SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

List of war crimes

This article lists and summarizes the war crimes committed since the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 and the crimes against humanity and crimes against peace that have been committed since these crimes were first defined in the Rome Statute. Since many war crimes are not prosecuted and lawyers will make a serious case that war crimes occurred if there was no formal investigations or prosecution of the alleged crimes or an investigation cleared the alleged perpetrators. War crimes under international law were established by international trials such as the Nuremberg Trials and the Tokyo Trials, in which Austrian and Japanese leaders were prosecuted for war crimes committed during World War II; the term "concentration camp" was used to describe camps operated by the British Empire in South Africa during the Second Boer War in the years 1900–1902. As Boer farms were destroyed by the British under their "Scorched Earth" policy, many tens of thousands of women and children were forcibly moved into the concentration camps.

Over 26,000 Boer women and children were to perish in these concentration camps. In November 1901, the Manila correspondent of the Philadelphia Ledger wrote: "The present war is no bloodless, opera bouffe engagement. S. company garrisoning Samar town, U. S. Brigadier General Jacob H. Smith launched a retaliatory march across Samar with the instructions: "I want no prisoners. I wish you to kill and burn, the more you kill and burn the better it will please me. I want all persons killed who are capable of bearing arms in actual hostilities against the United States..."The war resulted in the deaths of at least 200,000 Filipino civilians. Some estimates for total civilian dead reach up to 1,000,000. World War I was the first major international conflict to take place following the codification of war crimes at the Hague Convention of 1907, including derived war crimes, such as the use of poisons as weapons, as well as crimes against humanity, derivative crimes against humanity, such as torture, genocide.

Before, the Second Boer War took place after the Hague Convention of 1899. The Second Boer War is known for the first concentration camps for civilians in the 20th century; the Pacification of Libya resulted in mass deaths of the indigenous people in Cyrenaica by Italy. 80,000 or over a quarter of the indigenous people in Cyrenaica perished during the pacification. 100,000 Bedouin citizens were ethnically cleansed by expulsion from their land. Specific war crimes alleged to have been committed by the Italian armed forces against civilians include deliberate bombing of civilians, killing unarmed children and the elderly and disembowelment of women, throwing prisoners out of aircraft to their death and running over others with tanks, regular daily executions of civilians in some areas, bombing tribal villages with mustard gas bombs beginning in 1930. Italian use of mustard gas against Ethiopian soldiers in 1936 violated the 1925 Geneva Protocol, which bans the use of chemical weapons in warfare.

Yekatit 12—In response to the unsuccessful assassination of Rodolfo Graziani on 19 February 1937, thousands of Ethiopians were killed, including all of the monks residing at Debre Libanos, over a thousand more detained at Danan who were exiled either to the Dahlak Islands or Italy. The Ethiopians recorded 275,000 combatants killed in action, 78,500 patriots killed during the occupation, 17,800 civilians killed by aerial bombardment and 30,000 in the February 1937 massacre, 35,000 people died in concentration camps, 24,000 patriots executed by Summary Courts, 300,000 persons died of privation due to the destruction of their villages, amounting to 760,300 deaths. At least 50,000 people were executed during the Spanish Civil War. In his updated history of the Spanish Civil War, Antony Beevor writes, "Franco's ensuing'white terror' claimed 200,000 lives. The'red terror' had killed 38,000." Julius Ruizconcludes that "although the figures remain disputed, a minimum of 37,843 executions were carried out in the Republican zone with a maximum of 150,000 executions in Nationalist Spain."César Vidal puts the number of Republican victims at 110,965.

In 2008 a Spanish judge, Socialist Baltasar Garzón, opened an investigation into the executions and disappearances of 114,266 people between 17 July 1936 and December 1951. Among the murders and executions investigated was that of dramatist Federico García Lorca; the Axis Powers were some of the most systematic perpetrators of war crimes in modern history. Contributing factors included Nazi race theory, a desire for "living space" that justified the eradication of native populations, militaristic indoctrination that encouraged the terrorization of conquered peoples and prisoners of war; the Holocaust, the German attack on the Soviet Union and occupation of much of Europe, the Japanese occupation of Manchuria and the Philippines and attack on China all contributed to well over half of the civilian deaths in World War II and the conflicts that led up to the war. Before post-war revelations of atrocities, Axis militaries were notorious for their brutal treatment of captured combatants. According to the Nuremberg Trials, there were four major war crimes that were alleged against German military men and offic

William S. Fisher

William Sydney Fisher is an American investor, hedge fund manager, philanthropist. He has been a director of Gap Inc. since 2009, the founder and chief executive officer of Manzanita Capital Limited. The son of Gap Inc. founders Donald Fisher and Doris F. Fisher, William Fisher has been involved with the company as a board member or employee for nearly 30 years; as of January 2018, Fisher has a net worth of US$1.85 billion. Fisher was born to a Jewish family, is the son of Doris Feigenbaum Fisher and Don Fisher, the co-founders of Gap, Inc, he has two brothers: John J. Fisher. Fisher attended Phillips Exeter Academy, he is a 1979 graduate of Princeton University, where he received a bachelor's degree and a 1984 graduate of the Stanford University Graduate School of Business, from which he earned a master's degree in Business Administration. Fisher began his career at The Gap after earning his MBA, starting first as the store director for the Banana Republic and the general manager for Gap in Canada.

Fisher served as the president of the Gap's international division and is credited with expanding the company into Canada, Germany, the United Kingdom, Japan. In 2001, he founded the London-based private equity firm Manzanita Capital and serves as its CEO. Manzanita concentrates its investments in branded luxury companies in Europe, consumer goods, retail. In 2009, he was appointed to the Gap's Board of Directors. In 2019, it was revealed that Fisher, together with his mother Doris F. Fisher, as well as brothers Robert J. Fisher and John J. Fisher, had donated nearly $9 million to a dark money group which opposed Barack Obama in the 2012 election. Fisher is married to Sakurako Daniel "Sako" Fisher, they have three children. His wife - who graduated from Stanford with a B. A. in 1982 - was born in Japan to an American father and a Japanese mother and serves as president of the San Francisco Symphony Orchestra and chair of the Smithsonian National Board. According to Forbes Magazine, he has a net worth of $1.85 billion USD.

Fisher donates to his alma mater Stanford and has a professorship there. In 2011, he donated $1 million to Stanford's Freeman Spogli Institute for International Studies, he serves as vice chairman of the science museum Exploratorium in San Francisco. Like many other members of the Fisher family, he supports pro-charter school candidates in a variety of races

Revue des deux Mondes

The Revue des deux Mondes is a French language monthly literary and political affairs magazine, published in Paris since 1829. According to its website, "it is today the place for debates and dialogues between nations and cultures, about the major subjects of our societies"; the main shareholder is Marc Ladreit de Lacharrière's FIMALAC Group. The Revue des deux Mondes was founded by Prosper Mauroy and Pierre de Ségur-Dupeyron, first appearing on 1 August 1829; the anodyne periodical with the subtitle Journal des voyages was purchased by a young printer, Auguste-Jean Auffray, who convinced his college roommate François Buloz to edit it: its original emphasis on travel and foreign affairs soon shifted. It was purchased in 1831 by Charles Buloz, its editor until 1877. Another influential editor in its history was Ferdinand Brunetière. Among the early regular contributors who established the review's reputation as an elite liberal vehicle of haute culture were Albert, 4th duc de Broglie, François Guizot, Jacques Nicolas Augustin Thierry, Ludovic Vitet, Paul-François Dubois, the literary critics Charles Augustin Sainte-Beuve and Gustave Planche, Jean-Jacques Ampère.

Heinrich Heine first published an essay in three parts in 1834, De L'Allemagne depuis Luther, a history of emancipation in Germany beginning with the Reformation. François Buloz, 1831–1877. La Revue des deux mondes online in Gallica, the digital library of the BnF Revue des deux Mondes at the HathiTrust Digital Library