List of woods

This is a list of woods, most used in the timber and lumber trade. Araucaria Hoop pine Monkey puzzle tree (Araucaria araucana Paraná pine Cedar Celery-top pine Cypress Arizona cypress Bald cypress, southern cypress Alerce Hinoki cypress Lawson's cypress Mediterranean cypress Douglas-fir Coast Douglas-fir Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir European yew Fir Balsam fir Silver fir Noble fir Pacific silver fir Hemlock Eastern hemlock Mountain hemlock Western hemlock Huon pine, Macquarie pine Kauri Queensland kauri Japanese nutmeg-yew, kaya Larch European larch Japanese larch Tamarack Western larch Pine European black pine Jack pine Lodgepole pine Monterey pine Ponderosa pine Red pine Scots pine, red pine White pine Eastern white pine Western white pine Sugar pine Southern yellow pine Loblolly pine Longleaf pine Pitch pine Shortleaf pine Red cedar Eastern red cedar, Western red cedar Coast redwood Rimu Spruce Norway spruce Black spruce Red spruce Sitka spruce White spruce Sugi White cedar Northern white cedar Atlantic white cedar Nootka cypress Abachi Acacia African padauk Afzelia, doussi Agba, tola Alder Black alder Red alder Ash Black ash Blue ash Common ash Green ash Oregon ash Pumpkin ash White ash Aspen Bigtooth aspen European aspen Quaking aspen Australian red cedar Ayan, movingui Balsa Basswood, linden American basswood White basswood American beech Birch American birches Gray birch Black birch Paper birch Sweet birch Yellow birch European birches Silver birch Downy birch Blackbean Blackwood Australian blackwood African blackwood, mpingo Bloodwood Boxelder Boxwood, common box Brazilian walnut Brazilwood Buckeye, Horse-chestnut Horse-chestnut Ohio buckeye Yellow buckeye Butternut California bay laurel Camphor tree Cape chestnut Catalpa, catawba Ceylon satinwood Cherry Black cherry Red cherry Wild cherry Chestnut Chestnut American Chestnut Coachwood Cocobolo Corkwood Cottonwood, popular Eastern cottonwood Swamp cottonwood Cucumbertree Cumaru Dogwood Flowering dogwood Pacific dogwood Ebony Andaman marblewood Ebène marbre African ebony Ceylon ebony Elm American elm English elm Rock elm Slippery elm, red elm Wych elm Eucalyptus Lyptus: Flooded gum White mahogany Brown mallet Banglay, southern mahogany River red gum Karri Blue gum Flooded gum, rose gum York gum Jarrah Tallowwood Grey ironbark Blackbutt Mountain ash Australian oak Alpine ash Red mahogany Swamp mahogany, swamp messmate Sydney blue gum Mugga, red ironbark Redwood Wandoo European crabapple European pear Gonçalo alves Greenheart Grenadilla, mpingo Guanandi Gum Gumbo

1662 in literature

This article presents lists of the literary events and publications in 1662. February 15 – The première of Sir William Davenant's The Law Against Lovers, the first Restoration adaptation of Shakespeare, was given by the Duke's Company at its new theater in Lincoln's Inn Fields, London. September 29 – Samuel Pepys in his diary calls the King's Company production of A Midsummer Night's Dream in London "the most insipid, ridiculous play that I saw in my life." December 26 – The première of Molière's comedy The School for Wives is held at the Théâtre du Palais-Royal in Paris. Uncertain dates Two autos sacramentales by Pedro Calderón de la Barca, Las órdenes militares and Mística y real Babilonia, are the subject of an inquiry by the Spanish Inquisition; the Parliament of England passes the first Printing Act of the Restoration era, the Licensing of the Press Act, which restricts London printing to a total of 24 printing houses, each with no more than three presses and three apprentices. Books printed abroad are banned.

Roger L'Estrange is granted a warrant to seize seditious pamphlets. John Ogilby, Master of the Revels in Ireland, opens Dublin, in Smock Alley. Book of Common Prayer Sarah Blackborow – The Oppressed Prisoners' Complaint Margaret Cavendish – Orations of Diverse Persons Cyrano de Bergerac – États et Empires du Soleil Franciscus van den Enden – Kort Verhael van Nieuw-Nederland John Evelyn – Sculptura: or The history, art of chalcography and engraving in copper... Thomas Fuller – The History of the Worthies of England John Heydon The Harmony of the World The English Physician's Guide Adam Olearius – The Voyages & Travels of the Ambassadors Margaret Cavendish – Plays Written by the Thrice Noble and Excellent Princess, the Lady Marchioness of Newcastle Aston Cockayne – The Tragedy of Ovid published Pierre CorneilleSertorius Sir William Davenant – The Law Against Lovers William Heminges – The Jews' Tragedy published Robert Howard – The Committee Francis Kirkman – The Wits, or Sport for Sport Thomas Middleton and John WebsterAnything for a Quiet Life published Molière – The School for Wives John Wilson – The Cheats Joost van den Vondel – Joannes de Boetgezant Michael WigglesworthThe Day of Doom, or A Poetical Description of the Great and Last Judgement January 27 – Richard Bentley, English classicist October 18 – Matthew Henry, English Bible commentator Baptized December 17 – Samuel Wesley, English poet and author Uncertain date John Hudson, English classicist and librarian March 10 – Samuel Hartlib, German-born English polymath March 30 – François le Métel de Boisrobert, French poet May – Daniel de Priézac, French political writer August 17 – Richard Hubberthorne, English Quaker preacher and writer August 19 – Blaise Pascal, French philosopher Uncertain date Henry Jeanes, English controversialist and pamphleteer

History of poison

The history of poison stretches from before 4500 BCE to the present day. Poisons have been used for many purposes across the span of human existence, most as weapons, anti-venoms, medicines. Poison has allowed much progress in branches and technology, among other sciences. Poison was discovered in ancient times, was used by ancient tribes and civilizations as a hunting tool to quicken and ensure the death of their prey or enemies; this use of poison grew more advanced, many of these ancient peoples began forging weapons designed for poison enhancement. In history at the time of the Roman Empire, one of the more prevalent uses was assassination; as early as 331 BCE, poisonings executed at the dinner table or in drinks were reported, the practice became a common occurrence. The use of fatal substances was seen among every social class. In Medieval Europe, poison became a more popular form of killing, though cures surfaced for many of the more known poisons; this was stimulated by the increased availability of poisons.

At the same time, in the Middle East, Arabs developed a form of arsenic, odorless and transparent, making the poison difficult to detect. This "poison epidemic" was prevalent in parts of Asia at this time, as well. Over the centuries, the variety of harmful uses of poisons continued to increase; the means for curing these poisons advanced in parallel. In the modern world, intentional poisoning is less common than the Middle Ages. Rather, the more common concern is the risk of accidental poisoning from everyday substances and products. Constructive uses for poisons have increased in the modern world. Poisons are now used as pesticides, cleaning solutions, preservatives. Nonetheless, poison continues to be used as a hunting tool in remote parts of developing countries, including Africa, South America, Asia. Archaeological findings prove that while ancient mankind used conventional weapons such as axes and clubs, swords, they sought more subtle, destructive means of causing death—something that could be achieved through poison.

Grooves for storing or holding poisons such as tubocurarine have been plainly found in their hunting weapons and tools, showing that early humans had discovered poisons of varying potency and applied them to their weapons. Some speculate that this use and existence of these strange and noxious substances was kept secret within the more important and higher-ranked members of a tribe or clan, were seen as emblems of a greater power; this may have given birth to the concept of the stereotypical "medicine man" or "witch doctor". Once the use and danger of poison was realized, it became apparent. Mithridates VI, King of Pontus, from around 114–63 BC, lived in constant fear of being assassinated through poison, he became a hard-working pioneer in the search for a cure for poisons. In his position of power, he was able to test poisons on criminals facing execution, if there was a possible antidote, he was paranoid to the point that he administered daily amounts of poisons in an attempt to make himself immune to as many poisons as he could.

He discovered a formula that combined small portions of dozens of the best-known herbal remedies of the time, which he named Mithridatium. This was kept secret. After being defeated by Pompey, Mithridates' antidote prescriptions and notes of medicinal plants were taken by the Romans and translated into Latin. Pliny the Elder describes over 7000 different poisons. One he describes as "The blood of a duck found in a certain district of Pontus, supposed to live on poisonous food, the blood of this duck was afterwards used in the preparation of the Mithridatum, because it fed on poisonous plants and suffered no harm." Indian surgeon Sushruta defined the remedies of slow poisoning. He mentions antidotes and the use of traditional substances to counter the effects of poisoning. Poisoned weapons were used in ancient India, war tactics in ancient India have references to poison. A verse in Sanskrit reads "Jalam visravayet sarmavamavisravyam ca dusayet," which translates to "Waters of wells were to be mixed with poison and thus polluted."Chānakya known as Kautilya, was adviser and prime minister to the first Maurya Emperor Chandragupta.

Kautilya suggested employing means such as seduction, secret use of weapons, poison for political gain. He urged detailed precautions against assassination—tasters for food and elaborate ways to detect poison. In addition, the death penalty for violations of royal decrees was administered through the use of poison. Unlike many civilizations, records of Egyptian knowledge and use of poisons can only be dated back to 300 BC. However, it is believed that the earliest known Egyptian pharaoh, studied the properties of poisonous plants and venoms, according to early records; the Egyptians are thought to have come into knowledge about elements such as antimony, crude arsenic, lead and mandrake which are mentioned in papyri. Egyptians are now thought to be the first to master distillation, to manipulate the poison that can be retrieved from apricot kernels. Cleopatra is said to have poisoned herself with an asp afte