocumen to Pacora. Panamas roads, traffic and transportation systems are generally safe, but traffic lights often do not exist, driving is often hazardous and demanding due to dense traffic, undisciplined driving habits, poorly maintained streets, and a lack of effective signs and traffic signals. On roads where poor lighting and driving conditions prevail, night driving is difficult, night driving is particularly hazardous on the old Panama City – Colon highway. Buses and taxis are not always maintained in a safe operating condition due to lack of regulatory enforcement, since 2007, auto insurance is mandatory in Panama. Traffic in Panama moves on the right, and Panamanian law requires that drivers and passengers wear seat belts, flooding during the April to December rainy season occasionally makes city streets impassable and washes out some roads in the interior of the country. In addition, rural areas are poorly maintained and lack illumination at night. Such roads are generally less traveled and the availability of emergency assistance is very limited. Road travel is dangerous during the rainy season and in the interior from Carnival through Good Friday. Carnival starts the Saturday prior to Ash Wednesday and goes on for four days. cia. gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index. htmlTransport in Panama – Mules manouvring a ship through the Miraflores locks in the Panama Canal.
27. Crime in Panama – Crime in Panama is investigated by the Panamanian police. In 2012, Panama had a rate of 17.2 per 100,000 population. There were a total of 654 murders in Panama in 2012, Panamanian authorities conducted a study which indicates that almost 90 percent of express kidnappings are unreported due to the threat that thieves impose on the victim and relatives of the victim. The procedure of express kidnapping consist of abducting the victim and taking possession of such as cellphones, watches, credit cards, cash. Besides taking all of the valuables, the kidnappers make the victim withdraw money from different ATM locations. Once the kidnapper is satisfied, the person is usually released. In other cases, the kidnappers may ask for money for the release of the victim. This long process of kidnapping is slowly decreasing, since most kidnappers want a quick payoff without complicated negotiations with relatives, in recent decades, Panama has become an important connection for shipping narcotics to the US and other countries. The FARC has also contributed to the increase, many of the FARC soldiers who seek shelter and refugee from Colombian Armed Forces cross the border between Darien and Colombia. Since the FARC arrived in Panama, drug trafficking has significantly increased, waterways are being watched carefully by the Panamanian Naval Forces, but the FARC has adapted ways of smuggling narcotics across Panama by land. Robberies prevalent in Panama include armed robberies and muggings, domestic violence in Panama is a serious problem and remains underreported. Domestic violence, including rape, psychological, physical. Panama enacted Ley No.38 del 2001 against domestic violence, in 2013, the country enacted Law 82 - Typifying Femicide and Violence Against Women a comprehensive law against violence against women. The first Panamanian gangs appeared during the late 1980s and increased in numbers when the Panamanian Army was disbanded in 1990 due to the United States invasion of Panama, a 2009 census reported that there are about 108 street gangs. More than 1,600 youths between the ages of 13 and 15 are affiliated with youth gangs, most of the youth gangs are fueled by drugs. Police checkpoints have become commonplace on weekends on roads in between cities, Panamanian authorities have adopted a curfew policy for youths under age 18. Students who are attending night classes must carry a permit or identification card, youths under 18 who are caught without them are subject to detention at a police station until they are released to their legal guardians. A fine around $50.00 is issued to the legal guardians if the youth is apprehended for the first time, curfews consist of special strategic checkpoints around the main streets in PanamaCrime in Panama – A street scene in Panama City
28. Demographics of Panama – Panamas population was 2 people in 2010, compared to 860,000 in 1950. The proportion of the population aged below 15 in 2010 was 29%,64. 5% of the population were aged between 15 and 65, with 6. 6% of the population being 65 years or older. Structure of the population, More than half the population lives in the Panama City-Colón metropolitan corridor, the culture, customs, and language of Panama are predominantly Caribbean Spanish. In 2010 the population was 65% Mestizo,9. 2% Black,6. 8% mulattoes, 13% White, ethnic groups in Panama include Spanish British and Irish, Dutch, French, Germans, Italians, Portuguese, Poles, Russians or Ukrainians, and Americans. Afro-Panamanian groups include West Indies/Caribbean nationalities, in thousands of Barbadian and Jamaican workers played a role in the construction of the Panama Canal. During the Atlantic Slave Trade, thousands of West Africans were transported to places in Panama. This took place around the 1500s, making half of all Panamanians contain African ancestry, there has also been immigration of Arabs and Asians, in particular Chinese, Lebanese, Palestinians, South Asians and Syrians. Panama has a populations of Chinese origin. The first Chinese immigrated to Panama from southern China to help build the Panama Railroad in the 19th century, there followed several waves of immigrants whose descendants number around 50,000. Starting in the 1970s, a further 80,000 have immigrated from various parts of China, most of the Chinese population reside in the province of Chiriquí. Afro-Panamanians first arrived during the colonial era and they are intermixed in the general population or live in small Afro-Panamanian communities along the Atlantic Coast and in villages within the Darién jungle. Most of the people in Darien are fishermen or small-scale farmers growing such as bananas, rice. Other Afro-Panamanians descend from migrants from the Caribbean who came to work on railroad-construction projects, commercial agricultural enterprises. Important Afro-Caribbean community areas include towns and cities such as Colón, Cristobal and Balboa, in the former Canal Zone, another region with a large Afro-Caribbean population is the province of Bocas del Toro on the Caribbean coast just south of Costa Rica. Most of the Panamanian population of West Indian descent owe their presence in the country to the efforts to build the Panama Canal in the late 19th. Three-quarters of the 50,000 workers who built the canal were Afro Caribbean migrants from the British West Indies, thousands of Afro-Caribbean workers were recruited from Jamaica, Barbados and Trinidad. Many languages, including seven indigenous languages, are spoken in Panama, although panamaese is the official, english is sometimes spoken by many professionals and those working in the business or governmental sectors of society. The majority of Panamanians are Christian, most are Roman Catholics as a result centuries of Spanish colonial influence, other faiths exist in Panama by the countrys tolerance and freedom of religion, there are large Protestant, Jewish, Baháí, Muslim and Hindu religious groups in PanamaDemographics of Panama – Panama's population, (1961-2003).
29. Education in Panama – Education in Panama is compulsory for the first seven years of primary education and the three years of Middle School. As of the 2004/2005 school year there were about 430,000 students enrolled in one through six. The total enrollment in the six secondary grades for the period was 253,900. More than 90% of Panamanians are literate, including smaller colleges, there are 88 institutions of higher education in Panama. Public education began in Panama soon after independence from Colombia in 1903, in 1906 was found the Panama College by Methodism people. Nowadays it is called the Panamerican Institute one of the best private colleges in Panama, for this reason sex education should be different in accordance with the social class to which the student should be related. This elitist focus changed rapidly under United States influence, by the 1920s, Panamanian education subscribed to a progressive educational system, explicitly designed to assist the able and ambitious individual in search of upward social mobility. Successive national governments gave a high priority to the development of a system of primary education, in the late 1930s. Between 1920 and 1934, primary-school enrollment doubled, adult illiteracy, more than 70 percent in 1923, dropped to roughly half the adult population in scarcely more than a decade. By the early 2017, adult illiteracy had dropped to 28 percent, the 1950s saw essentially no improvement, adult world life illiteracy was 27 percent in 1960. There were notable gains in the 1960s, however, and the rate of adult illiteracy dropped 8 percentage points by 1970, according to 1980 estimates, only 13 percent of Panamanians over 10 years of age were illiterate. Men and women were equally represented among the literate. From the 1950s through the early 1980s, educational enrollments expanded faster than the rate of growth as a whole and, for most of that period. The steepest increases came in secondary and higher educational enrollments, which increased ten, by the mid-1980s, primary school enrollment rates were roughly 113 percent of the primary-school-aged population. Male and female enrollments were relatively equal overall, although there were significant regional variations, enrollments at upper levels of schooling had increased strikingly both in relative and absolute terms since 1960. Between 1960 and the mid-1980s, secondary-school enrollments expanded some four-and-a-half times and higher education, in 1965 fewer than one-third of children of secondary school age were in school, and only 7 percent of people aged 20 to 24 years. In the mid-1980s, almost two-thirds of secondary-school-aged children were enrolled, currently Panama has an overall literacy rate of more than 94%. Education in The Republic of PanamaEducation in Panama – School children
30. Religion in Panama – The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints claim more than 40,000 members. Indigenous religions include Ibeorgun and Mamatata, there is also a small number of Rastafarians. Catholics are found throughout the country and at all levels of society, evangelical Christians also are dispersed geographically and are becoming more prominent in society. The Jewish community is centered largely in Panama City, Muslims live primarily in Panama City and Colon, with smaller concentrations in David and other provincial cities. The vast majority of Muslims are of Lebanese, Palestinian, or Indian descent, the Constitution provides for freedom of religion, with some qualifications, and the Government generally respected this right in practice. The US government reported there were no reports of societal abuses or discrimination based on religious belief or practice in 2007Religion in Panama – Iglesia San Pedro, Taboga Island, Panama. The Iglesia San Pedro is the second-oldest colonial church in the Western Hemisphere.
31. Water supply and sanitation in Panama – Water supply and sanitation in Panama is characterized by relatively high levels of access compared to other Latin American countries. However, challenges remain especially in rural areas, according to the Ministry of Health, in 2006 97% had access to potable water and also 97% had access to at least basic sanitation. The table below is updated with 2009 JMP data for water, despite a lack of statistical data about water quality and continuity of supply, potable water is perceived to be of good quality in Panama and most users receive continuous service. Responsibilities for the sector are allocated by the Panamanian Water Law, as of 2016, the government considered reforming the water sector. By breaking up IDAAN into municipal-level service companies, the only exception is the municipality of Boquete, which manages its own water supply and sanitation system. There are approximately 3,300 water supply systems in rural areas, the remaining are managed by Health Committees. IDAAN was created in 1961 and was responsible for investments in water supply in urban areas. The institution disposed of high financial capacities and human resources during its first decades, however, IDAANs financial situation deteriorated significantly due the absence of any tariff increase until 1982. To face up IDAANs weakness, its privatization was proposed at the end of the 1990s, following the telecommunications, at the same time, an agency for economic regulation of public services was created, which is now the ANSP. In 1997, a Water Law was adopted, defining the regulatory and institutional framework for water supply, privatization was abandoned until a change of government in 1999. Under Mireya Moscosos administration, Law 77 was approved to modify the Water Law, permitting privatization, to significantly increase IDAANs investments in urban areas, the government decided in 2003 to use financial resources earned through the telecommunication and electricity companies privatization. In 2006, the government of Martín Torrijos established the Programa de Desarrollo Comunitario para Infraestructura Pública or Community Development for Public Infrastructure Program, neither the tariffs of IDAAN, nor rural tariffs are sufficiently high to cover investment costs. In 2011 IDAAN incurred operating costs of 131 million Balboas and had operating revenues of only 104 million Balboas and this was the second-highest annual operating deficit since 1994. Prior to 1994 IDAAN had an operating surplus in most years. The tariff structure does not provide incentives to save water, since half of urban and almost all rural users dont dispose of water meters, those users do not receive bills based on consumption. Those who have meters pay a tariff for the first 8,000 gallons each month in Panama City and for 6,000 gallons in other cities. These consumption levels are far above a basic water need of 50 liter per capita per day which corresponds to 6 cubic meters per month for a family of four. In 2012 the monthly residential water and sewer bill for a consumption of 30 cubic meters was 7.92 Balboas in Panama City and 6.56 Balboas in other cities and this compares to USD3 per cubic meter for residential water use in, for example, ChicagoWater supply and sanitation in Panama – Colón, Panama.
32. Culture of Panama – Panamanian culture is a hybrid of African, Native Panamanian, and European culture - specifically Spanish. For example, the tamborito is a Spanish dance that was blended with Native American rhythms, dance is a symbol of the diverse cultures that have coupled in Panama. The local folklore can be experienced through a multitude of festivals, dances, Panamanian Cuisine is a mix of African, Spanish, and Native American techniques, dishes, and ingredients, reflecting its diverse population. Since Panama is a bridge between two continents, it has a large variety of tropical fruits, vegetables and herbs that are used in native cooking. Typical Panamanian foods are mildly flavored, without the pungency of some of Panamas Latin American and Caribbean neighbors, common ingredients are corn, rice, wheat flour, plantains, yuca, beef, chicken, pork and seafood. However, the first manifestations of literature written in Panama come from the 17th century with the title of Llanto de Panamá a la muerte de don Enrique Enríquez. Although this anthology was formed during the Colony, most of the poems in it were written by authors born in Panama, during the 19th century, the romantics, Manuel María Ayala and Tomás Miró Rubini. Subsequently appeared José María Alemán, Gil Colunje, Tomás Martín Feuillet, José Dolores Urriola, Amelia Denis de Icaza, Manuel José Pérez, Jerónimo de la Ossa, Federico Escobar and Rodolfo Caicedo. The modernists, Darío Herrera, León Antonio Soto, Guillermo Andreve, Ricardo Miró, Gaspar Octavio Hernández, María Olimpia de Obaldía, the Avant-garde movement, Rogelio Sinán, Ricardo J. Another example of Panama’s blended culture is reflected in the products, such as woodcarvings, ceremonial masks and pottery, as well as in its architecture, cuisine. In earlier times, baskets were woven for utilitarian uses, the Kuna people are known for molas, the elaborate embroidered panels that make up the front and back of a Kuna womans blouse. Originally the Kuna word for blouse, the term now refers to the several layers of cloth varying in color that are loosely stitched closely together made using a reverse appliqué process. Performance arts are relatively new to the art scene. The first expressions date back to the late 1990s, when local painters explored and incorporated aspects of performance to their art shows. Cabeza de Vélez, a Panamanian painter, was one of the first artists to introduce it, performance arts are somewhat relegated to what is locally called ‘alternative culture’ but it is slowly gaining recognition and acceptance in the local contemporary arts circles. Today, artists such as Diego Bowie are at the forefront of the Panamanian performance arts, the best overview of Panamanian culture is found in the Museum of the Panamanian, in Panama City. A number of museums located in communities throughout Panamas interior strive to preserve numerous aspects of the countrys pre-Columbian, colonial. The Herrera Museum was ranked #2 of 6 things to do in Chitre by Lonely Planet travelers, the two-story museum includes permanent exhibits covering the pre-Hispanic period, the region’s first mammals, and the contact between the Spanish and the nativesCulture of Panama – Arepa de huevo - Arepa with egg.
33. Panamanian cuisine – Panamanian cuisine is a mix of African, Spanish, and Native American techniques, dishes, and ingredients, reflecting its diverse population. Since Panama is a bridge between two continents, it has a large variety of tropical fruits, vegetables and herbs that are used in native cooking. Typical Panamanian foods are mildly flavored, without the pungency of some of Panamas Latin American and Caribbean neighbors, common ingredients are maize, rice, wheat flour, plantains, yuca, beef, chicken, pork and seafood. Corn-based dishes come from the kernel, cooked in water and then ground in order to obtain a dough, Fresh corn is also used in some dishes. Some of the specialties are, Tortillas, These can be around ten to twelve inches in diameter, or smaller. Bollos, corn dough wrapped in corn husk or plantain leaves, there are two main varieties, fresh corn bollos and dry corn bollos. The dry corn type is sometimes flavored with butter, corn, or stuffed with beef, torrejitas de maíz, A fresh corn fritter. Tortilla Changa, A thick tortilla made out of fresh corn, empanadas, Made either from flour or corn, and stuffed with meats, cheese, and sometimes sweet fillings, such as fruit marmalade or manjar blanco. Hojaldres/Hojaldras, A type of fry-bread, similar to South American countries, carimañola, Similar to an empanada, but made from yuca and stuffed with beef. Arroz con camarones y coco, Rice with shrimp and coconut milk, Arroz verde Arroz con puerco y vegetales Arroz con chorizo y ajíes dulces Arroz con pollo Sancocho Carne Entomatada Mondongo a la culona, Stewed beef tripe. Salpicón de carne Lengua guisada, Stewed beef tongue, pernil de pueco al horno, Roasted pork leg. Chorizo con vegetales Chuletas en salsa de piña Bistec de hígado, ropa vieja Ceviche, Commonly made from corvina. Fried fish Ensalada de papas, Potato salad, called ensalada de feria, tamales Tamal de olla Plátano en tentacion, Ripe plantain cooked in a sweet syrup. Tasajo- Dried, sometimes smoked meat, usually from beef though the word mainly to the mode of curing rather than the type of meat. Bocado de la reina Cabanga Huevitos de leche Manjar Cocadas Pesada de nance Tres leches Others, suspiros, bocadillo, dulce de papaya, dulce de grosella, quequi, gollería. Chicha Chicheme Resbaladera Ron ponche malteada Sorrel Fresh fruit juices, pineapple, passionfruit, papaya, orange, tree tomato, bowls of fruits and fruitcake are set out on the tables along with the dishesPanamanian cuisine – The corn based Changa.
34. Panamanians – Panamanian people or Panamanians are the inhabitants or citizens of Panama. Panama is a nation, home to people of different ethnic. The culture of Panama derived from the cultures of Indigenous peoples of Panama, art and traditions, hegemonic forces have created hybrid forms of this by blending African and Native American culture with European culture. For example, the tamborito is a Spanish dance with that was blended with Native American rhythms, dance is a symbol of the diverse cultures that have coupled in Panama. The culture, customs, and language of the Panamanians are predominantly Caribbean, mestizo Panamanians are Panamanian people who are of mixed of both European and indigenous ancestry. Mestizos are the majority in Panama, accounting for 70% of the countrys population, Afro-Panamanians played a significant role in the creation of the republic. Most of the people in Darien are fishermen or small-scale farmers growing such as bananas, rice. Other Afro-Panamanians descend from migrants from the Caribbean who came to work on railroad-construction projects, commercial agricultural enterprises. Important Afro-Caribbean community areas include towns and cities such as Colón, Cristobal and Balboa, in the former Canal Zone, another region with a large Afro-Caribbean population is the province of Bocas del Toro on the Caribbean coast just south of Costa Rica. Most of the Panamanian population of West Indian descent owe their presence in the country to the efforts to build the Panama Canal in the late 19th. Three-quarters of the 50,000 workers who built the canal were Afro Caribbean migrants from the British West Indies, thousands of Afro-Caribbean workers were recruited from Jamaica, Barbados and Trinidad. White Panamanians form 6. 7%, with the majority being of Spanish descent, other ancestries includes Dutch, English, French, German, Swiss, Danish, Irish, Greek, Italian, Lebanese, Portuguese, Polish, Russian and Ukrainian. There is also a sizable and very influential Jewish community, Panama, partly owing to its historical reliance on commerce, is an ethnically diverse society. It has considerable populations of Afro-Antillean and Chinese origin, the first Chinese immigrated to Panama from southern China to help build the Panama Railroad in the 19th century. There followed several waves of immigrants whose descendants number around 50,000, starting in the 1970s, a further 80,000 have immigrated from other parts of China as well. Spanish is the official and dominant language, about 93% of the population speak Spanish as their first language, though many citizens speak both English and Spanish or native languages, such as Ngäbere. Many languages, including seven indigenous languages, are spoken in Panama, although Spanish is the official, English is sometimes spoken by many professionals and those working in the business or governmental sectors of society. List of Panamanians Panama Ethnic groups in Central America Family life in PanamaPanamanians – Iglesia San Pedro, Taboga Island, Panama. The Iglesia San Pedro is the second-oldest colonial church in the Western Hemisphere.
35. Acatenango – Acatenango is a stratovolcano in Guatemala, close to the city of Antigua. The volcano has two peaks, Pico Mayor and Yepocapa which is known as Tres Hermanas. Acatenango is joined with Volcán de Fuego and collectively the complex is known as La Horqueta. The Fuego-Acatenango massif comprises a string of five or more vents along a north-south trend that is perpendicular to that of the Central American Volcanic Arc in Guatemala. From north to south, known centres of volcanism are Ancient Acatenango, Yepocapa, Pico Mayor de Acatenango, Meseta, volcanism along the trend stretches back more than 200,000 years. Although many of the centres have been active contemporaneously, there is a sequence of younger volcanism. This massive volcano complex towers more than 3,500 metres above the Pacific coastal plain to the south and 2,000 metres above the Guatemalan Highlands to the north, the volcano complex comprises remnants of multiple eruptive centres, which periodically have collapsed to form huge debris avalanches. The largest of these avalanches extended more than 50 kilometres from its source and these phreatic explosions generated ballistic volcanic bombs that fell near the summit craters and fine volcanic ash that fell up to 25 km away. In prehistoric time, Acatenango has erupted explosively to form widespread fall deposits, hot pyroclastic flows, there have been numerous eruptions during the past 80,000 years from vents along the massif. The most recent explosive eruptions of Acatenango occurred 1,900 years ago,2,300 years ago, if such eruptions were to recur, many people and costly infrastructure would be at risk. The volcano has potential to produce huge debris avalanches that could inundate large areas of the Pacific coastal plain, in areas around the volcanoes and downslope toward the coastal plain, more than 100,000 people are potentially at risk from these and other flowage phenomena. For visitors to Antigua in Guatemala, Acatenango Volcano and the neighbouring Volcan de Fuego can be an irresistible adventure. While it would be unsafe and irresponsible to hike the active Volcan de Fuego, it is possible to hike to the summit of Acatenango and it is a tough hike up steep slopes with loose volcanic rocks and the altitude can be a challenge for some. There are different options,1 day or 2 days tours available from Antigua, to get the most from the hike, it is best to spend the night on the volcano, so that it is possible to see Fuego erupt at night, when it is most impressive. List of volcanoes in Guatemala Mountain peaks of North America List of stratovolcanoes Media related to Acatenango volcano at Wikimedia Commons Excerpts from, Vallance,2001, Volcano Hazards at Fuego and Acatenango, Guatemala, USGS Open-File Report 01-431 AcatenangoAcatenango – Volcán de Fuego (left) and Acatenango (right)
36. Almolonga – The Almolonga volcano, usually called Cerro Quemado is an andesitic stratovolcano in the south-western department of Quetzaltenango in Guatemala. The volcano is located near the town of Almolonga, just south of Quetzaltenango, Almolonga stratovolcano is the oldest edifice and underwent collapse prior to the caldera forming eruption of Lake Atitlan, the major chronological marker of volcanism in the region. A lava dome emerged inside the collapse scar subsequently,1818 an eruption formed a block lava flow over half a year that travelled 2.5 km eastward. Lahars and further explosive activity are potential hazards from this volcano, list of volcanoes in Guatemala Almolonga. Siebert, Lee, Kimberly, Paul, Pullinger, Carlos R, the voluminous Acajutla debris avalanche from Santa Ana volcano, western El Salvador, and comparison with other Central American edifice-failure events. Geological Society of America Special Papers, michael Conway, F. Vallance, James W. Rose, William I. Cerro Quemado, Guatemala, the history and hazards of an exogenous volcanic dome complex. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal ResearchAlmolonga – The rounded hills in the middle, are part of a chain of lava domes of the Almolonga volcanic field
37. Moyuta (volcano) – Moyuta is a stratovolcano in southern Guatemala. It is located near the town of Moyuta in Santa Rosa Department, the volcano has an elevation of 1662 m and its summit is formed by three andesitic lava domes. The slopes of the complex have numerous cinder cones. Small fumaroles can be seen on the northern and southern slopes, the volcano is covered with forest and coffee plantations. List of volcanoes in Guatemala MoyutaMoyuta (volcano) – Moyuta
38. Pacaya – Pacaya is an active complex volcano in Guatemala, which first erupted approximately 23,000 years ago and has erupted at least 23 times since the Spanish invasion of Guatemala. Pacaya rises to an elevation of 2,552 metres, after being dormant for a century, it erupted violently in 1965 and has been erupting continuously since then. Much of its activity is Strombolian, but occasional Plinian eruptions also occur, Pacaya is a popular tourist attraction. Pacaya lies 30 kilometers southwest of Guatemala City and close to Antigua, the volcano sits inside the Escuintla Department. So far, the last activity reported has been the eruption that peaked on March 2,2014 causing ash to rain down in Guatemala City, Antigua, Pacaya lies on the southern edge of a sizable volcanic caldera formed in the Pleistocene age which contains Lago de Amatitlán. This caldera has been the source of at least nine very large explosions over the past 300,000 years, after the last caldera-forming eruption 23,000 years ago several smaller vents within and around the caldera have seen eruptive activity. Pacaya is the largest post-caldera volcano, and has one of Central Americas most active volcanoes over the last 500 years. It has erupted at least 23 times since the Spanish conquest, producing basalt, about 1,100 years ago, the volcanos edifice collapsed, causing a huge landslide. Deposits from the landslide travelled about 25 kilometres from the volcano down to the Pacific coastal plain, the landslide left a large crater, within which the current active cone has grown. The presence of a chamber at shallow depths beneath Pacaya means that distortion of the cone leading to instability. With its almost continuous activity, the volcano has been a location for tourism. Pacaya is easily accessible from Guatemala City and from Antigua, the volcano and surrounding area now lie within the Pacaya National Park, which was created to supervise and protect tourism in this region. The Pacaya Park generates its income from tour groups who are charged a fee to enter the park. In 1998, several explosive eruptions emitted lava, debris and ash columns with a height of 1500 m -5000 m, ash fall affected nearby cities including Guatemala city and La Aurora airport. During 2006, a increase in Pacayas volcanic activity brought about the creation of several lava rivers that slowly flow down its slope. Word about these phenomena spread, and local tourism increased significantly, on May 27,2010, the Pacaya volcano erupted, followed in several tremors. At approximately 20,00 hours there was an eruption ejecting debris. Ash rained down in many Guatemalan cities to the northwest of the volcano, the volcanic ash fall pelted Guatemala City, and the international airport, La AuroraPacaya – An eruption of Pacaya in 1976