Manufacturing is the production of products for use or sale using labour and machines, tools and biological processing, or formulation. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most applied to industrial design, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale; such finished goods may be sold to other manufacturers for the production of other, more complex products, such as aircraft, household appliances, sports equipment or automobiles, or sold to wholesalers, who in turn sell them to retailers, who sell them to end users and consumers. Manufacturing engineering or manufacturing process are the steps through which raw materials are transformed into a final product; the manufacturing process begins with the product design, materials specification from which the product is made. These materials are modified through manufacturing processes to become the required part. Modern manufacturing includes all intermediate processes required in the production and integration of a product's components.
Some industries, such as semiconductor and steel manufacturers use the term fabrication instead. The manufacturing sector is connected with engineering and industrial design. Examples of major manufacturers in North America include General Motors Corporation, General Electric, Procter & Gamble, General Dynamics, Boeing and Precision Castparts. Examples in Europe include Volkswagen Siemens, FCA and Michelin. Examples in Asia include Toyota, Panasonic, LG, Samsung and Tata Motors. In its earliest form, manufacturing was carried out by a single skilled artisan with assistants. Training was by apprenticeship. In much of the pre-industrial world, the guild system protected the privileges and trade secrets of urban artisans. Before the Industrial Revolution, most manufacturing occurred in rural areas, where household-based manufacturing served as a supplemental subsistence strategy to agriculture. Entrepreneurs organized a number of manufacturing households into a single enterprise through the putting-out system.
Toll manufacturing is an arrangement whereby a first firm with specialized equipment processes raw materials or semi-finished goods for a second firm. Manufacturing Engineering Agile manufacturing American system of manufacturing British factory system of manufacturing Craft or guild system Fabrication Flexible manufacturing Just-in-time manufacturing Lean manufacturing Mass customization – 3D printing, design-your-own web sites for sneakers, fast fashion Mass production Ownership Packaging and labeling Prefabrication Putting-out system Rapid manufacturing Reconfigurable manufacturing system Soviet collectivism in manufacturing History of numerical control Emerging technologies have provided some new growth in advanced manufacturing employment opportunities in the Manufacturing Belt in the United States. Manufacturing provides important material support for national infrastructure and for national defense. On the other hand, most manufacturing may involve significant environmental costs; the clean-up costs of hazardous waste, for example, may outweigh the benefits of a product that creates it.
Hazardous materials may expose workers to health risks. These costs are now well known and there is effort to address them by improving efficiency, reducing waste, using industrial symbiosis, eliminating harmful chemicals; the negative costs of manufacturing can be addressed legally. Developed countries regulate manufacturing activity with environmental laws. Across the globe, manufacturers can be subject to regulations and pollution taxes to offset the environmental costs of manufacturing activities. Labor unions and craft guilds have played a historic role in the negotiation of worker rights and wages. Environment laws and labor protections that are available in developed nations may not be available in the third world. Tort law and product liability impose additional costs on manufacturing; these are significant dynamics in the ongoing process, occurring over the last few decades, of manufacture-based industries relocating operations to "developing-world" economies where the costs of production are lower than in "developed-world" economies.
Manufacturing has unique health and safety challenges and has been recognized by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health as a priority industry sector in the National Occupational Research Agenda to identify and provide intervention strategies regarding occupational health and safety issues. Surveys and analyses of trends and issues in manufacturing and investment around the world focus on such things as: The nature and sources of the considerable variations that occur cross-nationally in levels of manufacturing and wider industrial-economic growth. In addition to general overviews, researchers have examined the features and factors affecting particular key aspects of manufacturing development, they have compared production and investment in a range of Western and non-Western countries and presented case studies of growth and performance in important individual industries and market-economic sectors. On June 26, 2009, Jeff Immelt, the CEO of General Electric, called for the United States to increase its manufacturing base employment to 20% of the workforce, commenting that the U.
S. has outsourced too much in some areas and can no longer rely on the financial sector and consumer spending to drive demand. Further, while U. S. manufacturing performs well compared to the rest of the U. S. economy, research shows that it performs poorly compared to manufacturing in other high-wage countries. A total of 3.2 million – one in six U. S. manuf
The Monroney sticker or window sticker is a label required in the United States to be displayed in all new automobiles and includes the listing of certain official information about the car. The window sticker was named after Almer Stillwell "Mike" Monroney, United States Senator from Oklahoma. Monroney sponsored the Automobile Information Disclosure Act of 1958, which mandated the disclosure of equipment and pricing information on new automobiles. Since the mid-1970s the United States Environmental Protection Agency provides fuel economy metrics in the label to help consumers choose more fuel efficient vehicles. New requirements for the Monroney label were issued for 2008 cars and light-duty trucks sold in the US; the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act mandated inclusion of additional information about fuel efficiency as well as ratings on each vehicle's greenhouse gas emissions and other air pollutants. A more comprehensive fuel economy and environment label was mandatory beginning in model year 2013, though some carmakers adopted it voluntarily for model year 2012.
The new window sticker includes specific labels for alternative fuel and alternative propulsion vehicles available in the US market, such as plug-in hybrids, electric vehicles, flexible-fuel vehicles, hydrogen fuel cell vehicle, natural gas vehicles. The new label introduces the comparison of alternative fuel and advanced technology vehicles with conventional internal combustion engine vehicles using miles per gallon of gasoline equivalent as a metric. Other information provided for the first time includes greenhouse gas and smog emissions ratings, estimates of fuel cost over the next five years, a QR Code that can be scanned by a smartphone to allow users access to additional online information; the Monroney sticker is required to be affixed to the side window or windshield of every new car sold in the United States and can only be removed by the consumer. A fine of up to US$1,000 per vehicle for each offense is authorized if the sticker is missing, other fees and penalties are authorized if the sticker is altered illegally.
The act does not apply to vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating of more than 8,500 lb. The sticker must include the following information: The manufacturer's suggested retail price Engine and transmission specifications Standard equipment and warranty details Optional equipment and pricing City and highway fuel economy ratings, as determined by the Environmental Protection Agency As of September 2007, crash test ratings as determined by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration As required by the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act, with the introduction of advanced-technology vehicles in the U. S. new information should be incorporated in the Monroney label of new cars and light-duty trucks sold in the country, such as ratings on fuel economy, greenhouse gas emissions, other air pollutants. The U. S. Environmental Protection Agency and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration conducted a series of studies to determine the best way to redesign this label to provide consumers with simple energy and environmental comparisons across all vehicles types, including battery electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, conventional internal combustion engine vehicles powered by gasoline and diesel, in order to help consumers choose more efficient and environmentally friendly vehicles.
As part of the research and redesign process, EPA conducted focus groups where presented participants with several options to express the consumption of electricity for plug-in electric vehicles. The research showed that participants did not understand the concept of a kilowatt hour as a measure of electric energy use in spite of the fact that this is the metric used in their monthly electric bills. Instead, participants favored a miles per gallon of gasoline equivalent, MPGe, as the metric to compare with the familiar miles per gallon used for gasoline vehicles; the research concluded that the kW-hrs per 100 miles metric was more confusing to focus group participants compared to a miles per kW-hr. Based on these results, EPA decided to use the following fuel economy and fuel consumption metrics on the redesigned labels: MPG; the proposed design and final content for two options of the new sticker label that will be introduced in 2013 model year cars and trucks were consulted for 60 days with the public in 2010, both included miles per gallon equivalent and kW-hrs per 100 miles as the fuel economy metrics for plug-in cars, but in one option MPGe and annual electricity cost are the two most prominent metrics.
One of the design options had a letter grading system from A to D and the rating would have compared a given vehicle’s fuel economy and air pollution to those of the entire fleet of new cars. The letter grade system was rejected after the public consultation. In November 2010, EPA introduced MPGe as comparison metric on its new sticker for fuel economy for the Nissan Leaf and the Chevrolet Volt. In May 2011, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration and EPA issued a joint final rule establishing new requirements for a fuel economy and environment label that will be mandatory for all new passenger cars and trucks starting with model year 2013, though carmakers can adopt it voluntarily for model year 2012; the ruling include new labels for alternative fuel and alternative propulsion vehicles available in the US market, such as plug-in hybrids, electric vehicles, flexible-fuel vehicles, hydrogen fuel cell vehicle, natural gas vehic
Secretary of State for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Business and Industrial Strategy, or informally Business Secretary, is a cabinet position in the United Kingdom government. The office is responsible for the Department for Business and Industrial Strategy; the secretary of state was, until July 2016 President of the Board of Trade when that position was transferred to the newly created post of Secretary of State for International Trade. During the government of Sir Alec Douglas-Home, the President of the Board of Trade Edward Heath was given in addition the job of Secretary of State for Industry and Regional Development; this title was not continued under Harold Wilson, but when Heath became Prime Minister in 1970 he decided to merge functions of the Board of Trade and the Ministry of Technology to create the Department of Trade and Industry. The head of this department became known as Secretary of State for Trade and Industry and retained the title of President of the Board of Trade; when Harold Wilson re-entered office in March 1974, the office was split into the Department of Trade, the Department of Industry and the Department of Prices and Consumer Protection, resulting in the creation of three new positions: Secretary of State for Industry, Secretary of State for Prices and Consumer Protection, Secretary of State for Trade.
The title President of the Board of Trade became the secondary title of the Secretary of State for Trade. In 1979 the Department of Prices and Consumer Protection was abolished by the incoming Conservative government and its responsibilities were reintegrated into the Department of Trade. In 1983 the offices of trade and industry were remerged and the title of Secretary of State for Trade and Industry was recreated; when Michael Heseltine held this office, he preferred to be known by the older title of President of the Board of Trade, this practice was followed by Ian Lang and Margaret Beckett. Heseltine's decision to reuse the old title caused some comment and it was discovered that the Board of Trade had not in fact met since the mid-nineteenth century. Under Gordon Brown's premiership there were two renamings of the role and three re-alignments of responsibility. In his first cabinet of 2007, he called the post Secretary of State for Business and Regulatory Reform. In this change, the Better Regulation Executive was added to the department but the Office of Science and Innovation was lost.
In 2008, the title remained. In 2009, the Department for Innovation and Skills was merged into the existing department and the post became Secretary of State for Business and Skills. In July 2016, Prime Minister Theresa May decided to merge the Department for Energy and Climate Change into this department with the responsibilities for post-19 education and skills being returned to the Department for Education resulting in the position being renamed to Secretary of State for Business and Industrial Strategy. At the same time the post of President of the Board of Trade was transferred to the newly created post of Secretary of State for International Trade. † — Primarily referred to as President of the Board of Trade, not as Secretary of State for Trade and Industry †† — Alan Johnson was announced on 6 May 2005, after the general election, as being "Secretary of State for Productivity and Industry and President of the Board of Trade", but after just a week, on 13 May, it was declared that the new title would not be used, after widespread derision of the new name, because the abbreviation for Johnson's title, Productivity and Industry Secretary, would have been "PENIS"
United States antitrust law
United States Antitrust law is a collection of federal and state government laws that regulates the conduct and organization of business corporations to promote fair competition for the benefit of consumers. The main statutes are the Sherman Act of 1890, the Clayton Act of 1914 and the Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914; these Acts, restrict the formation of cartels and prohibit other collusive practices regarded as being in restraint of trade. Second, they restrict the mergers and acquisitions of organizations that could lessen competition. Third, they prohibit the abuse of monopoly power; the Federal Trade Commission, the U. S. Department of Justice, state governments and private parties who are sufficiently affected may all bring actions in the courts to enforce the antitrust laws; the scope of antitrust laws, the degree to which they should interfere in an enterprise's freedom to conduct business, or to protect smaller businesses and consumers, are debated. One view closely associated with the "Chicago School of economics" suggests that antitrust laws should focus on the benefits to consumers and overall efficiency, while a broad range of legal and economic theory sees the role of antitrust laws as controlling economic power in the public interest.
Although "trust" has a specific legal meaning, in the late 19th century the word was used to denote big business, because that legal instrument was used to effect a combination of companies. Large manufacturing conglomerates emerged in great numbers in the 1880s and 1890s, were perceived to have excessive economic power; the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887 began a shift towards federal rather than state regulation of big business. It was followed by the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890, the Clayton Antitrust Act of 1914 and the Federal Trade Commission Act of 1914, the Robinson–Patman Act of 1936, the Celler–Kefauver Act of 1950. At this time hundreds of small short-line railroads were being bought up and consolidated into giant systems. People for strong antitrust laws argued that, in order for the American economy to be successful, it would require free competition and the opportunity for individual Americans to build their own businesses; as Senator John Sherman put it, "If we will not endure a king as a political power we should not endure a king over the production and sale of any of the necessaries of life."
Congress passed the Sherman Antitrust Act unanimously in 1890, it remains the core of antitrust policy. The Act prohibits agreements in restraint of abuse of monopoly power, it gives the Justice Department the mandate to go to federal court for orders to stop illegal behavior or to impose remedies. Public officials during the Progressive Era put passing and enforcing strong antitrust high on their agenda. President Theodore Roosevelt sued 45 companies under the Sherman Act, while William Howard Taft sued 75. In 1902, Roosevelt stopped the formation of the Northern Securities Company, which threatened to monopolize transportation in the Northwest. One of the more well known trusts was the Standard Oil Company. In 1911 the Supreme Court agreed, it broke the monopoly into three dozen separate companies that competed with one another, including Standard Oil of New Jersey, Standard Oil of Indiana, Standard Oil Company of New York, of California, so on. In approving the breakup the Supreme Court added the "rule of reason": not all big companies, not all monopolies, are evil.
To be harmful, a trust had to somehow damage the economic environment of its competitors. United States Steel Corporation, much larger than Standard Oil, won its antitrust suit in 1920 despite never having delivered the benefits to consumers that Standard Oil did. In fact, it lobbied for tariff protection that reduced competition, so contending that it was one of the "good trusts" that benefited the economy is somewhat doubtful. International Harvester survived its court test, while other monopolies were broken up in tobacco and bathtub fixtures. Over the years hundreds of executives of competing companies who met together illegally to fix prices went to federal prison. In 1914 Congress passed the Clayton Act, which prohibited specific business actions if they lessened competition. At the same time Congress established the Federal Trade Commission, whose legal and business experts could force business to agree to "consent decrees", which provided an alternative mechanism to police antitrust.
American hostility to big business began to decrease after the Progressive Era. For example, Ford Motor Company dominated auto manufacturing, built millions of cheap cars that put America on wheels, at the same time lowered prices, raised wages, promoted manufacturing efficiency. Welfare capitalism made large companies an attractive place to work.
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Distribution is one of the four elements of the marketing mix. Distribution is the process of making a product or service available for the consumer or business user who needs it; this can be done directly by the producer or service provider, or using indirect channels with distributors or intermediaries. The other three elements of the marketing mix are product and promotion. Decisions about distribution need to be taken in line with a company's overall strategic vision and mission. Developing a coherent distribution plan is a central component of strategic planning. At the strategic level, there are three broad approaches to distribution, namely mass, selective or exclusive distribution; the number and type of intermediaries selected depends on the strategic approach. The overall distribution channel should add value to the consumer. Distribution is fundamentally concerned with ensuring that products reach target customers in the most direct and cost efficient manner. In the case of services, distribution is principally concerned with access.
Although distribution, as a concept, is simple, in practice distribution management may involve a diverse range of activities and disciplines including: detailed logistics, warehousing, inventory management as well as channel management including selection of channel members and rewarding distributors. Prior to designing a distribution system, the planner needs to determine what the distribution channel is to achieve in broad terms; the overall approach to distributing products or services depends on a number of factors including the type of product perishability. The process of setting out a broad statement of the aims and objectives of a distribution channel is a strategic level decision. Strategically, there are three approaches to distribution: Mass distribution: When products are destined for a mass market, the marketer will seek out intermediaries that appeal to a broad market base. For example, snack foods and drinks are sold via a wide variety of outlets including supermarkets, convenience stores, vending machines and others.
The choice of distribution outlet is skewed towards those than can deliver mass markets in a cost efficient manner. Selective distribution: A manufacturer may choose to restrict the number of outlets handling a product. For example, a manufacturer of premium electrical goods may choose to deal with department stores and independent outlets that can provide added value service level required to support the product. Dr Scholl orthopedic sandals, for example, only sell their product through pharmacies because this type of intermediary supports the desired therapeutic positioning of the product; some of the prestige brands of cosmetics and skincare, such as Estee Lauder and Clinique, insist that sales staff are trained to use the product range. The manufacturer will only allow trained clinicians to sell their products. Exclusive distribution: In an exclusive distribution approach, a manufacturer chooses to deal with one intermediary or one type of intermediary; the advantage of an exclusive approach is that the manufacturer retains greater control over the distribution process.
In exclusive arrangements, the distributor is expected to work with the manufacturer and add value to the product through service level, after sales care or client support services. Another definition of exclusive arrangement is an agreement between a supplier and a retailer granting the retailer exclusive rights within a specific geographic area to carry the supplier's product. Summary of strategic approaches to distribution In consumer markets, another key strategic level decision is whether to use a push or pull strategy. In a push strategy, the marketer uses intensive advertising and incentives aimed at distributors retailers and wholesalers, with the expectation that they will stock the product or brand, that consumers will purchase it when they see it in stores. In contrast, in a pull strategy, the marketer promotes the product directly to consumers hoping that they will pressure retailers to stock the product or brand, thereby pulling it through the distribution channel; the choice of a push or pull strategy has important implications for promotion.
In a push strategy the promotional mix would consist of trade advertising and sales calls while the advertising media would be weighted towards trade magazines and trade shows while a pull strategy would make more extensive use consumer advertising and sales promotions while the media mix would be weighted towards mass-market media such as newspapers, magazines and radio. Distribution of products takes place by means of a marketing channel known as a distribution channel. A marketing channel is the people and activities necessary to transfer the ownership of goods from the point of production to the point of consumption, it is the way products get to the consumer. This is accomplished through merchant retailers or wholesalers or, in the international context, by importers. In certain specialist markets, agents or brokers may become involved in the marketing channel. Typical intermediaries involved in distribution include: Wholesaler: A merchant intermediary who sells chiefly to retailers, other merchants, or industrial and commercial users for resale or business use.
Wholesalers sell in large quantities.. Retailer: A merchant intermediary who sells direct to the public. There are many different types of retail outlet - from hypermarts and supermarkets
Wholesaling or distributing is the sale of goods or merchandise to retailers. In general, it is the sale of goods to anyone other than a standard consumer. According to the United Nations Statistics Division, wholesale is the resale of new and used goods to retailers, to industrial, institutional or professional users, or to other wholesalers, or involves acting as an agent or broker in buying merchandise for, or selling merchandise to, such persons or companies. Wholesalers physically assemble and grade goods in large lots, break bulk and redistribute in smaller lots. While wholesalers of most products operate from independent premises, wholesale marketing for foodstuffs can take place at specific wholesale markets where all traders are congregated. Traditionally, wholesalers were closer to the markets they supplied than the source from which they got the products. However, with the advent of the internet and e-procurement there are an increasing number of wholesalers located nearer to the manufacturers in China and Southeast Asia.
In the banking industry "wholesale" refers to wholesale banking, providing tailored services to large customers, in contrast with retail banking, providing standardized services to large numbers of smaller customers. In the United States, wholesalers are not required to charge their buyers sales tax, if the buyer has a resale license in the state the wholesaler is located. Out of state buyers are not charged sale tax by wholesalers; the alternative to selling wholesale to distributors or retailers is to sell retail either through company-owned stores or online. Advantages include receiving a larger slice of the price paid by the consumer. Top U. S wholesalers according to csnews report in 2012. Cash and carry Distribution Jobbing house Supply chain Supply network Business-to-business