A windmill is a structure that converts the energy of wind into rotational energy by means of vanes called sails or blades. Centuries ago, windmills were used to mill grain, pump water, or both. There are windmills; the majority of modern windmills take the form of wind turbines used to generate electricity, or windpumps used to pump water, either for land drainage or to extract groundwater. Windmills first appeared in Persia in the 9th century AD, were independently invented in Europe; the windwheel of the Greek engineer Hero of Alexandria in the first century is the earliest known instance of using a wind-driven wheel to power a machine. Another early example of a wind-driven wheel was the prayer wheel, used in Tibet and China since the fourth century; the first practical windmills had sails. According to Ahmad Y. al-Hassan, these panemone windmills were invented in eastern Persia, or Khorasan, as recorded by the Persian geographer Estakhri in the ninth century. The authenticity of an earlier anecdote of a windmill involving the second caliph Umar is questioned on the grounds that it appears in a tenth-century document.
Made of six to 12 sails covered in reed matting or cloth material, these windmills were used to grind grain or draw up water, were quite different from the European vertical windmills. Windmills were in widespread use across the Middle East and Central Asia, spread to China and India from there. A similar type of horizontal windmill with rectangular blades, used for irrigation, can be found in thirteenth-century China, introduced by the travels of Yelü Chucai to Turkestan in 1219. Horizontal windmills were built, in small numbers, in Europe during the 18th and nineteenth centuries, for example Fowler's Mill at Battersea in London, Hooper's Mill at Margate in Kent; these early modern examples seem not to have been directly influenced by the horizontal windmills of the Middle and Far East, but to have been independent inventions by engineers influenced by the Industrial Revolution. Due to a lack of evidence, debate occurs among historians as to whether or not Middle Eastern horizontal windmills triggered the original development of European windmills.
In northwestern Europe, the horizontal-axis or vertical windmill is believed to date from the twelfth and thirteenth centuries in the triangle of northern France, eastern England and Flanders. The earliest certain reference to a windmill in Europe dates from 1185, in the former village of Weedley in Yorkshire, located at the southern tip of the Wold overlooking the Humber Estuary. A number of earlier, but less dated, twelfth-century European sources referring to windmills have been found; these earliest mills were used to grind cereals. The evidence at present is that the earliest type of European windmill was the post mill, so named because of the large upright post on which the mill's main structure is balanced. By mounting the body this way, the mill is able to rotate to face the wind direction; the body contains all the milling machinery. The first post mills were of the sunken type, where the post was buried in an earth mound to support it. A wooden support was developed called the trestle.
This was covered over or surrounded by a roundhouse to protect the trestle from the weather and to provide storage space. This type of windmill was the most common in Europe until the nineteenth century, when more powerful tower and smock mills replaced them. In a hollow-post mill, the post on which the body is mounted is hollowed out, to accommodate the drive shaft; this makes it possible to drive machinery below or outside the body while still being able to rotate the body into the wind. Hollow-post mills driving scoop wheels were used in the Netherlands to drain wetlands from the fourteenth century onwards. By the end of the thirteenth century, the masonry tower mill, on which only the cap is rotated rather than the whole body of the mill, had been introduced; the spread of tower mills came with a growing economy that called for larger and more stable sources of power, though they were more expensive to build. In contrast to the post mill, only the cap of the tower mill needs to be turned into the wind, so the main structure can be made much taller, allowing the sails to be made longer, which enables them to provide useful work in low winds.
The cap can be turned into the wind either by winches or gearing inside the cap or from a winch on the tail pole outside the mill. A method of keeping the cap and sails into the wind automatically is by using a fantail, a small windmill mounted at right angles to the sails, at the rear of the windmill; these are fitted to tail poles of post mills and are common in Great Britain and English-speaking countries of the former British Empire and Germany but rare in other places. Around some parts of the Mediterranean Sea, tower mills with fixed caps were built because the wind's direction varied little most of the time; the smock mill is a development of the tower mill, where the masonry tower is replaced by a wooden framework, called the "smock", thatched, boarded or covered by other materials, such as slate, sheet metal, or tar paper. The smock is of octagonal plan, though there are examples with different numbers of sides; the lighter weight than tower mills make smock mills practical as drainage mills, which had t
Golden is a village in Adams County, United States. The population was 644 at the 2010 census, it is part of the IL -- MO Micropolitan Statistical Area. Golden is located at 40°6′35″N 91°1′7″W. According to the 2010 census, Golden has a total area of all land. Golden was established in 1862 under the name of Keokuk Junction; as of the census of 2000, there were 629 people, 257 households, 163 families residing in the village. The population density was 1,000.9 people per square mile. There were 280 housing units at an average density of 445.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 100.00% White. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.16% of the population. There were 257 households out of which 29.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.4% were married couples living together, 5.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.2% were non-families. 35.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.28 and the average family size was 2.92. In the village, the population was spread out with 23.4% under the age of 18, 5.1% from 18 to 24, 26.7% from 25 to 44, 17.2% from 45 to 64, 27.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 80.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.5 males. The median income for a household in the village was $34,333, the median income for a family was $41,181. Males had a median income of $30,761 versus $19,034 for females; the per capita income for the village was $16,518. About 3.5% of families and 3.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.5% of those under age 18 and 5.1% of those age 65 or over. Prairie Mills Windmill history The Windmills of Golden, IL Ebenezer Methodist Episcopal Chapel and Cemetery Exchange Bank Early history of Golden The Prairie Mills Windmill, Golden Historical Society
Addison is a village located in the Chicago Metropolitan Area, in DuPage County, United States. The population was 36,942 at the 2010 census; the community itself was named Dunkley's Grove after the settler Hezekiah Dunklee, was renamed after a town in England or Addison, New York. Adventureland amusement park was located in Addison during the 1970s; the Addison Industrial District was the proposed location for the reconstruction of Comiskey Park in the late 1980s before this was voted down. The Village of Addison lies on a tributary of the Des Plaines River. Addison is located at 41°55′54″N 88°0′8″W. According to the 2010 census, Addison has a total area of 9.98 square miles, of which 9.77 square miles is land and 0.21 square miles is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 35,914 people, 11,649 households, 9,097 families residing in the village; the population density was 3,807.6 people per square mile. There were 11,805 housing units at an average density of 1,251.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 75.39% White, 2.51% African American, 0.35% Native American, 7.94% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 11.39% from other races, 2.40% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 28.40% of the population. There were 11,649 households out of which 38.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 62.7% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.9% were non-families. 16.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.07 and the average family size was 3.46. In the village, the population was spread out with 26.2% under the age of 18, 11.3% from 18 to 24, 32.0% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, 8.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 32 years. For every 100 females, there were 103.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 102.8 males. The median income for a household in the village was $54,090, the median income for a family was $59,007. Males had a median income of $39,718 versus $27,815 for females; the per capita income for the village was $21,201.
9.6% of the population and 7.2% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 13.2% of those under the age of 18 and 7.3% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line. Addison is home to Indian Trail Junior High School; the Elementary schools are: Wesley Elementary, Lake Park Elementary, Fullerton Elementary, Army Trail Elementary, Lincoln Elementary and Stone Elementary. St. Philip the Apostle, a private Catholic school and parish, is located in Addison and serves students from pre-kindergarten through 8th grade. Driscoll Catholic High School was located in Addison before closing in 2009. DeVry University and Chamberlain College of Nursing call Addison home. Another public place in Addison for education is the Addison Public Library, it offers thousands of books to residents, as well as computer privileges and various educational, creative and technical skill classes. According to Addison's 2018 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the city were: Rich Veenstra is the Mayor of Addison.
Other elected officials include Village Trustees Sam Nasti, Harry Theodore, Tom Hundley, Bill Lynch, Cathy Kluczny and Joe McDermott, Village Clerk Lucille Zucchero. The town of Triggiano, Italy is the sister city of Addison. Addison is located in Illinois's 8th congressional district, represented by Raja Krishnamoorthi. In the Illinois Senate it is Representative by Tom Cullerton. In the Illinois House of Representatives it is represented by Christine Winger, Deb Conroy. and Kathleen Willis. Mark Anelli, former tight end for the San Francisco 49ers and St. Louis Rams. Tim Breslin, professional hockey player, he played left wing for the Chicago Wolves. Jim Ellison, founder of the legendary Power Pop band, Material Issue, along with Ted Ansani and Mike Zelenko. Jamie Freveletti, author of the Covert-One series novels The Geneva Strategy. Bobby Hull, Hockey Hall of Fame inductee, he lived in Addison from 1963-1971. George Ireland, men's basketball coach who led the Loyola Ramblers to win the 1963 NCAA championship.
He died in Addison. Kyle Kinane, stand-up comedian and actor, he is a graduate of Addison Trail High School. Hubert J. Loftus and politician Tony Pasquesi, defensive lineman for the Chicago Cardinals from 1955-1957, he was a resident of Addison at the time of his death. Rob Renzetti and creator of My Life as a Teenage Robot, he was raised in Addison. Mike Retondo, bassist for the Plain White T's. Mark Rodenhauser, an American football player who played center for seven NFL teams from 1987 to 1999, he played football at Addison Trail High School. Alexa Scimeca Knierim, pair skater and winner of the 2015 U. S. Figure Skating Championships with her then-fiancé Chris Knierim, she is a graduate of Addison Trail High School. Rocco Sisto, actor best known for playing young Junior Soprano on The Sopranos. Leon Spinks, boxer, he resided in Addison after his retirement from boxing. Lina Trivedi, involved with creation of, she was raised in Addison where she lived for most of her school-age and young-adult life, is a graduate of Addison Trail H
Burnt Prairie, Illinois
Burnt Prairie is a village in White County, United States. The population was 58 at the 2000 census. Burnt Prairie is located at 38°15′5″N 88°15′28″W. According to the 2010 census, Burnt Prairie has a total area of all land; as of the census of 2000, there were 58 people, 31 households, 15 families residing in the village. The population density was 728.3 people per square mile. There were 43 housing units at an average density of 539.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 100.00% White. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.72% of the population. There were 31 households out of which 16.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.2% were married couples living together, 3.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 48.4% were non-families. 41.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 32.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.87 and the average family size was 2.50. In the village, the population was spread out with 12.1% under the age of 18, 12.1% from 18 to 24, 20.7% from 25 to 44, 29.3% from 45 to 64, 25.9% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 53 years. For every 100 females, there were 87.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.9 males. The median income for a household in the village was $18,125, the median income for a family was $23,750. Males had a median income of $33,750 versus $23,750 for females; the per capita income for the village was $14,572. There were 18.2% of families and 28.3% of the population living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and 33.3% of those over 64. Burnt Prairie Homepage
Fort de Chartres
Fort de Chartres was a French fortification first built in 1720 on the east bank of the Mississippi River in present-day Illinois. It was used as an administrative center for the province. Due to river floods, the fort was rebuilt twice, the last time in limestone in the 1750s in the era of French colonial control over Louisiana and the Illinois Country. A partial reconstruction exists of this last fort; the site is now preserved as an Illinois state park and is four miles west of Prairie du Rocher in Randolph County, Illinois. It is south of Missouri in the floodplain area that became known as the American Bottom; the site and its associated buildings were placed on the National Register of Historic Places and recognized as a National Historic Landmark on October 15, 1966, it was named one of the contributing properties to the new French Colonial Historic District in 1974, along with other area French-influenced sites such as the Creole House, the Pierre Menard House, the Kolmer Site, the site of Fort Kaskaskia.
The name of the fort honored son of the Regent of France. The fort's stone magazine, which survived the gradual ruin that overtook the rest of the site, is considered the oldest building in the state of Illinois; the state historic site today hosts several large re-enactments at the fort of colonial-era civil and military life each summer. On January 1, 1718, the French government granted a trade monopoly to John Law and his Company of the West. Hoping to make a fortune mining precious metals, the company built a fort to protect its interests; the original wooden fort was built in 1718–1720 by a French contingent from New Orleans, led by Pierre Dugué de Boisbriand. When administration of the Illinois Country was moved from Canada to New Orleans, governance was transferred to the Company of the Indies; the fort was built to be the seat of government and to control the Indians of the region the Fox. The original fort was a palisade of logs with two bastions at opposite corners. Within five years, flooding from the Mississippi had left the original fort in bad condition.
Construction of a second fort further from the river, but still on the flood plain, began in 1725. This fort was made of logs and had a bastion at each of the four corners; the second wooden fort deteriorated somewhat less but by 1742 was in bad repair. In 1747 the French garrison moved to the region's primary settlement 18 miles to the south at Kaskaskia; the French debated. When rule of the area reverted to the French crown in the 1730s, officials began to discuss construction of a stone fortress; the government in New Orleans wanted to move the garrison permanently to Kaskaskia, but the local commandant argued for a location near the original site. The government decided to rebuild a fort in stone near the first forts rather than at Kaskakia. Construction began in 1753 and was completed in 1756; the limestone fort had walls 15-ft - 3-ft - thick, enclosing an area of 4 acres. The stone for construction was quarried in bluffs about two or three miles distant and had to be ferried across a small lake.
In 1763 the Treaty of Paris was signed following the Seven Years' War and the French transferred control of the Illinois Country east of the Mississippi to Great Britain. The stone fort had served as center of French administration of the region for only twenty years; the British had difficulty getting a regiment to their newly acquired fort, but on October 10, 1765, a small detachment of the 42nd Royal Highland Regiment commanded by Captain Thomas Stirling took control of the fort and surrounding area. The 42nd was shortly replaced by the 34th Regiment. French Canadian settlers were ordered to get a special license to remain. Many Canadien settlers moved to the more congenial culture of St. Louis; the 34th Regiment of Foot renamed the installation Fort Cavendish, after its colonel. However, the post was known as Ft. Chartres from 1768 on, after the 34th were replaced by the 18th Regiment under the command of Lt. Col. Wilkins; the British abandoned the post in May 1772 when the majority of the 18th Regiment was ordered back to Philadelphia.
A small party under Capt Hugh Lord remained at Kaskaskia until May 1776. The Mississippi continued to take its toll. In 1772 the south wall and bastion fell into the river; the remaining walls deteriorated, visitors noted trees growing in them by the 1820s. Locals carted away stones for construction over the years. By 1900 the walls were gone; the only part of the original fort that remained was the stone building that had served as the powder magazine. The State of Illinois acquired the ruins in 1913 as a historic site and restored the powder magazine in 1917; the powder magazine is thought to be the oldest existing building in the state of Illinois. In the 1920s the foundations of the fort's buildings and walls were exposed. In the late 1920s and through the 1930s, the US WPA rebuilt two stone buildings. A combination museum and office building, constructed in 1928 on the foundation of an original fort building, houses exhibits depicting French life at Fort de Chartres; the large stone "Guards House," reconstructed in 1936, contains a Catholic chapel furnished in the style of the 1750s, along with a priest's room, a gunner's room, an officer-of-the-day room, a guard's room.
On the grounds are an operating bake oven, a garden shed built of upright logs in French
Peotone is a village in Will County, United States. The population was 4,142 at the 2010 census, an increase from 3,385 in 2000; the city is about 43 miles south of Chicago. The city is home to the Peotone High School Blue Devils. Peotone is a name derived from the Potawatomi language meaning "come here". Downtown Peotone Historic District Peotone Mill Peotone is located at 41°19′46″N 87°47′42″W. According to the 2010 census, Peotone has a total area of 1.873 square miles, of which 1.87 square miles is land and 0.003 square miles is water. Main roads are Illinois Route 50, Interstate 57, Wilmington-Peotone Road, Rathje Road, Joliet Road. Peotone is about nine miles west of Beecher, six miles north of Manteno, six miles south of Monee and is 20 miles east of Wilmington; as of the census of 2000, there were 3,385 people, 1,268 households, 930 families residing in the village. The population density was 2,232.4 people per square mile. There were 1,299 housing units at an average density of 856.7 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the village was 97.93% White, 0.27% African American, 0.06% Native American, 0.47% Asian, 0.30% from other races, 0.97% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.36% of the population. There were 1,268 households out of which 37.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.1% were married couples living together, 10.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.6% were non-families. 22.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.17. In the village, the population was spread out with 27.9% under the age of 18, 8.0% from 18 to 24, 29.3% from 25 to 44, 23.2% from 45 to 64, 11.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 93.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.7 males. The median income for a household in the village was $56,404, the median income for a family was $61,768.
Males had a median income of $47,500 versus $26,636 for females. The per capita income for the village was $23,415. About 0.7% of families and 0.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 0.9% of those under age 18 and 3.5% of those age 65 or over. Peotone Elementary School, located in town Peotone, serves kindergarten through 3rd grade. Peotone Intermediate Center Green Garden Elementary School in Green Garden Township, serves 4th and 5th grades; the Connor Shaw Center is home to the Pre-K Center. Peotone Junior High School serves grades six through eight, has been located in the former Peotone High School building since the 2001-2002 school year. Several referendums have been orchestrated to build a new sports complex at the new high school, but have failed. In 2000, a new high school was built on the northwest side of Peotone. While the school was designed for a capacity of 600 students, its student enrollment for the 2010-2011 fiscal year was 687; the school mascot of all schools, from elementary through high school, is the Blue Devil.
As of 2008, Peotone schools had a total enrollment of 2,107 students in kindergarten through 12th grade. In 2014, the Peotone School Board, in a 4-3 vote, decided to close the Wilton Center Elementary School in Wilton Township; the remaining elementary schools were reformatted to grade centers. Peotone has long been the proposed site of a new airport to serve the Chicago area; as is the case with the construction of airports, the proposal is controversial. In 1967, the Chicago Tribune ran several editorials regarding the need for a third airport in Peotone. Proponents point out that the existing facilities at O'Hare and Midway airports cannot meet the transportation needs of the Chicago area, that the development will bring economic prosperity to Chicago Southland, an area deprived of economic development, as well as the rest of the state. Politicians backing plans include former Governor Rod Blagojevich. Congressman Jerry Weller, the former representative of the district in which the airport would be located, Will County Executive Larry Walsh.
The efforts were supported by then-state senator Barack Obama. Opponents to the plan are concerned about the environmental disruption that would be caused by new airport construction and the roads that would be needed to support it, they point out that Gary/Chicago International Airport in Gary, Indiana exists, is closer to Chicago than Peotone, is undergoing expansion to support heavier use with minimal environmental impact. Politicians opposing the Peotone airport plan include former Chicago Mayor Richard M. Daley, former Gary Mayor Scott King, Indiana Governor Mitch Daniels, Representative Pete Visclosky from Indiana. Former Representative Jesse Jackson, Jr. was the head of a private group in Cook County looking to take ownership of the proposed airport. A state-backed IDOT plan is more friendly to the citizens of the actual footprint of the proposed airport by giving local control of the airport to Will County officials instead. In the science-fiction novel The Boy Who Would Live Forever, the fifth in the Gateway series, Frederik Pohl has a character fly out of "Peotone International Airport".
The late Pohl lived in Illinois. Village of Peotone, Illinois
Chicago the City of Chicago, is the most populous city in Illinois, as well as the third most populous city in the United States. With an estimated population of 2,716,450, it is the most populous city in the Midwest. Chicago is the principal city of the Chicago metropolitan area referred to as Chicagoland, the county seat of Cook County, the second most populous county in the United States; the metropolitan area, at nearly 10 million people, is the third-largest in the United States, the fourth largest in North America and the third largest metropolitan area in the world by land area. Located on the shores of freshwater Lake Michigan, Chicago was incorporated as a city in 1837 near a portage between the Great Lakes and the Mississippi River watershed and grew in the mid-nineteenth century. After the Great Chicago Fire of 1871, which destroyed several square miles and left more than 100,000 homeless, the city made a concerted effort to rebuild; the construction boom accelerated population growth throughout the following decades, by 1900 Chicago was the fifth largest city in the world.
Chicago made noted contributions to urban planning and zoning standards, including new construction styles, the development of the City Beautiful Movement, the steel-framed skyscraper. Chicago is an international hub for finance, commerce, technology, telecommunications, transportation, it is the site of the creation of the first standardized futures contracts at the Chicago Board of Trade, which today is the largest and most diverse derivatives market gobally, generating 20% of all volume in commodities and financial futures. O'Hare International Airport is the one of the busiest airports in the world, the region has the largest number of U. S. highways and greatest amount of railroad freight. In 2012, Chicago was listed as an alpha global city by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, it ranked seventh in the entire world in the 2017 Global Cities Index; the Chicago area has one of the highest gross domestic products in the world, generating $680 billion in 2017. In addition, the city has one of the world's most diversified and balanced economies, not being dependent on any one industry, with no single industry employing more than 14% of the workforce.
Chicago's 58 million domestic and international visitors in 2018, made it the second most visited city in the nation, behind New York City's approximate 65 million visitors. The city ranked first place in the 2018 Time Out City Life Index, a global quality of life survey of 15,000 people in 32 cities. Landmarks in the city include Millennium Park, Navy Pier, the Magnificent Mile, the Art Institute of Chicago, Museum Campus, the Willis Tower, Grant Park, the Museum of Science and Industry, Lincoln Park Zoo. Chicago's culture includes the visual arts, film, comedy and music jazz, soul, hip-hop and electronic dance music including house music. Of the area's many colleges and universities, the University of Chicago, Northwestern University, the University of Illinois at Chicago are classified as "highest research" doctoral universities. Chicago has professional sports teams in each of the major professional leagues, including two Major League Baseball teams; the name "Chicago" is derived from a French rendering of the indigenous Miami-Illinois word shikaakwa for a wild relative of the onion, known to botanists as Allium tricoccum and known more as ramps.
The first known reference to the site of the current city of Chicago as "Checagou" was by Robert de LaSalle around 1679 in a memoir. Henri Joutel, in his journal of 1688, noted that the eponymous wild "garlic" grew abundantly in the area. According to his diary of late September 1687:...when we arrived at the said place called "Chicagou" which, according to what we were able to learn of it, has taken this name because of the quantity of garlic which grows in the forests in this region. The city has had several nicknames throughout its history such as the Windy City, Chi-Town, Second City, the City of the Big Shoulders, which refers to the city's numerous skyscrapers and high-rises. In the mid-18th century, the area was inhabited by a Native American tribe known as the Potawatomi, who had taken the place of the Miami and Sauk and Fox peoples; the first known non-indigenous permanent settler in Chicago was Jean Baptiste Point du Sable. Du Sable arrived in the 1780s, he is known as the "Founder of Chicago".
In 1795, following the Northwest Indian War, an area, to be part of Chicago was turned over to the United States for a military post by native tribes in accordance with the Treaty of Greenville. In 1803, the United States Army built Fort Dearborn, destroyed in 1812 in the Battle of Fort Dearborn and rebuilt; the Ottawa and Potawatomi tribes had ceded additional land to the United States in the 1816 Treaty of St. Louis; the Potawatomi were forcibly removed from their land after the Treaty of Chicago in 1833. On August 12, 1833, the Town of Chicago was organized with a population of about 200. Within seven years it grew to more than 4,000 people. On June 15, 1835, the first public land sales began with Edmund Dick Taylor as U. S. Receiver of Public Monies; the City of Chicago was incorporated on Saturday, March 4, 1837, for several decades was the world's fastest-growing city. As the site of the Chicago Portage, the city became an important transportation hub between the eastern and western United States.
Chicago's first railway and Chicago Union Railroad, the Illi