List of years in the United States
This is a list of years in the United States.
This is a list of years in the United States.
Events from the year 1789 in the United States. The Articles of Confederation, the agreement under which the nation's government had been operating since 1781, was superseded by the Constitution in March of this year. Articles of Confederation: 10th Confederation CongressGeorge Washington Vice President: John Adams Chief Justice: John Jay Speaker of the House of Representatives: Frederick Muhlenberg Congress: 1st United States Congress January 7 – The 1789 United States presidential elections and House of Representatives elections are held. January 21 – William Hill Brown's anonymous sentimental epistolary novel The Power of Sympathy: or, The Triumph of Nature considered the first American novel, is published in Boston. January 23 – Georgetown University is founded in what would become Washington, D. C. becoming the first Catholic college in the United States. February 4 – George Washington is unanimously elected the first President of the United States by the United States Electoral College.
March 4 – At Federal Hall in New York City, the 1st United States Congress meets and declares the new United States Constitution to be in effect. March 29 – Thomas Collins, President of Delaware, dies in office. April 1 – At Federal Hall, the United States House of Representatives attains its first quorum and elects Frederick Muhlenberg of Pennsylvania as its first Speaker of the House. April 6 – At Federal Hall, the United States Senate attains its first quorum and elects Senator John Langdon as its first President pro tempore. General George Washington is declared President-elect, John Adams is declared Vice President-elect. April 21 – John Adams takes office as Vice-President of the United States and begins to preside the sessions of the United States Senate. April 30 – George Washington is inaugurated at Federal Hall in New York City, beginning his term as the first President of the United States. July – Charles Thomson resigned as secretary of Congress and hands over the Great Seal, bringing an end to the Articles of Confederation.
July 4 – Congress passes its first tax on 30 different items at 8.5% with discount to American ships over foreign ones. July 27 – The first U. S. federal government agency under the new Constitution, the Department of Foreign Affairs, is established. August 7 – The United States Department of War is established. September 2 – The United States Department of the Treasury is established. September 15 – The Department of Foreign Affairs is renamed the Department of State. September 24 – The Judiciary Act of 1789 establishes the federal judiciary and the United States Marshals Service. September 25 – The United States Congress proposes a set of 12 amendments for ratification by the states. Ratification for 10 of these proposals is completed on December 5, 1791, creating the United States Bill of Rights. September 29 – The U. S. Department of War establishes the nation's first regular army, with a strength of several hundred men. November 6 – Pope Pius VI appoints John Carroll the first Roman Catholic bishop in the United States.
November 20 – New Jersey ratifies the United States Bill of Rights, the first state to do so. November 21 – North Carolina ratifies the United States Constitution and becomes the 12th U. S. state. November 26 – A national Thanksgiving Day is observed in the United States as recommended by President George Washington and approved by Congress. December 11 – The University of North Carolina, the oldest public university in the United States, is founded. Thomas Jefferson returns from Europe. Influenced by Dr. Benjamin Rush's argument against the excessive use of alcohol, about 200 farmers in a Connecticut community form a temperance association. Fort Washington is built in Cincinnati, to protect early U. S. settlements in the Northwest Territory. Northwest Indian War January 4 – Benjamin Lundy, abolitionist January 18 – Briscoe Baldwin and Virginia politician February 4 – Thaddeus Betts, U. S. Senator from Connecticut from 1839 to 1840 February 18 – Solomon Metcalf Allen, professor March 5 William S. Archer, U.
S. Senator from Virginia from 1841 to 1847 Michael Woolston Ash, U. S. Representative from Pennsylvania from 1835 to 1837 July 18 – Thomas Carlin, 7th Governor of Illinois from 1838 to 1842 September 9 – William Cranch Bond, astronomer September 15 – James Fenimore Cooper, novelist September 24 – James Bates, U. S. Representative from Maine from 1831 to 1833 October 16 – William Burton, 39th Governor of Delaware from 1859 to 1863 October 17 – James Alexander, Jr. U. S. Representative from Ohio from 1837 to 1839 October 30 – Hiram Bingham I, missionary to Hawaii December 17 – Clement Comer Clay, U. S. Senator from Alabama from 1837 to 1841 December 21 – John Norvell, U. S. Senator from Michigan from 1837 to 1841 December 22 – Levi Woodbury, U. S. Senator from New Hampshire from 1825 to 1831 & 1841 to 1845, 9th Governor of New Hampshire from 1823 to 1824, 13th U. S. Secretary of the Treasury from 1834 to 1841, Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the U. S. from 1845 December 28 – Catharine Sedgwick, domestic novelist January 4 – Thomas Nelson Jr. signatory of the Declaration of Independence and Governor of Virginia in 1781 January 10 – James Mitchell Varnum, brigadier genera
Events from the year 1844 in the United States. President: John Tyler Vice President: vacant Chief Justice: Roger B. Taney Speaker of the House of Representatives: John Winston Jones Congress: 28th January 15 – The University of Notre Dame receives its charter from Indiana. February 28 – The "Peacemaker", the largest naval gun in the world, explodes during a demonstration aboard the USS Princeton, killing six, including Secretary of State Abel P. Upshur and Secretary of the Navy Thomas Walker Gilmer. March 12 – The Columbus and Xenia Railroad, the first railroad, planned to be built in Ohio, is chartered. May 24 – The first electrical telegram is sent by Samuel F. B. Morse from the U. S. Capitol in Washington, D. C. to the B&O Railroad "outer depot" in Baltimore, saying "What hath God wrought". June–July – The Great Flood of 1844 hits the Missouri River and Mississippi River. June 15 – Charles Goodyear receives a patent for vulcanization, a process to strengthen rubber. June 22 – Influential North American fraternity Delta Kappa Epsilon is founded at Yale University.
June 27 – Death of Joseph Smith: Joseph Smith, founder of the Latter Day Saint movement, his brother Hyrum are killed in Carthage Jail, Illinois by an armed mob, leading to a succession crisis in the movement. John Taylor, future president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, is injured but survives. July 3 – The U. S. signs the Treaty of Wanghia with Qing dynasty China, the first diplomatic agreement between the two nations in history. July 25 – Exclusion Law in Oregon prohibits African Americans from entering or remaining in the territory October 22 – The Great Disappointment: Millerites find that the Second Coming of Jesus does not occur as predicted by preacher William Miller. December 4 – U. S. presidential election, 1844: James K. Polk defeats Henry Clay. Undated – The first international cricket match is played in New York City between Canada and the United States. April 13 – John Surratt, suspected involvement in the assassination of Abraham Lincoln, son of Mary Surratt April 22 – Lewis Powell, conspirator with John Wilkes Booth, attempted assassin of William H. Seward August 1 – Levi Ankeny, United States Senator from Washington from 1903 till 1909.
June 3 – Garret Hobart, 24th Vice President of the United States from 1897 till 1899. October 11 – Henry J. Heinz and founder of the H. J. Heinz Company January 13 – Alexander Porter, United States Senator from Louisiana from 1833 till 1837. January 25 – Horace H. Hayden, first licensed American dentist February 27 – Nicholas Biddle, last president of the Second Bank of the United States February 28 – Abel P. Upshur, Secretary of State from 1843 to 1844 Thomas W. Gilmer, fifteenth Secretary of the Navy March 6 – Gabriel Duvall, Justice of the U. S. Supreme Court from 1811 to 1835 May 18 – Richard McCarty, politician April 4 – Charles Bulfinch, architect of the Massachusetts State House April 21 – Henry Baldwin, Associate Justice of the US Supreme Court from 1830 till 1844. June 27 – Joseph Smith Jr. religious leader and founder of Mormonism and the Latter Day Saint movement August 15 – William S. Fulton, United States Senator from Arkansas 1836 till 1844. July 23 – Christian Gobrecht, third Chief Engraver of the United States Mint from 1840 to 1844 September 14 – Oliver Holden, composer Timeline of United States history Media related to 1844 in the United States at Wikimedia Commons
Events from the year 1801 in the United States. President: John Adams, Thomas Jefferson Vice President: Thomas Jefferson, Aaron Burr Chief Justice: John Marshall Speaker of the House of Representatives: Theodore Sedgwick, Nathaniel Macon Congress: 6th, 7th January 31 – John Marshall is appointed Chief Justice of the United States. February – Contingent election of 1801: An electoral tie between Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr is resolved, when Jefferson is elected President of the United States and Burr Vice President by the United States House of Representatives. February 27 – Washington, DC is placed under the jurisdiction of the U. S. Congress. March 4 – Thomas Jefferson is sworn in as the third President of the United States. May 10 – The First Barbary War begins as the pasha of Tripoli declares war on the United States by having the flagpole on the consulate chopped down. July – Eli Whitney demonstrates before Congress the advantages of the system of interchangeable parts in the manufacture of firearms.
August 1 – Action of 1 August 1801: United States Navy schooner USS Enterprise captures the 14-gun Tripolitan corsair polacca Tripoli off the north African coast in a single-ship action. November 16 – The first edition of New York Evening Post is printed. Jefferson, the first American yacht, is built in Salem, for George Crowninshield Jr.. First Barbary War January 20 – Thomas Hickman Williams, United States Senator from Mississippi from 1838 till 1839. March 27 – Alexander Barrow, United States Senator from Louisiana from 1841 till 1846. April 26 – Ambrose Dudley Mann, first United States Assistant Secretary of State May 6 – George S. Greene, Union Army general May 16 – William H. Seward, United States Secretary of State from 1861 to 1869 June 1 – Brigham Young, leader in the Latter Day Saint movement July 5 – David Farragut, flag officer of the United States Navy during the American Civil War June 14 – Heber C. Kimball, religious leader June 15 – Benjamin Wright Raymond, 3rd Mayor of Chicago August 10 – Robert Woodward Barnwell, United States Senator from South Carolina from 1862 till 1865.
August 31 – Pierre Soule, United States Senator from Louisiana in 1847 and from 1849 till 1853. September 10 – Garrett Davis, United States Senator from Kentucky from 1861 till 1872. Marie Laveau, Voodoo Queen of New Orleans, November 4 – Ambrose Hundley Sevier, United States Senator from Arkansas from 1836 till 1848. November 9 – Gail Borden, newspaper publisher, inventor of condensed milk November 10 – Samuel Gridley Howe, abolitionist December 28 – James Barnes, Union Army general Date Unknown – Solomon W. Downs, United States Senator from Louisiana from 1847 till 1853. January 9 – Margaretta Faugères, playwright and political activist February 6 – Annis Boudinot Stockton and sponsor of literary salons February 23 – Elizabeth Graeme Fergusson and sponsor of literary salons March 14 – Margarita "Peggy" Schuyler, youngest child of Philip Schuyler June 4 – Frederick Muhlenberg, first Speaker of the House of Representatives June 14 – Benedict Arnold, Revolutionary hero and traitor September 10 – Jason Fairbanks, murderer November 4 – William Shippen and Continental Congressman November 23 – Philip Hamilton, first son of Alexander Hamilton and Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton, Timeline of United States history A. P. C.
Griffin. Issues of the District of Columbia Press in 1800, 1801, 1802. Records of the Columbia Historical Society, Washington, D. C. Vol. 4, pp. 32–74 John Marshall on the Judiciary, the Republicans, Jefferson, March 4, 1801. The American Historical Review, Vol. 53, No. 3, pp. 518–520 Dorothy MacKay Quynn. Dangers of Subversion in an American Education: A French View, 1801; the Catholic Historical Review, Vol. 39, No. 1, pp. 28–35 Bennard B. Perlman. Baltimore Mansion, 1801-03. Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 26–28. Carroll W. Pursell, Jr. E. I. du Pont, Don Pedro, the Introduction of Merino Sheep into the United States, 1801: A Document. Agricultural History, Vol. 33, No. 2, pp. 86–88 Donald R. Hickey; the United States Army versus Long Hair: The Trials of Colonel Thomas Butler, 1801-1805. The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 101, No. 4, pp. 462–474 Albert E. Van Dusen. "Eli Whitney". Laptop Encyclopedia of Connecticut History. CTHeritage.org, 2003.
Events from the year 1791 in the United States. President: George Washington Vice President: John Adams Chief Justice: John Jay Speaker of the House of Representatives: Frederick Muhlenberg, Jonathan Trumbull, Jr. Congress: 1st, 2nd March 4 – Vermont is admitted as the 14th U. S. state. March 9 – Pierre Charles L'Enfant arrives in Georgetown and begins designing the federal capital city. March 30 – District of Columbia is established. August 26 – John Fitch is granted a patent for the steamboat in the United States. September 9 – Washington, D. C. is named. September 25 – Mission Santa Cruz is founded by Father Fermín Francisco de Lasuén, becoming the 12th mission in the California mission chain. October 9 – Mission Nuestra Señora de la Soledad is founded by Father Fermín Francisco de Lasuén, becoming the 13th mission in the California mission chain. October 25 – The State of the Union address. December 15 – Ratification by the states of the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution is completed, creating the United States Bill of Rights.
Two additional amendments remain pending, one of these is ratified in 1992, becoming the Twenty-seventh Amendment. The first American ship reaches Japan. An ordinance is written barring the game of baseball within 80 yards of the Meeting House in Pittsfield, Massachusetts. Northwest Indian War February 4 – John McClean, United States Senator from Illinois from 1824 till 1825 and from 1829 till 1830. February 12 – Peter Cooper, inventor and candidate for President of the United States April 23 – James Buchanan, 15th President of the United States from 1857 till 1861. April 27 – Samuel Morse, American painter and inventor June 1 – John Nelson, United States lawyer July 18 – Isaac D. Barnard, United States Senator from 1827 till 1831. October 24 – Joseph R. Underwood, United States Senator from Kentucky from 1847 till 1853. November 27 – Truman Smith, United States Senator from Connecticut from 1849 till 1854. April 24 – Benjamin Harrison V, signer of Declaration of Independence, father of President William Henry Harrison, great-grandfather of President Benjamin Harrison May 9 – Francis Hopkinson, signer of Declaration of Independence John Roth Prussian clergyman Timeline of United States history Lists of Foreigners Who Arrived at Philadelphia, 1791-1792.
The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 187–194. Bernard C. Steiner. A Frenchman's Impressions of Maryland and Virginia in 1791; the Sewanee Review, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 52–72. Journal of John Mair, 1791; the American Historical Review, Vol. 12, No. 1, pp. 77–94. Journal of William Loughton Smith, 1790-1791. Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society, Third Series, Vol. 51. Joseph W. Barnwell. Washington's 1791, by Archibald Henderson; the South Carolina Historical and Genealogical Magazine, Vol. 26, No. 1, pp. 59–64. Samuel C. Williams; the Southwest Territory to the Aid of the Northwest Territory, 1791. Indiana Magazine of History, Vol. 37, No. 2, pp. 152–157. J. Paul Selsam. France and Pennsylvania: an exchange of greetings in 1791. Pennsylvania History, Vol. 14, No. 1, pp. 13–22. Richard K. Murdoch. Documents Pertaining to the Georgia-Florida Frontier, 1791-1793; the Florida Historical Quarterly, Vol. 38, No. 4, pp. 319–338. S. W. Jackman. A Young Englishman Reports on the New Nation: Edward Thornton to James Bland Burges, 1791-1793.
The William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series, Vol. 18, No. 1, pp. 85–121. Harold Kirker; the New Theater, Philadelphia, 1791-1792. Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 22, No. 1, pp. 36–37. Silvio A. Bedini. Benjamin Banneker and the Survey of the District of Columbia, 1791. Records of the Columbia Historical Society, Washington, D. C. Vol. 69/70, The 47th separately bound book, pp. 7–30. Jack D. L. Holmes, J. Leitch Wright Jr. Luis Bertucat and William Augustus Bowles: West Florida Adversaries in 1791; the Florida Historical Quarterly, Vol. 49, No. 1, pp. 49–62. Betty Wood. White Women, Black Slaves and the Law in Early National Georgia: The Sunbury Petition of 1791; the Historical Journal, Vol. 35, No. 3, pp. 611–622. Leroy V. Eid. American Indian Military Leadership: St. Clair's 1791 Defeat; the Journal of Military History, Vol. 57, No. 1, pp. 71–88. Tim H. Blessing; the Lewistown riots, 1791-1793: a micro-analytic approach. Pennsylvania History, Vol. 71, No. 3, pp. 285–321 Media related to 1791 in the United States at Wikimedia Commons
Events from the year 1800 in the United States. President: John Adams Vice President: Thomas Jefferson Chief Justice: Oliver Ellsworth Speaker of the House of Representatives: Theodore Sedgwick Congress: 6th January 7 – The Virginia General Assembly adopts the Report of 1800, a resolution drafted by James Madison arguing for the sovereignty of the individual states under the United States Constitution and against the Alien and Sedition Acts. April – Voting begins in the United States presidential election, 1800; the result is not announced until February 1801. April 24 – The U. S. Library of Congress is founded. May 7 – Indiana Territory is formed by an Act of Congress as the first new territory created from the lands of the Northwest Territory. May 21 – President John Adams issues general amnesty for the Pennsylvania Dutch farmers who participated in Fries's Rebellion. July 4 – Indiana Territory is effective. July 10 – Connecticut cedes its Western Reserve to the federal government, which adds it to the Northwest Territory.
August 4 – The 2nd United States Census is conducted. It finds 5,308,483 people living in the U. S. of which 893,602 are slaves. August 30 – Gabriel Prosser's slave revolt in Richmond, Virginia is postponed due to weather. Word of his plan reaches Virginia's governor, James Monroe, who calls in the state militia. Gabriel is captured and hanged on October 10 along with 23 other slaves. September 30 – The Convention of 1800, or Treaty of Mortefontaine, is signed between France and the United States of America, ending the Quasi-War. October 1 – In the Third Treaty of San Ildefonso, Spain returns Louisiana to France. November 1 U. S. President John Adams becomes the first President of the United States to live in the Executive Mansion. Middlebury College is granted its charter by the Vermont General Assembly. November 17 – The U. S. Congress holds its first Washington, D. C. session. Quasi-War "Parson" Weems' A History of the Life and Death and Exploits of General George Washington. William Russell Birch's Birch's Views of Philadelphia January 7 – Millard Fillmore, 13th President of the United States from 1850 till 1853, 12th Vice President of the United States from 1849 till 1850.
February 14 – Emory Washburn, 22nd Governor of Massachusetts February 21 – John H. Winder, career United States Army officer Confederate general officer February 26 – Lucius Lyon, United States Senator from Michigan from 1843 till 1845. March 14 – James Bogardus and architect May 9 – John Brown, abolitionist July 15 – Sidney Breese, United States Senator from Illinois from 1843 till 1849. August 6 – Catharine Beecher, educator August 21 – Hiram Walden, United States Representative from New York August 22 – William S. Harney, United States Army Brigadier General September 11 – Daniel S. Dickinson, United States Senator from New York October 2 – Nat Turner, leader of slave rebellion October 3 – George Bancroft, historian October 27 – Benjamin Wade, United States Senator from Ohio October 30 – David Meriwether, United States Senator from Kentucky in 1852. December 29 – Charles Goodyear, inventor January 20 – Thomas Mifflin major general in the Continental Army, President of the Continental Congress, signatory of the Continental Association March 21 – William Blount, politician July 23 - John Rutledge, 2nd Chief Justice of the United States October 28 – Artemas Ward, Major General of the Continental Army and politician Timeline of United States history Media related to 1800 in the United States at Wikimedia Commons
Events from the year 1778 in the United States. President of the Second Continental Congress: Henry Laurens, John Jay January 18 – The third Pacific expedition of Capt. James Cook, with ships HMS Resolution and HMS Discovery, first view O'ahu Kaua'i in the Hawaiian Islands, which he names the Sandwich Islands. February 5 – South Carolina becomes the first state to ratify the Articles of Confederation. February 6 – American Revolutionary War: In Paris the Treaty of Alliance and the Treaty of Amity and Commerce are signed by the United States and France, signaling official recognition of the new republic. February 23 – American Revolutionary War: Friedrich Wilhelm von Steuben arrives at Valley Forge and begins to train the American troops. May 30 – Benedict Arnold signs US oath of allegiance at Valley Forge. June 24 – A total solar eclipse takes place across parts of USA from Texas to Virginia. June 28 – American Revolutionary War – Battle of Monmouth: George Washington's Continental Army battles the British general Sir Henry Clinton's army to a draw near Monmouth, New Jersey.
July 3 – American Revolutionary War: the Wyoming Massacre takes place near Wilkes-Barre, ending in a terrible defeat of the local colonists. July 4 – American Revolutionary War: George Rogers Clark takes Kaskaskia. July 27 – American Revolution – First Battle of Ushant: British and French fleets fight to a standoff. August 29 – American Revolutionary War: The Battle of Rhode Island takes place when the Continental Army attempts to retake Aquidneck Island from the British. September – The Massachusetts Banishment Act, providing punishment for Loyalists, is passed. September 17 – The Treaty of Fort Pitt is signed, the first formal treaty between the United States and a Native American tribe. September 19 – The Continental Congress passes the first budget of the United States. November 11 – American Revolutionary War: the Cherry Valley massacre November 26 – In the Hawaiian Islands, Capt. James Cook becomes the first European to land on Maui; the first settlement is made in the area of what is now Louisville, Kentucky by 13 families under Colonel George Rogers Clark.
Phillips Academy, a prestigious secondary boarding school in the United States, is founded by Samuel Phillips Jr. The term "thoroughbred" is first used in the United States in an advertisement in a Kentucky gazette to describe a New Jersey stallion called Pilgarlick. American Revolutionary War January 6 – Thomas Lincoln and father of the President of the United States Abraham Lincoln February 22 – Rembrandt Peale and museum keeper June 12 – Philip Livingston and statesman from New York City Timeline of the American Revolution Media related to 1778 in the United States at Wikimedia Commons
Events from the year 1797 in the United States. President: George Washington, John Adams Vice President: John Adams, Thomas Jefferson Chief Justice: Oliver Ellsworth Speaker of the House of Representatives: Jonathan Dayton Congress: 4th, 5th January 3 – The Treaty of Tripoli is signed at Algiers. February 22 – The last invasion of Britain: An American colonel named William Tate leads French forces in a landing near Fishguard in Wales. March 4 – John Adams is sworn in as the second President of the United States. April 17 – Sir Ralph Abercromby unsuccessfully invades San Juan, Puerto Rico in what will be one of the largest British attacks on Spanish territories in the western hemisphere, one of the worst defeats of the English navy for years to come. May 10 – The first ship of the United States Navy, the frigate USS United States, is commissioned. October 21 – In Boston Harbor, the 44-gun United States Navy frigate USS Constitution is launched to fight Barbary pirates off the coast of Tripoli.
The XYZ Affair inflames tensions between the United States. Panic of 1796–1797 XYZ Affair February 28 – John Henderson, United States Senator from Mississippi from 1839 till 1845. May 24 – James Morehead, United States Senator from Kentucky from 1841 to 1847. November 26 – Andrew Adams, signatory of the Articles of Confederation Timeline of United States history John Lathrop. An Account of the Deleterious Effects of Mephitic Air, or Marsb Miasmata, Experienced by Three Men, July 27, 1797. In a Well, on the Boston Pier. Memoirs of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Vol. 2, No. 2, pp. 81–84. Notes of Travel of William Henry, John Heckewelder, John Rothrock, Christian Clewell, to Gnadenhuetten on the Muskingum, in the Early Summer of 1797; the Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 10, No. 2, pp. 125–157 Charles E. Peterson. Virginia Penitentiary, 1797. Journal of the Society of Architectural Historians, Vol. 12, No. 4, pp. 27–28. Herman R. Friis, Ralph E. Ehrenberg. Nicholas King and His Wharfing Plans of the City of Washington, 1797.
Records of the Columbia Historical Society, Washington, D. C. Vol. 66/68, The 46th separately bound book, pp. 34–46. William K. Bottorff, Roy C. Flannagan, Frances Baylor Hill; the Diary of Frances Baylor Hill of "Hillsborough" King and Queen County Virginia. Early American Literature Newsletter, Vol. 2, No. 3, pp. 3–53. David J. Brandenburg, Millicent H. Brandenburg; the Duc De La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt's Visit to the Federal City in 1797: A New Translation. Records of the Columbia Historical Society, Washington, D. C. Vol. 49, The 49th separately bound book, pp. 35–60. William Stinchcombe. Talleyrand and the American Negotiations of 1797-1798; the Journal of American History, Vol. 62, No. 3, pp. 575–590. Lee W. Formwalt. An English Immigrant Views American Society: Benjamin Henry Latrobe's Virginia Years, 1796-1798; the Virginia Magazine of History and Biography, Vol. 85, No. 4, pp. 387–410. John L. Brittain and Henry Middleton Rutledge. Henry Middleton Rutledge to His Father, November 1, 1797; the South Carolina Historical Magazine, Vol. 83, No.
3, pp. 235–240. Arthur Scherr. "Vox Populi" versus the Patriot President: Benjamin Franklin Bache's Philadelphia Aurora and John Adams. Pennsylvania History, Vol. 62, No.4, pp. 503–531. Richard S. Chew. Certain Victims of an International Contagion: The Panic of 1797 and the Hard Times of the Late 1790s in Baltimore. Journal of the Early Republic, Vol. 25, No. 4, pp. 565–613. Media related to 1797 in the United States at Wikimedia Commons