New Zealand is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses—the North Island, the South Island —and around 600 smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 2,000 kilometres east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and 1,000 kilometres south of the Pacific island areas of New Caledonia and Tonga; because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans. During its long period of isolation, New Zealand developed a distinct biodiversity of animal and plant life; the country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks, such as the Southern Alps, owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions. New Zealand's capital city is Wellington. Sometime between 1250 and 1300, Polynesians settled in the islands that were named New Zealand and developed a distinctive Māori culture. In 1642, Dutch explorer Abel Tasman became the first European to sight New Zealand. In 1840, representatives of the United Kingdom and Māori chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi, which declared British sovereignty over the islands.
In 1841, New Zealand became a colony within the British Empire and in 1907 it became a dominion. Today, the majority of New Zealand's population of 4.9 million is of European descent. Reflecting this, New Zealand's culture is derived from Māori and early British settlers, with recent broadening arising from increased immigration; the official languages are English, Māori, NZ Sign Language, with English being dominant. A developed country, New Zealand ranks in international comparisons of national performance, such as quality of life, education, protection of civil liberties, economic freedom. New Zealand underwent major economic changes during the 1980s, which transformed it from a protectionist to a liberalised free-trade economy; the service sector dominates the national economy, followed by the industrial sector, agriculture. Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, led by the prime minister Jacinda Ardern.
Queen Elizabeth II is the country's monarch and is represented by a governor-general Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, New Zealand is organised into 11 regional councils and 67 territorial authorities for local government purposes; the Realm of New Zealand includes Tokelau. New Zealand is a member of the United Nations, Commonwealth of Nations, ANZUS, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, ASEAN Plus Six, Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Pacific Community and the Pacific Islands Forum. Dutch explorer Abel Tasman sighted New Zealand in 1642 and named it Staten Land "in honour of the States General", he wrote, "it is possible that this land joins to the Staten Land but it is uncertain", referring to a landmass of the same name at the southern tip of South America, discovered by Jacob Le Maire in 1616. In 1645, Dutch cartographers renamed the land Nova Zeelandia after the Dutch province of Zeeland. British explorer James Cook subsequently anglicised the name to New Zealand. Aotearoa is the current Māori name for New Zealand.
It is unknown whether Māori had a name for the whole country before the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa referring to just the North Island. Māori had several traditional names for the two main islands, including Te Ika-a-Māui for the North Island and Te Waipounamu or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island. Early European maps labelled the islands North and South. In 1830, maps began to use North and South to distinguish the two largest islands and by 1907 this was the accepted norm; the New Zealand Geographic Board discovered in 2009 that the names of the North Island and South Island had never been formalised, names and alternative names were formalised in 2013. This set the names as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, South Island or Te Waipounamu. For each island, either its English or Māori name can be used. New Zealand was one of the last major landmasses settled by humans. Radiocarbon dating, evidence of deforestation and mitochondrial DNA variability within Māori populations suggest New Zealand was first settled by Eastern Polynesians between 1250 and 1300, concluding a long series of voyages through the southern Pacific islands.
Over the centuries that followed, these settlers developed a distinct culture now known as Māori. The population was divided into iwi and hapū who would sometimes cooperate, sometimes compete and sometimes fight against each other. At some point a group of Māori migrated to Rēkohu, now known as the Chatham Islands, where they developed their distinct Moriori culture; the Moriori population was all but wiped out between 1835 and 1862 because of Taranaki Māori invasion and enslavement in the 1830s, although European diseases contributed. In 1862 only 101 survived, the last known full-blooded Moriori died in 1933; the first Europeans known to have reached New Zeala
Paul Kibii Tergat is a Kenyan former professional long distance runner. He became the first Kenyan to set the world record in the marathon from 2003 to 2007, with a time of 2:04:55, is regarded as one of the most accomplished long-distance runners of all time. Runnerworld called him the "Most comprehensive runner of all time". Towards the end of his career he concentrated on the marathon. Tergat won many titles and set several world records on the track, in cross country, on the road, he trains in Eldoret. Paul Tergat was born on 17 June 1969 in Baringo District, in Kenya's Rift Valley Province, he attended Riwo Primary school and joined Kapkawa Boys High School. Unlike many athletes, Tergat realised his talent after graduating high school. Tergat won five straight IAAF World Cross Country Championships titles, 1995 to 1999, a record. Says Tergat, "Cross country is what I always liked most, it was my passion. Before the IAAF introduced the short course in 1998, all the world class athletes from 1500 m to the marathon were in the same race."
He won the Lisbon Half Marathon in 2000, setting a new course record and personal best of 59:06. He won the race again in 2005 with a time of 59:10. Tergat's achievements include 5 victories in the traditional Saint Silvester Road Race, the most important event in Latin American street racing, he holds the record for the present 15 km distance, which he established in 1995. His performances in the Saint Silvester race have earned him celebrity status in Brazil, he has had an intense rivalry with his friend Haile Gebrselassie of Ethiopia. In the Olympic Games 10,000m finals of both 1996 Atlanta Olympics and 2000 Sydney Olympics, he was defeated by Gebrselassie by slim margins. In 2000, the margin of victory was only nine hundredths of a second. Tergat finished second to Gebrselassie in the 1997 and 1999 World Championships in Athletics at 10,000 m, finished third in the 1995 version of that race, behind Gebrselassie and Moroccan Khalid Skah. On the track, Tergat broke Gebrselassie's 10,000-metre world record on 22 August 1997 in Brussels with a time 26:27.85 minutes.
The record was broken again by Gebrselassie in 1998. On the road, Tergat broke the half marathon world record on 4 April 1998 in Milan by running in 59:17 minutes; the previous record, 59:47 minutes was set by Moses Tanui in 1993. Tergat's world record was broken in 2005 by another Kenyan; when Tergat raced Gebrselassie in the London Marathon in 2002, it was Tergat. The three runners raced again in the 2007 version with Tergat being the only one of them to finish, he became an IOC member at the 125th IOC Session in Buenos Aires in September 2013. Tergat finished second in his first three marathons: London Marathon in 2001 and 2002 and Chicago Marathon in 2001, he continued marathoning by two fourth places: Chicago 2002 and London 2003. He set the marathon world record of 2:04:55, on 28 September 2003 at the Berlin Marathon; that is 0:04:46 per mile. In his world record race, Tergat badly abraded his foot, he said it felt like the sole of his shoe fell off. He took a momentary wrong turn near the finish.
Tergat's countryman Sammy Korir, a pacesetter for the race, nearly caught up to him. Korir took second place in 2:04:56 the second-fastest marathon performance in history. Tergat's world record was broken in 2007 by Haile Gebrselassie of Ethiopia. Tergat's time remained the Kenyan record until 2009, when winner Duncan Kibet and 2nd placed James Kwambai both timed 2:04:27 at the Rotterdam MarathonTergat won the New York City Marathon 6 November 2005, in a thrilling sprint finish through New York's Central Park, prevailing over defending champion Hendrick Ramaala 2:09:29.90 to 2:09:30.22.. That year, Tergat inaugurated the Baringo Half Marathon, setting up the professional race on a course near his home town. A week prior to the London Marathon on 23 April 2006, Tergat pulled a calf muscle. Calling the injury "cruel," he was forced to withdraw from the star-studded race, which would have featured a long-awaited showdown with Haile Gebrselassie; the race was won by Felix Limo of Kenya. Marílson Gomes dos Santos won the 2006 New York City Marathon.
Gomes made a move at mile 19 and Tergat did not respond, saying "I'll be honest, I didn't know who he was." Tergat closed the gap over the final five miles. Tergat finished sixth at the 2007 London Marathon in April 2007; the entry list was competitive, including Ethiopian legend Haile Gebrselassie, who dropped out just past the 30-K mark. Kenya's Martin Lel won the race after a dramatic, gutsy finish. On 30 September 2007 Ethiopian long distance runner Haile Gebrselassie broke Tergat's record marathon time of 2:04.55, finishing the Berlin Marathon in 2:04:26. Moments after finishing the race, Gebrselassie apologised to his friend Tergat for breaking the record, during a congratulatory phone call. Gebrselassie explained "I am sorry – this record belonged to Paul Tergat," Gebrselassie told a news conference when asked about the phone call. "Paul is my friend." He was not selected to represent Kenya. He finished 4th in the New York Marathon that year. In 2009, he won the Lake Biwa Marathon in Japan, timing 2:10:22.
In October 2009, he was the guest of honour at the relaunch of the Belgrade Race Through His
Marathon world record progression
This list is a chronological progression of record times for the marathon. World records in the marathon are now ratified by the International Association of Athletics Federations, the international governing body for the sport of athletics. Kenyan Eliud Kipchoge set a new world record for men of 2:01:39 on September 16, 2018, at the 2018 Berlin Marathon. Kipchoge ran the fastest marathon with a 2:00:25 clocking at the Nike Breaking2 race in Monza, Italy on May 6, 2017, but the IAAF says "times achieved in the race may not be eligible for official world record ratification should an application be made." The IAAF recognizes two world records for women, a time of 2:15:25 set by Paula Radcliffe on April 13, 2003 during the London Marathon, contested by men and women together, a "Women Only" record of 2:17:01, set by Mary Keitany, on April 23, 2017 at the London Marathon for women only. In order for a performance to be ratified as a world record by the IAAF, the marathon course on which the performance occurred must be 42.195 km long, measured in a defined manner using the calibrated bicycle method and meet other criteria that rule out artificially fast times produced on courses aided by downhill slope or tailwind.
The criteria include: "The start and finish points of a course, measured along a theoretical straight line between them, shall not be further apart than 50% of the race distance.""The decrease in elevation between the start and finish shall not exceed an average of one in a thousand, i.e. 1m per km."In recognizing Kenyan Geoffrey Mutai's mark of 2:03:02 at the 2011 Boston Marathon as "the fastest Marathon run", the IAAF said: "Due to the elevation drop and point-to-point measurements of the Boston course, performances are not eligible for World record consideration."Road racing events like the marathon were excepted from IAAF rule 260 18 that rejected from consideration those track and field performances set in mixed competition. The Association of Road Racing Statisticians, an independent organization that compiles data from road running events maintains an alternate marathon world best progression but with standards they consider to be more stringent. Performances claiming world best or world record status on "point-to-point" courses such as the Boston Marathon have been rejected by USA Track & Field.
Performances on these courses tailwinds. The IAAF Congress at 2011 World Championships in Athletics passed a motion changing the record eligibility criteria effective January 2012, so that women's world records must be set in all-women competitions; the result of the change was that Radcliffe's 2:17:42 performance at the 2005 London Marathon would supplant the existing women's mark as the "world record". The decision was met with strong protest in Britain, in November 2011 an IAAF council member reported that Radcliffe's original mark would be allowed to stand, with the eventual decision that both marks would be recognized as "world records," the faster one as a "Mixed Gender" mark, the other as a "Women Only" mark. In December 2016, Inc. announced that three top distance runners—Eliud Kipchoge, Zersenay Tadese and Lelisa Desisa—had agreed to forgo the spring marathon season to work with the company in an effort to run a sub-two-hour marathon, though a detailed plan to complete the marathon in 1:59:59 or faster was not released.
The Breaking2 event took place in the early morning of May 6, 2017. This time was more than two minutes faster than the world record, but was not an official world record. Among other factors, specialized pacers were used, entering the race midway to help Kipchoge keep up the pace. Marathon races were first held in 1896, but the distance was not standardized by the International Association of Athletics Federations until 1921; the actual distance for pre-1921 races varied from the present figure of 42.195 km. In qualifying races for the 1896 Summer Olympics, Greek runners Charilaos Vasilakos and Ioannis Lavrentis won the first two modern marathons. On April 10, 1896, Spiridon Louis of Greece won the first Olympic marathon in Athens, Greece in a time of 2:58:50. Three months British runner Len Hurst won the inaugural Paris to Conflans Marathon in a time of 2:31:30. In 1900, Hurst would better his time on the same course with a 2:26:28 performance. Shizo Kanakuri of Japan was reported to have set a world record of 2:32:45 in a November 1911 domestic qualification race for the 1912 Summer Olympics, but this performance was run over a distance of 40 km.
The first marathon over the now official distance was won by American Johnny Hayes at the 1908 Summer Olympics. It is possible that Stamata Revithi, who ran the 1896 Olympic course a day after Louis, is the first woman to run the modern marathon; the IAAF credits Violet Piercy's 1926 performance as the first woman to race what is now the standard marathon distance. Other "unofficial" performances have been reported to be world bests or world records over time. Although her performance is not recognized by the IAAF, Adrienne Beames from Australia is credited as the first woman to break the 3-hour barrier in the marathon. In the 1953 Boston Marathon, the top three male finishers were thought to have broken the standing world record, but Keizo Yamada's mark of 2:18:51 is now considered to have been set on a shor
New York City
The City of New York called either New York City or New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2017 population of 8,622,698 distributed over a land area of about 302.6 square miles, New York is the most densely populated major city in the United States. Located at the southern tip of the state of New York, the city is the center of the New York metropolitan area, the largest metropolitan area in the world by urban landmass and one of the world's most populous megacities, with an estimated 20,320,876 people in its 2017 Metropolitan Statistical Area and 23,876,155 residents in its Combined Statistical Area. A global power city, New York City has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, exerts a significant impact upon commerce, research, education, tourism, art and sports; the city's fast pace has inspired the term New York minute. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy.
Situated on one of the world's largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, each of, a separate county of the State of New York. The five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898; the city and its metropolitan area constitute the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. As many as 800 languages are spoken in New York, making it the most linguistically diverse city in the world. New York City is home to more than 3.2 million residents born outside the United States, the largest foreign-born population of any city in the world. In 2017, the New York metropolitan area produced a gross metropolitan product of US$1.73 trillion. If greater New York City were a sovereign state, it would have the 12th highest GDP in the world. New York is home to the highest number of billionaires of any city in the world. New York City traces its origins to a trading post founded by colonists from the Dutch Republic in 1624 on Lower Manhattan.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, the Duke of York. New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790, it has been the country's largest city since 1790. The Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the U. S. by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is an international symbol of the U. S. and its ideals of liberty and peace. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability, as a symbol of freedom and cultural diversity. Many districts and landmarks in New York City are well known, with the city having three of the world's ten most visited tourist attractions in 2013 and receiving a record 62.8 million tourists in 2017. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world. Times Square, iconic as the world's "heart" and its "Crossroads", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, a major center of the world's entertainment industry.
The names of many of the city's landmarks and parks are known around the world. Manhattan's real estate market is among the most expensive in the world. New York is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is the largest single-operator rapid transit system worldwide, with 472 rail stations. Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top universities in the world. Anchored by Wall Street in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York has been called both the most economically powerful city and the leading financial center of the world, the city is home to the world's two largest stock exchanges by total market capitalization, the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. In 1664, the city was named in honor of the Duke of York.
James's older brother, King Charles II, had appointed the Duke proprietor of the former territory of New Netherland, including the city of New Amsterdam, which England had seized from the Dutch. During the Wisconsinan glaciation, 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth; the erosive forward movement of the ice contributed to the separation of what is now Long Island and Staten Island. That action left bedrock at a shallow depth, providing a solid foundation for most of Manhattan's skyscrapers. In the precolonial era, the area of present-day New York City was inhabited by Algonquian Native Americans, including the Lenape, whose homeland, known as Lenapehoking, included Staten Island; the first documented visit into New York Harbor by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown. He named it Nouvelle Angoulême. A Spanish expedition led by captain Estêvão Gomes, a Portuguese sailing for Emperor Charles V, arrived in New York Harbor in January 1525 and charted the mouth of the Hudson River, which he named Río de San Antonio.
The Padrón Rea
New York City Marathon
The New York City Marathon is an annual marathon that courses through the five boroughs of New York City. It is the largest marathon in the world, with 52,812 finishers in 2018 and 98,247 applicants for the 2017 race. Along with the Boston Marathon and Chicago Marathon, it is among the pre-eminent long-distance annual running events in the United States and is one of the World Marathon Majors; the race is organized by New York Road Runners and has been run every year since 1970, with the exception of 2012, when it was cancelled due to the landfall of Hurricane Sandy. In past years, it has been sponsored by the financial group ING. In 2014, Tata Consultancy Services, a multinational information technology service and business solutions company headquartered in India, began an eight-year term as the title sponsor; the race is held on the first Sunday of November and attracts professional competitors and amateurs from all over the world. Because of the popularity of the race, participation is chosen by a lottery system.
Guaranteed entry to the marathon can be gained by satisfying the requirements of the 9+1 program or the 9+$1K program, having completed 15 or more previous NYC Marathons, or meeting time qualification standards. In addition, runners can gain an entry by joining a team to raise funds for one of a number of charities; the race was founded by Fred Lebow. Ted Corbitt helped plan the course of the New York City Marathon; the initial course of 1970 consisted of repeated racing around Central Park. From 1976, the course covers all five boroughs of New York City, it begins on Staten Island, in Fort Wadsworth, near the approach to the Verrazzano-Narrows Bridge. The bridge, which carries only vehicular traffic, is closed for the event. Runners use both sides of the westbound side of the lower level. In the opening minutes of the race, the bridge is filled with runners, creating a dramatic spectacle, associated with the event. After descending the bridge, the course winds through Brooklyn along Fourth Avenue and Bedford Avenue, for the next 11 miles.
Runners pass through a variety of neighborhoods, including: Bay Ridge, Sunset Park, Park Slope, Bedford-Stuyvesant and Greenpoint. At 13.1 miles, runners cross the Pulaski Bridge, marking the halfway point of the race and the entrance into Long Island City, Queens. After about 2.5 miles in Queens, runners cross the East River via the Queensboro Bridge into Manhattan. It is at this point in the race when many runners begin to tire, as the climb up the bridge is considered one of the most difficult points in the marathon. Reaching Manhattan after about 16 miles, the race proceeds north on First Avenue crosses into The Bronx via the Willis Avenue Bridge for one mile before returning to Manhattan via the Madison Avenue Bridge, it proceeds south through Harlem down Fifth Avenue and into Central Park. At the southern end of the park, the race proceeds along 59th Street/Central Park South, where thousands of spectators cheer runners on during the last mile. At Columbus Circle, the race finishes beside Tavern on the Green.
The time limit for this course is 8½ hours from the 10:10 a.m. start. In 2008, the race initiated a corral system. Professional women runners were given a separate, earlier start and the balance of the runners began in three staggered starts; the official times are those recorded by a computer chip attached to the back of the runner's bib number, which calculates when a runner crosses the start and when she crosses the finish, known as "net time". Runners pass timing mats at 5 km intervals along the course, e-mail notifications can be received by people following runners during the race to track their progress. Whereas the distance is the same, there are different courses taken through Bay Ridge and up Fourth Avenue in Brooklyn until the course reaches Lafayette Avenue in Brooklyn at Mile 8. Although the marathon publicity material uses miles, the timing mats are at 5 km intervals to accommodate the publishing of splits and enabling potential world records for 20 km, 30 km and other sub-marathon distances to be recorded.
The first New York City Marathon was held 49 years ago on September 13, 1970, organized by New York Road Runners presidents Fred Lebow and Vincent Chiappetta, with 127 competitors running several loops around the Park Drive of Central Park. Only about 100 spectators watched Gary Muhrcke win the race in 2:31:38. In fact, a total of only 55 runners crossed the finish line. Over the years, the marathon grew larger. To celebrate the U. S. bicentennial in 1976, city auditor George Spitz proposed that the race traverse all five boroughs. With the support of Manhattan Borough President Percy Sutton, the men convinced Mayor Beame and race director Fred Lebow; the race was a huge success, what was intended as a one-time celebration, became the annual course. Dick Traum became the first person to complete a marathon with a prosthetic leg when he finished the 1976 New York City Marathon; the marathon grew in popularity two years when Norwegian Grete Waitz broke the women's world record, finishing in 2:32:30.
She went on to win the race an unprecedented nine times. An official wheelchair and handcycle division was introduced in 2000, starting in 2002, the elite women are given a 35-minute head start before the elite men and rest of the field. During the 1970s, the race was run in September. In the 1980s, r
Margaret Okayo is a professional marathon runner from Kenya. She has won a number of major marathons, including the New York City Marathon, the Boston Marathon, the London Marathon, she has won the San Diego Marathon on two occasions. Okayo started running while at primary school, she graduated from the Itierio Secondary School, located near Kisii town, in 1993. She was recruited by Kenya Prisons Service, home to the country's top women's marathon runners, in 1995 where she nurtured her running career. At the 1998 Commonwealth Games she finished fifth in 10,000 metres, she finished thirteenth at the 1999 IAAF World Half Marathon Championships. Amongst her most successful races are the wins at the New York Marathon in 2001 and 2003, the Boston Marathon in 2002 and the London Marathon in 2004, she still holds the course records at the Boston Marathon. Other marathons won by Okayo include Milan in 2003, San Diego in 2000 and 2001, she represented her native Kenya in the 2004 Summer Olympic Games in Athens, but did not finish the marathon.
She spends three months of every year training in Italy. She finished third at the 2008 Rome-Ostia Half Marathon. Okayo is of the Gusii tribe, she is coached by Gabriele Rosa. She weighs 43 kilograms. All results regarding marathon, unless stated otherwise Margaret Okayo at IAAF IAAF: Focus on Athletes Marathoninfo profile Rosa & Associati profile