List of wealthiest families

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Various lists of the richest families in the world (excluding royal families or autocratic ruling dynasties) are published internationally, by Forbes[1][2] as well as other business magazines.

There is a distinction between wealth held by an identifiable individual billionaires or a "nuclear family" and the wider notion of a historical "dynasty," where the wealth of a historically family-owned company or business has become distributed between various branches of descendants,[3] usually throughout decades, ranging from several individuals to hundreds of offsprings (such as the Rothschild family).[4] According to Bloomberg, the world’s 25 richest families control $1.1 trillion (1,100,000,000,000) of wealth.[5]

Contemporary rankings[edit]

Note: The list includes families who, according to reliable sources, have a combined net worth of 1 billion US Dollars and above.

Family name Notable members Combined wealth
in US$ billions
(estimated)
Source of
wealth
Country or region
Walton[6] Jim Walton, Alice Walton, S. Robson Walton, Christy Walton, Ann Walton Kroenke, Nancy Walton Laurie 163.2 (2018) Wal-Mart, Sam's Club United States
Koch[7] Charles G. Koch, David H. Koch 82 (2016) Koch Industries United States
Mars[7] Jacqueline Mars, Victoria B. Mars 80 (2016) Mars, Incorporated United States
Slim[7] Carlos Slim, Carlos Slim Domit, Patrick Slim, Julián Slim 77.1 (2017) Grupo Carso Mexico
Ortega[8] Amancio Ortega, Rosalía Mera, Sandra Ortega Mera 72 (2017) Zara Spain
Van Damme, De Spoelberch, De Mevius[5] Three families - the collective enterprise of which has roots in the 14th century 54.1 (2018) Anheuser-Busch InBev (beverages) Belgium
Porsche/Piëch[9] Ferdinand Piëch, Hans Michel Piëch, Wolfgang Porsche, and more than 100 relatives 52.8[10] (2014) Volkswagen Group Austria
Arnault[7] Bernard Arnault, Delphine Arnault, Antoine Arnault 51.1 (2017) LVMH France
Dumas[5] Pierre-Alexis Dumas, Axel Dumas 49.2 (2018) Hermès (luxury goods) France
Wertheimer[5] Alain Wertheimer, Gerard Wertheimer 45.6 (2018) Chanel France
Cargill-MacMillan[7] Austen Cargill, James R. Cargill II, James R. Cargill, William W. Cargill, Marion MacMillan Pictet, Marianne Cargill Liebmann, Cargill MacMillan, Sr., Cargill MacMillan Jr, John H. MacMillan, Sr., John H. MacMillan, John Hugh MacMillan, Whitney MacMillan, Whitney Duncan MacMillan 45 (2016) Cargill United States
Ambani[11] Mukesh Ambani, Dhirubhai Ambani, Nita Ambani, Isha Ambani, Akash Ambani 44.8 (2017) Reliance Industries , Reliance Jio Infocomm, Reliance Retail India
Quandt Herbert Quandt, Johanna Quandt, Stefan Quandt, Susanne Klatten 42.7 (2018) Bmw Germany
Bettencourt[7] Liliane Bettencourt 42.7 (2017) L'Oréal France
Cox[12] Anne Cox Chambers, James M. Cox 41 (2016) Cox Enterprises Co. United States
Boehringer/Von Baumbach[5] Albert Boehringer, Hubertus von Baumbach 42.2 (2018) Pharmaceutical corporation Boehringer Ingelheim Germany
Thomson[13][14] David Thomson, Roy Thomson, Peter Thomson, Kenneth Thomson 39.13 (2017) Thomson Reuters, The Woodbridge Company Canada
Albrecht[5] Berthold Albrecht Theo Albrecht Karl Albrecht 38.8 (2018) Aldi Nord, Trader Joe Germany
Kwok[5] Thomas Kwok, Raymond Kwok, Kwok Tak-Seng, Kwong Siu-hing, 34 (2018) Sun Hung Kai Properties Hong Kong
Budi-Hartono[15] Robert Budi Hartono 32 (2017) Conglomerate Indonesia
Mulliez[8] Gerard Mulliez, Michel Leclercq 30 (2017) Auchan, Decathlon Group, Association Familiale Mulliez, and hundreds of other family members[16] France
Rausing[5] Hans Rausing 30.9 (2018) Tetra Laval Britain / Sweden[17]
S. C. Johnson[12] S. Curtis Johnson 30 (2016) S. C. Johnson & Son United States
Pritzker[12] Thomas Pritzker, John Pritzker, Daniel Pritzker, Jean (Gigi) Pritzker Pucker, Jennifer N. Pritzker, Linda Pritzker, Karen Pritzker-Vlock, Matthew Pritzker, Liesel Pritzker Simmons, Penny Pritzker-Traubert, Anthony Pritzker, Jay Robert Pritzker, Nicholas J. Pritzker 29 (2016) Hyatt Corporation, Marmon Group United States
Marinho[18] Roberto Irineu Marinho, Jose Roberto Marinho, Joao Robero Marinho 28.9 (2004) Grupo Globo, Rede Globo (media) Brazil
(Edward) Johnson[12] Edward C. Johnson III, Abigail Johnson 28.5 (2016) Fidelity Investments United States
Hearst[12] William Randolph Hearst and numerous others 28 (2016) Hearst Corporation United States
Dassault[5] Marcel Bloc 27.8 Dassault Group, diversified France
Lee (Byung-Chull)[19] 26.6 (2016) Samsung South Korea
Hoffmann/Oeri[5] Fritz Hoffmann-La Roche, Andre Hoffmann 25.1 (2018) Roche pharmaceuticals Switzerland
Ferrero[8] Michele Ferrero 24.1 (2017) Ferrero SpA Italy
Lee (Shau Kee)[20] Lee Shau Kee 24.1 (2016) Henderson Land Development Hong Kong
Franca-Fissolo[21] 24.1 (2016) Nutella and Ferrero Rocher Italy
Cheng[15] 22.5 (2017) Hong Kong
Duncan[12] Dan Duncan 21.5 (2016) Enterprise Products United States
Safra[18] Joseph Safra, Moise Safra, Lily Safra 20.1 (2004) Banking Brazil
Sy[15] 20.1 (2017) SM Investments Corporation Philippines
Chearavanont[22] 19.9 (2016) Thailand
Powell-Jobs[23] 19.7 (2016) Apple Inc. and Disney United States
Persson[8] Erling Persson, Stefan Persson, Karl-Johan Persson 19.6 (2017) H&M Sweden
Chirathivat[15] 19.3 (2017) Retail Thailand
Kwek-Quek[24] 18.9 (2016) Hong Leong group China / Malaysia
Newhouse[12] Samuel Irving Newhouse Jr., Donald Newhouse 18.5 (2016) Advance Publications United States
Lauder[12] Estée Lauder, Ronald Lauder 17.9 (2016) Estée Lauder Companies United States
Otto[25] Werner Otto, Michael Otto 17.7 (2016) Otto Group Germany
Tsai (Wan-Tsai)[15] 17.7 (2017) Cathay Financial Taiwan
Mittal[15] 17.2 (2017) ArcelorMittal India
Dorrance[12] Dorrance Hill Hamilton 17.1 (2016) Campbell Soup Company United States
Premji[26] Mohamed Premji, Azim Premji 17 (2016) Diversified India
Kuok[15] 16.6 (2017) Kuok Group Malaysia
Reuben[27] David Reuben, Simon Reuben 16.3 (2016) Real estate, financial services, commodity trading United Kingdom
Mistry[15] 16.1 (2017) Shapoorji Pallonji Group India
Ermirio de Moraes[28] Antonio Ermirio de Moraes, Ermirio Pereira de Moraes, Maria Helena Moraes Scripilliti 15.4 (2004) Votorantim Brazil
Chung[15] 14.8 (2017) Hyundai South Korea
Ziff[12] Daniel M. Ziff, Dirk Edward Ziff, Robert D. Ziff, William Bernard Ziff Jr. 14.4 (2016) Publishing, Ziff Davis, Ziff Brothers Investments United States
Sawiris[citation needed] Onsi Sawiris, Naguib Sawiris, Nassef Sawiris, Samih Sawiris 14.5 (2017) Orascom Construction Industries, Orascom Telecom Holding, Orascom Development, Orascom Group Egypt
Du Pont[12] List of family members 14.3 (2016) Real estate United States
Saji[15] 14.2 (2017) Suntory Japan
Birla[15] 14.1 (2017) commodities India
Godrej[15] 14 (2017) Godrej Group India
Hunt[12] H. L. Hunt 13.7 (2016) Hunt Oil Company, Hunt Petroleum United States
Goldman[12] Sol Goldman, Amy Goldman Fowler 13.7 (2016) Solil Management United States
Busch[12] Adolphus Busch, Adolphus Busch III, August Anheuser Busch, Sr., August Busch III, August Busch IV 13.4 (2016) Anheuser-Busch United States
Pao[15] 13.4 (2017) BW Group Hong Kong
Yoovidhya[15] 13.1 (2017) Drinks Thailand
Sackler[12] Arthur M. Sackler, Mortimer Sackler, Raymond Sackler 13 (2016) Purdue Pharma, Oxycontin United States
Dangote[29] 13.1 (2017) Dangote Group Nigeria
Moreira Salles[28] Moreira Salles, Joao Moreira Salles, Pedro Moreira Salles, Fernando Roberto, Walther Moreira Salles Junior 12.4 (2004) Banking Brazil
Ofer[30][31] Sammy Ofer, Eyal Ofer, Idan Ofer 12.3 (2017) Diversified Israel
Weston[32] Guy Weston, George Weston, Galen Jr Weston 12.3 (2013) Loblaw supermarket chain, George Weston Limited Ireland
Brown[12] George Garvin Brown IV 12.3 (2016) Brown-Forman United States
Marshall[12] J. Howard Marshall II, Elaine Tettemer Marshall 12 (2016) Koch Industries United States
Mellon[12] Andrew Mellon, Matthew Mellon 11.5 (2016) Mellon Bank United States
Butt[12] Charles Butt 11 (2016) HEB Grocery Company United States
Kadoorie[33] Michael Kadoorie 11 (2017) CLP Holding Hong Kong
Dos Santos[34] 11 (2017) Angola
Rockefeller[12] John D. Rockefeller, Nelson Rockefeller 11 (2016) Standard Oil Company United States
Gallo [12] Ernest Gallo, Julio Gallo 10.7 (2016) E & J Gallo Winery United States
Saputo[13] 10.61 (2017) Saputo Inc., Transforce Canada
Widjaja[15] 10.4 (2017) Sinar Mas Group Indonesia
Haniel[35] 10 (2002) Franz Haniel & Cie., Metro AG Germany
Rupert[34] 10 (2017) South Africa
Gurserievs[2] 9.8 (2016) BIN Group Russia
Grosvenor[17] Hugh Grosvenor, 7th Duke of Westminster 9.5 (euros, 2017) Grosvenor Group Britain
Bajaj[15] 9.3 (2017) Bajaj Group India
Rogers[13] 9.13 (2017) Rogers Communications Canada
Engelhorn[35] 8.4 (2002) Pharmaceuticals firm Boehringer Mannheim Germany
Salim[15] 8.8 (2017) Salim Group Indonesia
Ng[36] Ng Teng Fong, Robert Ng, Philip Ng 8.7 (2015) Far East Organization Singapore
Koo (LG)[15] 8.7 (2017) LG Corporation Korea
Lohia[15] 8.68 (2017) Indorama Corporation Indonesia
Lee Man Tat[15] 8.4 (2017) Food Hong Kong
Koç[37] Semahat Sevim Arsel, Rahmi Koç, Suna Kıraç, Mustafa Vehbi Koç, Mehmet Ömer Koç, Ali Yıldırım Koç 8 (2016) Koç Holding Turkey
Şahenk[37] 7-8 (2016) Doğuş Holding Turkey
Sabancı[37] Hacı Ömer Sabancı, İhsan Sabancı, Güler Sabancı, Sevgi Sabancı, Sakıp Sabancı, Sevil Sabancı, Ömer Sabancı, Mehmet Sabancı, Şevket Sabancı, Ali Sabancı, Özdemir Sabancı, Demir Sabancı 7-8 (for each one of Şevket, Erol, and Türkan's families) (2016) Sabancı Holding Turkey
Simmons[38] Harold Simmons 8 (2013) Businessman, Titanium investments United States
Olayan[39] 8 (2017) Diversified, inheritance Saudi Arabia
Camargo[28] Rossana Camargo de Arruda Botelho, Renata de Camargo Nascimento, Regina de Camargo Pires Oliveira Dias 8 (2004) conglomerate Camargo Correa Brazil
Stryker[40] Homer Stryker, Ronda Stryker, Pat Stryker, John Stryker 7.9 (2015) Stryker Corporation United States
Law[15] 7.8 (2017) Bossini Hong Kong
Jindal[15] Savitri Jindal, Naveen Jindal and Sajjan Jindal 7.68 (2017) Jindal Group India
Irving[13] 7.65 (2017) Irving Oil, J.D. Irving Canada
Mori[15] 7.6 (2017) Mori Building Company Japan
Tsai (Eng-Meng)[15] 7.1 (2017) Want Want China Taiwan
Burman[15] 7.05 (2017) Dabur India
Lal[15] 7 (2017) Eicher Group India
Flick[9] Friedrich Karl Flick, Ingrid Ragger 6.9 (euros, 2014) Austria
Al Jaber[17] Mohamed Bin Issa Al Jaber 6.76 (euros, 2017) MBI International Holding Group Britain
Desmarais[13] 6.71 (2017) Power Corporation of Canada Canada
Oppenheimer[41] 6.7 (2017) De Beers South Africa
Bangur[15] 6.7 (2017) Shree Cement India
Khoo[15] 6.4 (2017) Maybank Singapore
Johnson[42] Barbara Piasecka Johnson, Bertram and Diana Firestone, Mary Lea Johnson Richards, Casey Johnson, Jamie Johnson (filmmaker), John Seward Johnson II, John Seward Johnson I, Robert Wood Johnson I, Robert Wood Johnson II, Robert Wood Johnson III, Woody Johnson 6.3 (2015) Johnson & Johnson United States
Chey[15] 6.3 (2017) Textiles South Korea
Wee[15] 6.25 (2017) United Overseas Bank Singapore
Sehgal[15] 6.15 (2017) Auto parts India
Wadia[15] 6.14 (2017) Diversified India
Zobel[15] 6.13 (2017) Ayala Corporation Philippines
Kushal Pal Singh[15] 6.1 (2017) Real estate India
Patel[15] 6 (2017) Cadila Healthcare India
Richardson[13] 5.95 (2017) James Richardson & Sons Canada
Ülker[37] 5-6 (2016) Yıldız Holding Turkey
Özokur[37] 5-6 (2016) Üs Holding Turkey
Tara[37] 5-6 (2016) Enka Holding Turkey
Eczacıbaşı[37] 5-6 (2016) Eczacıbaşı Holding Turkey
Wertheimer[43] 5.8 / 8.7[44] (2017) Iscar Metalworking Israel
Herz[35] 5.7 (2002) Tchibo, Reemtsma Germany
Kwee[15] 5.5 (2017) Real Estate Singapore
Getty[45] J. Paul Getty, Sir Paul Getty, John Paul Getty III, Balthazar Getty 5.4 (2015) Getty Oil United States
Piramal[15] 5.38 (2017) India
Munjal[15] 5.37 (2017) Hero Group India
Tung Chee Hwa and Chee Chen[15] 5.2 (2017) Shipping Hong Kong
Villela[28] Alfredo Egydio de Arruda, Villela Filho, Ana Lucia de Mattos, Barretto Villela 5 (2004) Itausa Brazil
Alshaya[39] 5 (2017) Franchies, diversified, inheritance Kuwait
Lo[15] 5 (2017) Shui On Group Hong Kong
Coates[17] Denise Coates, John Coates, Peter Coates 5 (euros, 2017) Bet365 Britain
Yazıcı[37] 4-5 (2016) Anadolu Group Turkey
Maggi[28] Lucia Borges Maggi, Blairo Borges Maggi, Marli Maggi Pissollo, Itamar Locks and Hugo de Carvalho Ribeiro 4.9 (2004) Soybeans Brazil
Azrieli[13] 4.74 (2017) Azrieli Group Canada
Aguiar[28] Lina Maria Aguiar, Lia Maria Aguiar and Maria Angela Aguiar Bellizia 4.5 (2004) Banking Brazil
Batista[28] 10 relatives, no individual billionaires 4.3 (2004) Beef processing Brazil
Swarovski Daniel Swarovski, fifth generation family members 4.1 (euros, 2014) Swarovski Austria
Abudawood[39] 4 (2017) Franchies, inheritance Saudi Arabia
Kenyatta[34] 4 (2017) Kenya
Odebrecht[28] 10 relatives, no individual billionaires 3.9 (2004) Diversified Brazil
Schaeffler[8] Georg Schaeffler Jr., Maria-Elisabeth Schaeffler, Georg Schaeffler Sr. 3.48 (euros, 2014) Schaeffler Group Germany/Austria
Aquilini[13] 3.34 (2017) Aquilini Investment Group Canada
Civita[28] Giancarlo Francesco Civita, Anamaria Roberta Civita and Victor Civita Neto 3.3 (2004) Media Brazil
Setubal[28] 25 relatives, no individual billionaires 3.3 (2004) Banking Brazil
Igel[28] Daisy Igel 3.2 (2004) Gas, petrochemicals Brazil
Lalji[13] 3.07 (2017) Larco Group of Cos. Canada
Gupta[34] 3 (2017) South Africa
Apostolopoulos[13] 2.87 (2017) Triple Group Canada
Rotenberg[2] Arkady Rotenberg, Boris Romanovich Rotenberg 2.8 (2016) Stroygazmontazh Russia
Ananiev[2] 2.8 (2016) Promsvyazbank, PSB bank and Renaissance Capital Bank Russia
Marcondes Penido[28] Ana Maria Marcondes Penido Sant'Anna 2.8 (2004) Toll roads Brazil
Smorgon[46] 2.64 (2013) Investment Australia
Ibru[34] 2.5 (2017) Nigeria
Kaufman[9] Andreas Kaufmann 2.42 (euros, 2014) Pulp and paper company Frantschach Austria
Shamalov[2] 2.4 (2016) Ozero, other Russia
Sobey[13] 2.33 (2017) Empire Co. Ltd. Canada
Reichmann[13] 2.33 (2017) Reichmann International Development Canada
Feffer[28] 5 siblings, no individual billionaires 2.3 (2004) Pulp and paper Brazil
Jameel[39] 2.2 (2017) Toyota dealerships, inheritance Saudi Arabia
Slaight[13] 2.19 (2017) Standard Broadcasting Canada
Zekelman[13] 2.12 (2017) Atlas Tube Canada
Besen[46] 2.1 (2013) Property, retail Australia
Liberman[46] 2.1 (2013) Investment Australia
Myer[46] 2.1 (2013) Investment, retail, property Australia
Al-Dabbagh[39] 2 (2017) Diversified, inheritance Saudi Arabia
Alajlan[39] 2 (2017) Clothing, real estate, self-made Saudi Arabia
Alrashed[39] 2 (2017) Diversified, inheritance Saudi Arabia
Mayr-Melnhof[9] 1.95 (euros, 2014) Forestry, MM Carton Austria
Wilson[46] 1.83 (2013) Retail Australia
Roberts[46] 1.82 (2013) Investment, property Australia
Al Muhaidib[39] 1.7 (2017) Diversified, inheritance Saudi Arabia
Shaymievs[2] Airat Shaymievs, Radik Shaimievs 1.7 (2016) TAIF Group Russia
Wright[46] 1.53 (2013) Resources Australia
Alagil[39] 1.5 (2017) Retail, self-made Saudi Arabia
Sarkisov[2] 1.4 (2016) RESO-Guarantiya Insurance company Russia
Sharbatly[39] 1.3 (2017) Investments, real estate, inheritance Saudi Arabia
Bazhayev[2] 1.25 (2016) Alliance Group Russia
Greiner[9] Hans Peter Haselsteiner 1.23 (euros, 2014) Greiner Group, synthetic materials Austria
Talbot[46] 1.21 (2013) Resources Australia
Haselsteiner[9] Hans Peter Haselsteiner 1.2 (euros, 2014) Strabag AG Austria
Rauch[9] 1.2 (euros, 2014) Happy Day juices Rauch company Austria
Rakhimkulovs[2] 1.2 (2016) OTP Bank, oil company MOL Group, Gazprom and VTB Russia
Salteri[46] 1.17 (2013) Manufacturing Australia
Rossy[13] 1.99 (2017) Dollarama Canada
Bombardier[13] 1.96 (2017) Bombardier Inc., BRP Canada
Molson[13] 1.95 (2017) Molson Coors Brewing Canada
Kruger[13] 1.83 (2017) Kruger, KP TISSUE Canada
DeGasperis[13] 1.67 (2017) ConDrain Canada
Samuel[13] 1.59 (2017) Samuel, Son & Co., Samuel Manu-Tech Canada
Greenberg[13] 1.58 (2017) Minto Group Canada
Latner[13] 1.12 (2017) L Group, Dynacare Canada
Kapsch[9] Georg Kapsch 1.08 (euros, 2014) Kapsch AG Austria
Tieck[46] 1.07 (2013) Investment, property Australia
Leon[13] 1.06 (2017) Leon's Furniture Canada
Hasenfratz[13] 1.06 (2017) Linamar Canada
Palmers[9] Christian Palmers 1.05 (euros, 2014) Palmers Textil AG Austria
Duisik-Tott-Höfer[9] Hans Duisik, Maurizio Tott, Helga Dujsik, Christian Höfer 1.05 (euros, 2014) Shopping City Süd Austria
Doppelmayr[9] 1.02 (euros, 2014) Cable cars, ski lifts Austria
Al Fahim[39] 1 (2017) Diversified, inheritance United Arab Emirates
Al Subeaei[39] 1 (2017) Diversified, self-made Saudi Arabia
Magomedov[2] Magomed Magomedov, Ziyaudin Magomedov 1 (2016) Diversified Russia
Bakhresa[34] 1 (2017) Tanzania

Historical[edit]

Excluding royal dynasties and land-owning aristocracy, the wealthiest families since the emergence of banking and early capitalism in the Italian Renaissance were:[citation needed]


References[edit]

  1. ^ Billion-Dollar Bloodlines: America's Richest Families 2015
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "The richest Russian family clans – 2016". Crime Russia. Retrieved April 2, 2018.
  3. ^ John Pitman, Cristina von Zeppelin, Chandrani Ghosh, David Armstrong, The Dynasties, Forbes, 28 February 2002. "The names are famous and often synonymous with great brands, from spaghetti to tires; those who bear them are without question fabulously wealthy. Yet the Rothschilds, Rockefellers, Michelins and 35 other billionaire families don't appear on the Forbes World's Richest People list. Why not? It's a question of degrees. We have tried to distinguish between fortunes that belong to individuals or nuclear families, and those that have been passed down through more than one branch of the family tree and are often shared by dozens of heirs."
  4. ^ Note: The Rothschild family is one of the world's richest families [1], accumulating wealth since their rise in the 19th century, which is now divided among a web of descendants. However, the ownership structure is often opaque, which makes it hard to estimate the family wealth, and there have been controversial, often conspiratorial attempts to do so. Sources: "The Rothschilds’ family fortune", Financial Times, 25 March 2010, and "FACT CHECK: Rothschild Family Wealth, Snopes
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Trillion Dollar Inheritance: The World's Biggest Family Fortunes". Bloomberg. Retrieved August 25, 2018.
  6. ^ Hanbury, Mary (2018-02-24). "MEET THE WALTONS: How America's wealthiest family spends its Walmart fortune". Business Insider. Retrieved 2018-03-09.
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  9. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Austria's 33 Richest Families Worth €120bn". Advantage Austria. July 31, 2014. Retrieved September 24, 2018.
  10. ^ Approximately (euro to dollar conversion rate as of September 2018 https://www.xe.com/currencyconverter/convert/?Amount=44.8&From=EUR&To=USD
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  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u "America's Richest Families".
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x "Canada's Richest People: The Complete Top 100 Ranking (2017)". Canadian Business - Your Source For Business News. December 7, 2016. Retrieved April 4, 2018.
  14. ^ Zeveloff, Julie (2012-03-05). "MOVE OVER, FORBES: Here Are The Real 20 Richest People In The World". Business Insider. Retrieved 2018-02-26.
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an "Asia's Richest Families 2017: The Billion-Dollar Clans Ruling The Region". Forbes. 2017-11-14. Retrieved 2018-02-22. Official list.
  16. ^ Today, approximately one thousand family members co-owns the holding company Association Familiale Mulliez, with 600 cousins of the Mulliez family becoming millionaires as a result. [2]
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  27. ^ "Rich list 2016 reveals steel magnate's fortune drop". BBC News. 24 April 2016. Retrieved 7 February 2017.
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  29. ^ "Revealed! These are some of the richest and most powerful families in the whole of Africa". INFORMATION NIGERIA. 2017-11-09. Retrieved 2018-02-23.
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  38. ^ "Texas billionaire Harold Simmons' heirs save some money on taxes".
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  40. ^ "Medtech's Billionaires: #1 The Stryker Family and John Brown - MDDI Medical Device and Diagnostic Industry News Products and Suppliers". Quote: Sibling heirs Ronda ($3.7B), Pat ($2.2B), and Jon Stryker ($1.93B) ... all became wealthy through Kalamazoo, MI-based Stryker Corp.
  41. ^ "Forbes List". Ranking Interesting Facts About Africa. 2017-01-01. Retrieved 2018-02-23.
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  43. ^ "Stef Wertheimer". Bloomberg.com. 2016-01-01. Retrieved 2018-02-26.
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  47. ^ de Roover, Raymond Adrien (1966), The rise and decline of the Medici Bank: 1397–1494, New York City; Toronto: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc.; George J. McLeod Limited (respectively), LCCN 63-11417
  48. ^ Daniel Eckert,So wurde Jakob Fugger zum reichsten Menschen der Historie ("This is how Jakob Fugger became the wealthiest person in history"), Die Welt, 6 June 2016 (in German). "Auf heutige Verhältnisse hochgerechnet läge das Vermögen des Bauernenkels bei unglaublichen 400 Milliarden Dollar (354 Milliarden Euro). In die Nähe dieses Wertes kamen nur die Rothschilds, die in ihrer Glanzzeit im 19. Jahrhundert die mächtigste Bankiersfamilie der Welt waren" ("Adjusted to current-day conditions, the net worth of the farmer's grandson would be close to astonishing 400 billion dollars (354 billion Euro). Only the Rothschild family, at their peak in the 19th century the most powerful family of bankers, came close to such a figure."
  49. ^ Niall Ferguson, The Ascent of Money (2008), p. 88: "Between 1818 and 1852, the combined capital of the five Rothschild 'houses' (Frankfurt, London, Naples, Paris and Vienna) rose from £1.8 million to £9.5 million. As early as 1825 their combined capital was nine times greater than that of Baring Brothers and the Banque de France. By 1899, at £41 million, it exceeded the capital of the five biggest German joint-stock banks put together."
  50. ^ The company admitted the first partner who was not a family member in 1912, and Henry Goldman resigned in 1917. William D. Cohan, Money and Power: How Goldman Sachs Came to Rule the World (2012).

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