List of years
This page indexes the individual years pages.
- 1 3rd millennium
- 2 2nd millennium
- 3 1st millennium
- 4 1st millennium BC
- 5 See also
This page indexes the individual years pages.
1. Year – A year is the orbital period of the Earth moving in its orbit around the Sun. Due to the Earths axial tilt, the course of a year sees the passing of the seasons, marked by changes in weather, the hours of daylight, and, consequently, vegetation and soil fertility. In temperate and subpolar regions around the globe, four seasons are recognized, spring, summer, autumn. In tropical and subtropical regions several geographical sectors do not present defined seasons, but in the seasonal tropics, a calendar year is an approximation of the number of days of the Earths orbital period as counted in a given calendar. The Gregorian, or modern, calendar, presents its calendar year to be either a common year of 365 days or a year of 366 days, as do the Julian calendars. For the Gregorian calendar the average length of the year across the complete leap cycle of 400 years is 365.2425 days. The ISO standard ISO 80000-3, Annex C, supports the symbol a to represent a year of either 365 or 366 days, in English, the abbreviations y and yr are commonly used. In astronomy, the Julian year is a unit of time, it is defined as 365.25 days of exactly 86400 seconds, totalling exactly 31557600 seconds in the Julian astronomical year. The word year is used for periods loosely associated with, but not identical to, the calendar or astronomical year, such as the seasonal year, the fiscal year. Similarly, year can mean the period of any planet, for example. The term can also be used in reference to any long period or cycle, west Saxon ġēar, Anglian ġēr continues Proto-Germanic *jǣran. Cognates are German Jahr, Old High German jār, Old Norse ár and Gothic jer, all the descendants of the Proto-Indo-European noun *yeh₁rom year, season. Cognates also descended from the same Proto-Indo-European noun are Avestan yārǝ year, Greek ὥρα year, season, period of time, Old Church Slavonic jarŭ, Latin annus is from a PIE noun *h₂et-no-, which also yielded Gothic aþn year. Both *yeh₁-ro- and *h₂et-no- are based on verbal roots expressing movement, *h₁ey- and *h₂et- respectively, the Greek word for year, ἔτος, is cognate with Latin vetus old, from the PIE word *wetos- year, also preserved in this meaning in Sanskrit vat-sa- yearling and vat-sa-ras year. Derived from Latin annus are a number of English words, such as annual, annuity, anniversary, etc. per annum means each year, anno Domini means in the year of the Lord. No astronomical year has an number of days or lunar months. Financial and scientific calculations often use a 365-day calendar to simplify daily rates, in the Julian calendar, the average length of a year is 365.25 days. In a non-leap year, there are 365 days, in a year there are 366 days
2. 21st century – The 21st century is the current century of the Anno Domini era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. It began on January 1,2001 and will end on December 31,2100 and it is the first century of the 3rd millennium. It is distinct from the time known as the 2000s. The long term effects of increased globalization are not known, the Arab Spring of the early 2010s led to mixed outcomes in the Arab world. The Digital Revolution which began around the 1980s also continues into the present, millennials and Generation Z come of age and rise to prominence in this century. The completion of the Human Genome Project in 2003 marks the rise of life sciences, making mankinds long-held dreams, such as curing cancer. By the 2010s, gene therapy, first performed somatically in late 1990 and heritably in 1996, showed promise but remains an experimental, by 2013, about 80% of the worlds population used mobile phones. An estimated 33% owned personal computers in 2010, and 46% used the Internet by 2016, the International Energy Agency estimates that 83% of the global population has access to electricity as of 2013 with the percentage projected to increase to 88% by 2030. The world population was about 6.1 billion at the start of the 21st century and it had reached 7.3 billion in 2015, and is estimated to reach about 9.37 billion by the year 2050. There is a debate among experts and the public on how to pronounce specific years of the 21st century in English. A less common variation would have been twenty nought-five, the Vancouver Olympics, which took place in 2010, was being officially referred to by Vancouver 2010 as the twenty-ten Olympics. The latest timeframes for change are usually placed at 2020, kubrick said he did this in the hope that if the film became popular, it would influence the pronunciation of that year. See the timeline of the 21st century, genocide still remains a problem in this century with the concern of the war in Darfur and the growing concern in Sri Lanka. Also controversies from past genocides remain commonplace in the minds of victims, 1998–2002 – The Second Congo War continued into the early 21st century. A1999 ceasefire quickly broke down and a UN peacekeeping mission, Laurent Kabila, president of the DRC, was assassinated in January 2001 and his son, Joseph Kabila, took power. Throughout 2002 steps were made towards peace and Rwanda and Uganda both removed their troops from the country, on December 17,2002, a massive treaty officially ended the war. However, the DRC only holds power in less than half of the country, with most of the eastern and northern portions still controlled by rebel groups, in addition, Rwanda still supports anti-DRC rebels and anti-Rwandan rebels continue to operate from the DRC. The war killed an estimated 3.9 million people, displaced nearly 5.5 million, Severe human rights violations continue to be reported