List of years in Italy
This is a list of years in Italy.
This is a list of years in Italy.
1. Italy – Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, science, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars, artists and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo, Michelangelo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France, Spain and Austria. Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military, cultural and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, Italia, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned also by Aristotle and Thucydides. The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name also applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world
2. 1345 in Italy – Some events which occurred in 1345 in Italy, Battle of Gamenario The Battle of Gamenario, fought on 22 April, was a decisive battle of the wars between the Guelfs and Ghibellines. It took place in north-west Italy in what is now part of the commune of Santena about 15 km southeast of Turin. Reforza dAgoult was sent in the spring of 1345 by Joan of Anjou, Reforza conquered Alba and besieged Gamenario, a castle in the neighbourhood of Santena. Lombard Ghibellines formed an alliance, headed by John II of Montferrat. On 22 April, he confronted Reforza dAgoult and battle was joined, the meeting was brief and bloody. Initially uncertain, the outcome was a victory for the Ghibellines, to celebrate his victory, John built a new church in Asti in honour of Saint George, near whose feast day the battle was won. Saint George held a place for the men of chivalry of the Medieval. In the aftermath, Piedmont was partitioned between the victors, John received Alba, Acqui Terme, Ivrea, and Valenza. Luchino Visconti received Alessandria and the House of Savoy received Chieri, the Angevins lost almost complete control of the region and many formerly French cities declared themselves independent. The defeat of the Angevins was also a defeat for Angevin-supported Manfred V of Saluzzo, Andrew, Duke of Calabria, was assassinated by a conspiracy in 1345. He had been appointed joint heir with his wife, Joan I and this, however, sat ill with the Neapolitan people and nobles, nor was Joan content to share her sovereignty. With the approval of Pope Clement VI, Joan was crowned as monarch of Naples in August 1344. Fearing for his life, Andrew wrote to his mother Elizabeth that he would flee the kingdom. She intervened, and made a visit, before she returned to Hungary, she bribed Pope Clement to reverse himself. She also gave a ring to Andrew, which was supposed to him from death by blade or poison. Thus, in 1345, hearing of the Popes reversal, a group of noble conspirators determined to forestall Andrews coronation, during a hunting trip at Aversa, Andrew left his room in the middle of the night and was set upon by the conspirators. A treacherous servant barred the door behind him, and as Joan cowered in their bed and he was finally overpowered, strangled with a cord, and flung from a window. The horrible deed would taint the rest of Joans reign, other events in Italy in 1345 include Ambrogio Lorenzettis painting of a map of the world for the palace at Siena