A modillion is an ornate bracket, a corbel, underneath a cornice and supporting it, more elaborate than dentils. All of these words are used as verbs in a historic tense to describe neatly any particular structure, such as a parapet or eaves, they occur classically under a Corinthian or a Composite cornice, but may support any type of eaves cornice. Modillions may be plain. Media related to Modillions at Wikimedia Commons
A keystone is the wedge-shaped stone piece at the apex of a masonry arch, or the round one at the apex of a vault. In both cases it is the final piece placed during construction and locks all the stones into position, allowing the arch or vault to bear weight. In both arches and vaults, keystones are enlarged beyond the structural requirements, decorated in some way. Keystones are placed in the centre of the flat top of openings such as doors and windows for decorative effect. Although a masonry arch or vault cannot be self-supporting until the keystone is placed, the keystone experiences the least stress of any of the voussoirs, due to its position at the apex. Old keystones can decay due to a condition known as bald arch. In a rib-vaulted ceiling, keystones may mark the intersections of two or more arched ribs. For aesthetic purposes, the keystone is sometimes larger than the other voussoirs, or embellished with a boss. Mannerist architects of the 16th century designed arches with enlarged and dropped keystones, as in the "church house" entrance portal at Colditz Castle.
Numerous examples are found in the work of Sebastiano Serlio, a 16th-century Italian Mannerist architect. Architectural sculpture Coping List of classical architecture terms Oculus compression ring Media related to keystones at Wikimedia Commons
Carlisle is a historic city and the county town of Cumbria. In Cumberland, it is the administrative centre of the City of Carlisle district in North West England. Carlisle is located at the confluence of the rivers Eden and Petteril, 10 miles south of the Scottish border, it is the largest settlement in the county of Cumbria, serves as the administrative centre for both Carlisle City Council and Cumbria County Council. At the time of the 2001 census, the population of Carlisle was 71,773, with 100,734 living in the wider city. Ten years at the 2011 census, the city's population had risen to 75,306, with 107,524 in the wider city; the early history of Carlisle is marked by its status as a Roman settlement, established to serve the forts on Hadrian's Wall. During the Middle Ages, because of its proximity to the Kingdom of Scotland, Carlisle became an important military stronghold; the castle now houses the Duke of the Border Regiment Museum. In the early 12th century, Henry I allowed the foundation of a priory in Carlisle.
The town gained the status of a city when its diocese was formed in 1133, the priory became Carlisle Cathedral. The introduction of textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution began a process of socioeconomic transformation in Carlisle, which developed into a densely populated mill town. This, combined with its strategic position, allowed for the development of Carlisle as an important railway town, with seven railway companies sharing Carlisle railway station. Nicknamed the Great Border City, Carlisle today is the main cultural and industrial centre for north Cumbria, it is home to the main campuses of the University of Cumbria and a variety of museums and heritage centres. The former County Borough of Carlisle had held city status until the Local Government Act 1972 was enacted in 1974. What is known of the ancient history of Carlisle is derived from archaeological evidence and the works of the Roman historian Tacitus; the earliest recorded inhabitants were the Carvetii tribe of Britons who made up the main population of ancient Cumbria and North Lancashire.
According to Boethius and John of Fordun, Carlisle existed before the arrival of the Romans in Britain and was one of the strongest British towns at the time. In the time of the emperor Nero, it was said to have burned down; the Roman settlement was named Luguvalium, based on a native name, reconstructed as Brittonic *Luguwaljon, " of Luguwalos", a masculine Celtic given name meaning "strength of Lugus". Excavations undertaken along Annetwell Street in the 1970s dated the Roman timber fort constructed at the site of present Carlisle Castle to the winter of AD 73, protecting a strategic location overlooking the confluence of the Caldew and Eden rivers; this walled civitas the only one in northwest Britain served as the tribal centre of the Carvetii on the model of other such sites in Roman Britain. In 79, the two Roman generals Gnaeus Julius Agricola and Quintus Petillius Cerialis advanced through Solway as they continued their campaign further north; as a result, it is that greater control was achieved at Carlisle over anti-imperial groups.
This is indicated from the reconstruction of the fort at Carlisle in 83 using oak timbers from further afield, rather than local alder. At this time the Roman fort was garrisoned by a 500-strong cavalry regiment, the Ala Gallorum Sebosiana. By the early 2nd century, Carlisle was established as a prominent stronghold. The'Stanegate' frontier, which consisted of Luguvalium and several other forts in a line east to Corbridge, was proving a more stable frontier against the Picts than those established deeper into Caledonia. In 122, the province was visited by Hadrian, who approved a plan to build a wall the length of the frontier. A new fort, was built at Carlisle in the Stanwix area of the city north of the river, it was the largest fort along the length of Hadrian's Wall and was completed in stone by around 130. Like Luguvalium, which lay within sight, Petriana housed a 1,000-strong cavalry regiment, the Ala Gallorum Petriana, the sole regiment of this size along the wall. Hadrian's successor Antoninus Pius attempted to move further north.
It was not a success and, after 20 years, the garrisons returned to Hadrian's Wall. Until 400, the Roman occupation fluctuated in importance. At one time, it broke off from Rome, he was assassinated and suffered damnatio memoriae, but a surviving reference to him has been uncovered in Carlisle. Coins excavated in the area suggest that Romans remained in Carlisle until the reign of Emperor Valentinian II, from 375 to 392; the period of late antiquity after Roman rule saw Cumbria organised as the native British kingdom of Rheged. It is that the kingdom took its name from a major stronghold within it. King Urien and his son and successor Owain became the subjects of a great deal of Arthurian legend, their capital has been identified as the Cair Ligualid listed by Nennius among the 28 cities of Britain, which developed into Caer-luel, whence the city's modern Welsh name Caerliwelydd. Rheged came under Northumbrian control before 730 by inheritance after Rienmelth, daughter of Royth and great-granddaughter of Urien, married Oswy, King of Northumbria.
For the rest of the first millennium, Carlisle was an important stronghold c
A cornice is any horizontal decorative molding that crowns a building or furniture element – the cornice over a door or window, for instance, or the cornice around the top edge of a pedestal or along the top of an interior wall. A simple cornice may be formed just with a crown; the function of the projecting cornice of a building is to throw rainwater free of the building’s walls. In residential building practice, this function is handled by projecting gable ends, roof eaves, gutters. However, house eaves may be called "cornices" if they are finished with decorative molding. In this sense, while most cornices are eaves, not all eaves are considered cornices – eaves are functional and not decorative, a cornice has a decorative aspect to it; the projecting cornice of a building may appear to be heavy and hence in danger of falling on commercial buildings, but it may be light, made of pressed metal. In Ancient Greek architecture and its successors using the classical orders in the tradition of classical architecture, the cornice is the topmost element of the entablature which consists of the cornice, the frieze, the architrave.
A rake is an architectural term for an eave or cornice which runs along the gable of the roof of a modern residential structure. It may be called a sloping cornice, a raking cornice; the trim and rafters at this edge are called rake-, verge-, or barge-board or verge- or barge-rafter. It is a sloped timber on the outside facing edge of a roof running between the eave. On a typical house, any gable will have one on each sloped side; the rakes are supported by a series of lookouts and may be enclosed with a rake fascia board on the outside facing edge and a rake soffit along the bottom. The cornices of a modern residential building will be one of three types: a box cornice, a close or closed cornice, or an open cornice. Box cornices enclose the cornice of the building with what is a long narrow box. A box cornice may further be divided into either the narrow box cornice or the wide box cornice type. A narrow box cornice is one in which "the projection of the rafter serves as a nailing surface for the soffit board as well as the fascia trim."
This is possible if the slope of the roof is steep and the width of the eave narrow. A wide box cornice, common practice on houses with gentle roof slopes and wide eaves, requires the use of lookouts to give it support and to provide a surface to which to securely attach the soffits. Box cornices have ventilation screens laid over openings cut in the soffits in order to allow air to circulate within the cornice. A close, closed, or snub cornice is one in which there is no projection of the rafters beyond the walls of the building, therefore no soffit and no fascia; this type of cornice is easy to construct, but provides little aid in dispersing water away from the building and lacks aesthetic value. In an open cornice, the shape of the cornice is similar to that of a wide box cornice except that both the lookouts and the soffit are absent, it is a lower-cost treatment that requires fewer materials, may have no fascia board, but lacks the finished appearance of a box cornice. Ancient Egyptian architectural tradition made special use of large cavetto mouldings as a cornice, with only a short fillet above, a torus moulding below.
This cavetto cornice is sometimes known as an "Egyptian cornice", "hollow and roll" or "gorge cornice", has been suggested to be a reminiscence in stone architecture of the primitive use of bound bunches of reeds as supports for buildings, the weight of the roof bending their tops out. The cavetto cornice forming less than a quarter-circle, influenced Eygpt's neighbours and as well as appearing in early Ancient Greek architecture, it is seen in Syria and ancient Iran, for example at the Tachara palace of Darius I at Persepolis, completed in 486 BC. Inspired by this precedent, it was revived by Ardashir I, the founder of the Sasanian dynasty; the cavetto took the place of the cymatium in many Etruscan temples painted with vertical "tongue" patterns, combined with the distinctive "Etruscan round moulding" painted with scales. Additional more-obscure varieties of cornice include the architrave cornice, bracketed cornice, modillion cornice. A cornice return is an architectural detail that occurs where the horizontal cornice of a roof connects to the rake of a gable.
It is a short horizontal extension of the cornice that occurs on each side of the gable end of the building. The two most common types of cornice return are the soffit return; the former includes a sloped hip-shape on the inside of the cornice under the eaves, sheathed or shingled like the rest of the roof above it and is considered attractive. The term cornice may be used to describe a form of hard window treatment along the top edge of a window; when used in this context, a cornice represents a board placed above the window to conceal the mechanism for opening and closing drapes. If covered in a layer of cloth and given padding, it is sometimes called a soft cornice rather than a hard cornice. Geison Eaves Window cornice Media related to Cornices at Wikimedia Commons
Stucco or render is a material made of aggregates, a binder, water. Stucco is applied wet and hardens to a dense solid, it is used as a decorative coating for walls and ceilings, as a sculptural and artistic material in architecture. Stucco may be used to cover less visually appealing construction materials, such as metal, cinder block, or clay brick and adobe. In English, "stucco" refers to a coating for the outside of a building and "plaster" to a coating for interiors. However, other European languages, notably including Italian, do not have the same distinction; this has led to English using "stucco" for interior decorative plasterwork in relief. The difference in nomenclature between stucco and mortar is based more on use than composition; until the latter part of the nineteenth century, it was common that plaster, used inside a building, stucco, used outside, would consist of the same primary materials: lime and sand. Animal or plant fibers were added for additional strength. In the latter nineteenth century, Portland cement was added with increasing frequency in an attempt to improve the durability of stucco.
At the same time, traditional lime plasters were being replaced by gypsum plaster. Traditional stucco is made of lime and water. Modern stucco is made of Portland cement and water. Lime is added to increase the workability of modern stucco. Sometimes additives such as acrylics and glass fibers are added to improve the structural properties of the stucco; this is done with what is considered a one-coat stucco system, as opposed to the traditional three-coat method. Lime stucco is a hard material that can be broken or chipped by hand without too much difficulty; the lime itself is white. Lime stucco has the property of being self-healing to a limited degree because of the slight water solubility of lime. Portland cement stucco is hard and brittle and can crack if the base on which it is applied is not stable, its color was gray, from the innate color of most Portland cement, but white Portland cement is used. Today's stucco manufacturers offer a wide range of colors that can be mixed integrally in the finish coat.
Other materials such as stone and glass chips are sometimes "dashed" onto the finish coat before drying, with the finished product known as "rock dash", "pebble dash", or as roughcast if the stones are incorporated directly into the stucco, used from the early 20th through the early 21st Century. As a building material, stucco is a durable and weather-resistant wall covering, it was traditionally used as both an interior and exterior finish applied in one or two thin layers directly over a solid masonry, brick, or stone surface. The finish coat contained an integral color and was textured for appearance. With the introduction and development of heavy timber and light wood-framed construction methods, stucco was adapted for this new use by adding a reinforcement lattice, or lath, attached to and spanning between the structural supports and by increasing the thickness and number of layers of the total system; the lath added support for the wet tensile strength to the brittle, cured stucco. The traditional application of stucco and lath occurs in three coats — the scratch coat, the brown coat and the finish coat.
The two base coats of plaster are either hand-applied or machine sprayed. The finish coat can be floated to a sand finish or sprayed; the lath material was strips of wood installed horizontally on the wall, with spaces between, that would support the wet plaster until it cured. This lath and plaster technique became used. In exterior wall applications, the lath is installed over a weather-resistant asphalt-impregnated felt or paper sheet that protects the framing from the moisture that can pass through the porous stucco. Following World War II, the introduction of metal wire mesh, or netting, replaced the use of wood lath. Galvanizing the wire made it corrosion resistant and suitable for exterior wall applications. At the beginning of the 21st century, this "traditional" method of wire mesh lath and three coats of exterior plaster is still used. In some parts of the United States, stucco is the predominant exterior for both residential and commercial construction. Stucco has been used as a sculptural and artistic material.
Stucco relief was used in the architectural decoration schemes of many ancient cultures. Examples of Egyptian and Etruscan stucco reliefs remain extant. In the art of Mesopotamia and ancient Persian art there was a widespread tradition of figurative and ornamental internal stucco reliefs, which continued into Islamic art, for example in Abbasid Samarra, now using geometrical and plant-based ornament; as the arabesque reached its full maturity, carved stucco remained a common medium for decoration and calligraphic inscriptions. Indian architecture used stucco as a material for sculpture in an architectural context, it is rare in the countryside. In Roman art of the late Republic and early Empire, stucco was used extensively for the decoration of vaults. Though marble was the preferred sculptural medium in most regards, stucco was better for use in vaults because it was lighter and better suited to adapt to the curvature of the ceiling
England in the Middle Ages
England in the Middle Ages concerns the history of England during the medieval period, from the end of the 5th century through to the start of the Early Modern period in 1485. When England emerged from the collapse of the Roman Empire, the economy was in tatters and many of the towns abandoned. After several centuries of Germanic immigration, new identities and cultures began to emerge, developing into kingdoms that competed for power. A rich artistic culture flourished under the Anglo-Saxons, producing epic poems such as Beowulf and sophisticated metalwork; the Anglo-Saxons converted to Christianity in the 7th century and a network of monasteries and convents was built across England. In the 8th and 9th centuries England faced fierce Viking attacks, the fighting lasted for many decades establishing Wessex as the most powerful kingdom and promoting the growth of an English identity. Despite repeated crises of succession and a Danish seizure of power at the start of the 11th century it can be argued that by the 1060s England was a powerful, centralised state with a strong military and successful economy.
The Norman invasion of England in 1066 led to the defeat and replacement of the Anglo-Saxon elite with Norman and French nobles and their supporters. William the Conqueror and his successors took over the existing state system, repressing local revolts and controlling the population through a network of castles; the new rulers introduced a feudal approach to governing England, eradicating the practice of slavery but creating a much wider body of unfree labourers called serfs. The position of women in society changed as laws regarding lordship shifted. England's population more than doubled during the 12th and 13th centuries, fuelling an expansion of the towns and trade, helped by warmer temperatures across Northern Europe. A new wave of monasteries and friaries were established, while ecclesiastical reforms led to tensions between successive kings and archbishops. Despite developments in England's governance and legal system, infighting between the Anglo-Norman elite resulted in multiple civil wars and the loss of Normandy.
The 14th century in England saw the Great Famine and the Black Death, catastrophic events that killed around half of England's population, throwing the economy into chaos and undermining the old political order. Social unrest followed, resulting in the Peasants' Revolt of 1381, while the changes in the economy resulted in the emergence of a new class of gentry, the nobility began to exercise power through a system termed bastard feudalism. Nearly 1,500 villages were deserted by their inhabitants and many men and women sought new opportunities in the towns and cities. New technologies were introduced, England produced some of the great medieval philosophers and natural scientists. English kings in the 14th and 15th centuries laid claim to the French throne, resulting in the Hundred Years' War. At times England enjoyed huge military success, with the economy buoyed by profits from the international wool and cloth trade, but by 1450 the country was in crisis, facing military failure in France and an ongoing recession.
More social unrest broke out, followed by the Wars of the Roses, fought between rival factions of the English nobility. Henry VII's victory in 1485 conventionally marks the end of the Middle Ages in England and the start of the Early Modern period. At the start of the Middle Ages, England was a part of Britannia, a former province of the Roman Empire; the local economy had once been dominated by imperial Roman spending on a large military establishment, which in turn helped to support a complex network of towns and villas. At the end of the 4th century, Roman forces had been withdrawn, this economy collapsed. Germanic immigrants began to arrive in increasing numbers during the 5th century, establishing small farms and settlements, their language, Old English, swiftly spread as people switched from British Celtic and British Latin to the language of this new elite. New political and social identities emerged, including an Anglian culture in the east of England and a Saxon culture in the south, with local groups establishing regiones, small polities ruled over by powerful families and individuals.
By the 7th century, some rulers, including those of Wessex, East Anglia and Kent, had begun to term themselves kings, living in villae regales, royal centres, collecting tribute from the surrounding regiones. In the 7th century, the Kingdom of Mercia rose to prominence under the leadership of King Penda. Mercia invaded neighbouring lands until it loosely controlled around 50 regiones covering much of England. Mercia and the remaining kingdoms, led by their warrior elites, continued to compete for territory throughout the 8th century. Massive earthworks, such as the defensive dyke built by Offa of Mercia, helped to defend key frontiers and towns. In 789, the first Scandinavian raids on England began. Mercia and Northumbria fell in 875 and 876, Alfred of Wessex was driven into internal exile in 878. However, in the same year Alfred won a decisive victory against the Danes at the Battle of Edington, he exploited the fear of the Viking threat to raise large numbers of men and using a network of defended towns called burhs to defend his territory and mobilise royal resources.
Suppressing internal opposition to his rule, Alfred contained the invaders within a region known as the Danelaw. Under his son, Edward the Elder, his grandson, Æthelstan, Wessex expanded further north into Mercia and the Danelaw, by the 950s and the reigns of Eadred a
In architecture, a pavilion has several meanings. In architectural terminology it refers to a subsidiary building, either positioned separately or as an attachment to a main building, its function makes it an object of pleasure. In the traditional architecture of Asia, palaces or other large houses may have one or more subsidiary pavilions that are either freestanding or connected by covered walkways, as in the Forbidden City, Topkapi Palace in Istanbul, in the Red Fort and other buildings of Mughal architecture. In another more specific meaning applied to large palaces, it refers to symmetrically placed subsidiary building blocks that appear to be attached to each end of a main building block or to the outer ends of wings that extend from both sides of a central building block – the corps de logis; such configurations provide an emphatic visual termination to the composition of a large building, akin to bookends. Pavilions may be small garden outbuildings, similar to a kiosk; these were popular up to the 18th century and can be equated to the Italian casina rendered in English "casino".
These resembled small classical temples and follies. If there is some space for food preparation, they may be called a banqueting house. A pavilion built to take advantage of a view may be referred to as a gazebo. Bandstands in a park are a class of pavilion. A pool house by a swimming pool may have sufficient charm to be called a pavilion. By contrast, a free-standing pavilion can be a far larger building such as the Royal Pavilion at Brighton, in fact a large oriental style palace. A sports pavilion is a building adjacent to a sports ground used for changing clothes and partaking of refreshments, it has a verandah to provide protection from the sun for spectators. In cricket grounds, as at Lords, a cricket pavilion tends to be used for the building the players emerge from and return to when this is a large building including a grandstand; the term pavilion can be used in stadia baseball parks, to distinguish a single-decked, covered seating area from the more expensive seating area of the main grandstand and the less expensive seating area of the uncovered bleachers.
Externally, pavilions may be emphasised by any combination of a change in height, colour and ornament. Internally they may be part of a rectangular block, or only connected to the main block by a thin section of building; the two 18th-century English country houses of Houghton Hall and Holkham Hall, illustrate these different approaches in turn. In the Place des Vosges, twin pavilions mark the centers of the north and south sides of the square, they are named the Pavillon du Roi and the Pavillon de la Reine though no royal personage lived in the square. With their triple archways, they function like gatehouses that give access to the privileged space of the square. French gatehouses had been built in the form of such pavilions in the preceding century. In some areas, a pavilion is a term for a hunting lodge; the "Pavillon de Galon" in Luberon, France is a typical 18th century aristocratic hunting pavilion. The pavilion, located on the site of an old Roman villa, includes a garden "à la française,", used by the guests for receptions.
Media related to Pavilions at Wikimedia Commons