College is an educational institution or a constituent part of one. A college may be a tertiary educational institution, a part of a collegiate or federal university. In ancient Rome a collegium was a club or society, a group of living together under a common set of rules. Aside from the educational context - nowadays the most common use of college - there are various other meanings derived from the original Latin term. In the United States, college can be a synonym for university, in Singapore and India, this is known as a junior college. The municipal government of the city of Paris uses the sixth form college as the English name for a lycée. In some national education systems, secondary schools may be called colleges or have college as part of their title, in Australia the term college is applied to any private or independent primary and, secondary school as distinct from a state school. Melbourne Grammar School, Cranbrook School and The Kings School, there has been a recent trend to rename or create government secondary schools as colleges.
In the state of Victoria, some high schools are referred to as secondary colleges. Interestingly, the pre-eminent government secondary school for boys in Melbourne is still named Melbourne High School, in Western Australia, South Australia and the Northern Territory, college is used in the name of all state high schools built since the late 1990s, and some older ones. In New South Wales, some schools, especially multi-campus schools resulting from mergers, are known as secondary colleges. In Queensland some newer schools which accept primary and high school students are styled state college, in Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory, college refers to the final two years of high school, and the institutions which provide this. In this context, college is an independent of the other years of high school. Here, the expression is a version of matriculation college. This is because these schools have traditionally focused on academic, rather than vocational, subjects. Some private secondary schools choose to use the college in their names nevertheless.
Some secondary schools elsewhere in the country, particularly ones within the school system. In New Zealand the word normally refers to a secondary school for ages 13 to 17
Northeastern United States
The Northeast is one of the four regions defined by the Census Bureau for the collection and analysis of statistics. The Census Bureau-defined region has an area of 181,324 sq mi with 162,257 square miles of that being land mass. Though lacking a unified identity, the Northeastern region is the nations most economically developed, densely populated. Of the nations four census regions, the Northeast is the second most urban, with 85 percent of its residing in urban areas. The region is subdivided into New England and the Mid-Atlantic States and this definition has been essentially unchanged since 1880 and is widely used as a standard for data tabulation. C. Similarly, the Geological Society of America defines the Northeast as these same states but with the addition of Maryland, the narrowest definitions include only the states of New England. Other more restrictive definitions include New England and New York as part of the Northeast United States, States beyond the Census Bureau definition that other entities include in the Northeast United States are, Delaware and Washington, D. C.
Delaware, Washington, D. C. and West Virginia Delaware, Washington, most did not settle in North America until the 17th century. Among the many tribes that inhabited this area were those made up the Iroquois nations. In the United States of the 21st century,18 federally recognized tribes reside in the Northeast, the two cultural and geographic regions that form parts of the Northeastern region have distinct histories. The first Europeans to settle New England were Pilgrims from England, the Pilgrims arrived by the Mayflower ship and founded Plymouth Colony so they could practice religion freely. Ten years later, a group of Puritans settled north of Plymouth Colony in Boston to form Massachusetts Bay Colony. In 1636, colonists established Connecticut Colony and Providence Plantations, Providence was founded by Roger Williams, who was banished by Massachusetts for his beliefs in freedom of religion, and it was the first colony to guarantee all citizens freedom of worship. Anne Hutchinson, who was banished by Massachusetts, formed the town of Portsmouth.
Providence and two towns consolidated to form the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations. Although the first settlers of New England were motivated by religion, in recent history. In a 2009 Gallup survey, less than half of residents in Vermont, New Hampshire and Massachusetts reported religion as an important part of their daily life. In a 2010 Gallup survey, less than 30% of residents in Vermont, New Hampshire, New England played a prominent role in early American education
History of education in the United States
The first American schools in the thirteen original colonies opened in the 17th century. Boston Latin School was founded in 1635 and is both the first public school and oldest existing school in the United States, the first free taxpayer-supported public school in North America, the Mather School, was opened in Dorchester, Massachusetts, in 1639. At first, the rudiments of literacy and arithmetic were taught inside the family, literacy rates were much higher in New England because much of the population had been deeply involved in the Protestant Reformation and learned to read in order to read the Scriptures. Literacy was much lower in the South, where the Anglican Church was the established church, single working-class people formed a large part of the population in the early years, arriving as indentured servants. The planter class did not support public education but arranged for private tutors for their children, by the mid-19th century, the role of the schools in New England had expanded to such an extent that they took over many of the educational tasks traditionally handled by parents.
All the New England colonies required towns to set up schools, in 1642 the Massachusetts Bay Colony made proper education compulsory, other New England colonies followed this example. Similar statutes were adopted in colonies in the 1640s and 1650s. The schools were all male and all white, with few facilities for girls, in the 18th century, common schools were established, students of all ages were under the control of one teacher in one room. Although they were supplied at the local level, they were not free. Students families were charged tuition or rate bills, the larger towns in New England opened grammar schools, the forerunner of the modern high school. The most famous was the Boston Latin School, which is still in operation as a high school. Hopkins School in New Haven, was another, by the 1780s, most had been replaced by private academies. By the early 19th century New England operated a network of high schools, now called prep schools, typified by Phillips Andover Academy, Phillips Exeter Academy.
They became the major feeders for Ivy League colleges in the mid-19th century and these prep schools became coeducational in the 1970s, and remain highly prestigious in the 21st century. Residents of the Upper South, centered on the Chesapeake Bay, in late 17th century Maryland, the Catholic Jesuits operated some schools for Catholic students. Generally the planter class hired tutors for the education of their children or sent them to private schools, during the colonial years, some sent their sons to England or Scotland for schooling. In March 1620, George Thorpe sailed from Bristol for Virginia and he became a deputy in charge of 10,000 acres of land to be set aside for a university and Indian school. The plans for the school for Native Americans ended when George Thorpe was killed in the Indian Massacre of 1622, in Virginia, rudimentary schooling for the poor and paupers was provided by the local parish
Higher education in the United States
Higher education in the United States is an optional final stage of formal learning following secondary education. These may be public universities, private universities, liberal arts colleges, community colleges, according to the National Student Clearinghouse, US college enrollment has declined for five consecutive years and is projected to continue declining for the next two decades. Unlike Tertiary education system of UK, American education is unique in the world to place emphasis on Liberal Arts education in its higher education curriculum. As of 2012, the latest figures available in 2015, the US has a total of 4,726 Title IV-eligible, the US had 21 million students in higher education, roughly 5. 7% of the total population. About 13 million of these students were enrolled full-time which was 81,000 students lower than 2010. Colleges and universities in the U. S. vary in terms of goals, some may emphasize a vocational, engineering, many combine some or all of the above, being a comprehensive university.
Almost all colleges and universities are coeducational, during a dramatic transition in the 1970s, all but a handful of mens colleges started accepting women. Over 80 percent of the colleges of the 1960s have closed or merged. Over 100 historically black colleges and universities operate, both private and public, Higher education has led to the creation of accreditation organizations, independent of the government, to vouch for the quality of competing degrees. Accrediting agencies have been criticized for possible conflicts of interest that lead to favorable results, non-accredited institutions exist, such as Bible colleges, but the students are not eligible for federal loans. Community colleges are often, not always two-year colleges and they have open admissions, with generally lower tuition than other state or private schools. Graduates receive the associates degree such as an Associate of Arts upon graduating, many students earn an associate degree at a two-year institution, before transferring to a four-year institution to study another two years to earn a bachelors degree.
Four-year colleges usually have a number of students, offer a greater range of studies. They are either primarily undergraduate institutions or the institution of a university. Some states, such as Washington, now offer schools simply known as colleges, the elevation in status comes from a cooperation between the community college and local universities. There are two distinctions between colleges and community colleges that arise from this arrangement. The second primary difference is that colleges, in cooperation with university, some colleges go so far as to offer particular, specialized 4-year bachelors degrees, on behalf of the university. Four-year institutions in the U. S. emphasizing the arts are liberal arts colleges, entirely undergraduate institutions
Education in the United States
Education in the United States is provided by public and home schools. Funding comes from the state and federal government, private schools are generally free to determine their own curriculum and staffing policies, with voluntary accreditation available through independent regional accreditation authorities. About 87% of school-age children attend schools, about 10% attend private schools. Education is compulsory over an age range starting between five and eight and ending somewhere between ages sixteen and eighteen, depending on the state and this requirement can be satisfied in public schools, state-certified private schools, or an approved home school program. In most schools, education is divided into three levels, elementary school, middle or junior school, and high school. Children are usually divided by age groups into grades, ranging from kindergarten and first grade for the youngest children, there are a large number and wide variety of publicly and privately administered institutions of higher education throughout the country.
Post-secondary education, divided into college, as the first tertiary degree, the United States spends more per student on education than any other country. In 2014, the Pearson/Economist Intelligence Unit rated US education as 14th best in the world, just behind Russia. In 2015 the Programme for International Student Assessment rated U. S. high school students #40 globally in Math and #24 in Science and Reading. ”King, Jr. acknowledged the results in conceding U. S. students were well behind their peers. According to a report published by the U. S. News & World Report, of the top ten colleges and universities in the world, government-supported and free public schools for all began to be established after the American Revolution. Between 1750 and 1870 parochial schools appeared as ad hoc efforts by parishes, many parochial elementary schools were developed which were open to all children in the parish, mainly Catholics, but Lutherans and Orthodox Jews. Nonsectarian Common schools designed by Horace Mann were opened, which taught the three Rs and history and geography, States passed laws to make schooling compulsory between 1852 and 1917.
They used federal funding designated by the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Acts of 1862 and 1890 to set up land grant colleges specializing in agriculture, by 1870, every state had free elementary schools, albeit only in urban centers. His movement spread to many other Southern states to small colleges for Colored or Negro students entitled A. & M. or A. & T. some of which developed into state universities. By 1910,72 percent of children attended school, private schools spread during this time, as well as colleges and — in the rural centers — land grant colleges also. Between 1910 and 1940 the high school movement resulted in increasing public high school enrollment. By 1930,100 percent of children attended school, during World War II, enrollment in high schools and colleges plunged as many high school and college students dropped out to take war jobs. The 1954 Supreme Court case Brown v, in 1965, the far-reaching Elementary and Secondary Education Act, passed as a part of President Lyndon B
Secondary education in the United States
The United States historically had a demand for general skills rather than specific training/apprenticeships. It recommended twelve years of instruction, consisting of eight years of education followed by four years of high school. At the turn of the 20th Century, it was common for high schools to have entrance examinations which restricted entrance to fewer than 5 percent of the population in preparation for college, most were expected to be ready for a job or a family after junior high school. The first public schools started around the 1830s and 40s within the wealthier areas of similar income levels. There was a shift towards local decision making by school districts, the shift from theoretical to a more practical approach in curriculum resulted in an increase of skilled blue-collar workers. The open enrollment nature and relatively relaxed standards, such as ease of repeating a grade, there was an increase in educational attainment, primarily from the grass-roots movement of building and staffing public high schools.
In 1954 the Supreme Court case Brown v. By 1955, in 1965 the far-reaching Elementary and Secondary Education Act, passed as a part of President Lyndon B. Johnsons War on Poverty, provided funds for primary and secondary education while explicitly forbidding the establishment of a national curriculum and it emphasized equal access to education and established high standards and accountability. The bill aimed to shorten the achievement gaps between students by providing every child with fair and equal opportunities to achieve an exceptional education, after 1980, the growth in educational attainment decreased, which caused the growth of the educated workforce to slow down. Pressure to allow people and organizations to create new Charter schools developed during the 1980s and were embraced by the American Federation of Teachers in 1988. These would be legally and financially autonomous public school free from state laws and district regulations. Minnesota was the first state to pass a school law in 1991.
By 2009 charter schools were operating in 41 states and 59% of these had waiting lists, the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 required all public schools receiving federal funding to administer a statewide standardized test annually to all students. Standards-based education has been embraced in most states which changed the measurement of success to academic achievement, by 2006, two-thirds of students lived in states with effective standards requiring passing tests to ensure that all graduates had achieved these standards. Great indirect authority is, exercised through federal funding of national programs, the U. S. government may propose, but cannot enforce national goals and standards, which generally lie beyond its jurisdiction. Many high schools in the United States offer a choice of vocational or college prep curriculum, the level of specialization allowed varies depending on both the state and district the school is located in. Many states require that courses in the areas of English, social studies.
The majority of high schools require four English credits to graduate, three science courses are required
Education reform is the name given to the goal of changing public education. Historically, reforms have taken different forms because the motivations of reformers have differed, since the 1980s, education reform has been focused on changing the existing system from one focused on inputs to one focused on outputs. In the United States, education reform acknowledges and encourages public education as the source of K-12 education for American youth. Education reformers desire to make public education into a market, where accountability creates high-stakes from curriculum standards tied to standardized tests, as a result of this input-output system, equality has been conceptualized as an end point, which is often evidenced by an achievement gap among diverse populations. This conceptualization of education reform is based on the market-logic of competition, as a consequence, competition creates inequality which has continued to drive the market-logic of equality at an end point by reproduce the achievement gap among diverse youth.
Overall, education reform has and continues to be used as a substitute for needed reforms in the United States. The one constant for all forms of education includes the idea that small changes in education will have large social returns in citizen health, wealth. For example, a stated motivation has been to reduce cost to students, from ancient times until the 1800s, one goal was to reduce the expense of a classical education. Ideally, classical education is undertaken with a highly educated full-time personal tutor, this was available only to the most wealthy. Encyclopedias, public libraries and grammar schools are examples of innovations intended to lower the cost of a classical education, related reforms attempted to develop similar classical results by concentrating on why, and which questions neglected by classical education. Abstract, introspective answers to these questions can theoretically compress large amounts of facts into relatively few principles and this path was taken by some Transcendentalist educators, such as Amos Bronson Alcott.
In the early age, Victorian schools were reformed to teach commercially useful topics, such as modern languages and mathematics, rather than classical subjects, such as Latin. Many reformers focused on reforming society by reforming education on scientific, pragmatic or democratic principles. John Dewey and Anton Makarenko are prominent examples of such reformers, some reformers incorporated several motivations, e. g. Maria Montessori, who both educated for peace, and to meet the needs of the child. Reform has taken many forms and directions, throughout history and the present day, the meaning and methods of education have changed through debates over what content or experiences result in an educated individual or an educated society. Changes may be implemented by individual educators and/or by broad-based school organization and/or by curriculum changes with performance evaluations, Plato believed that children would never learn unless they wanted to learn. Compulsory learning never sticks in the mind, an educational debate in the time of the Roman Empire arose after Christianity had achieved broad acceptance.
Though educational reform occurred on a level at various points throughout history
Southern United States
The Southern United States, commonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America. The South does not fully match the geographic south of the United States and New Mexico, which are geographically in the southern part of the country, are rarely considered part, while West Virginia, which separated from Virginia in 1863, commonly is. Some scholars have proposed definitions of the South that do not coincide neatly with state boundaries, while the states of Delaware and Maryland, as well as the District of Columbia permitted slavery prior to the start of the Civil War, they remained with the Union. However, the United States Census Bureau puts them in the South, the South is defined as including the southeastern and south-central United States. The region is known for its culture and history, having developed its own customs, musical styles, and cuisines, the Southern ethnic heritage is diverse and includes strong European and some Native American components.
Since the late 1960s, black people have many offices in Southern states, especially in the coastal states of Virginia. Historically, the South relied heavily on agriculture, and was rural until after 1945. It has since become more industrialized and urban and has attracted national and international migrants, the American South is now among the fastest-growing areas in the United States. Houston is the largest city in the Southern United States, sociological research indicates that Southern collective identity stems from political and cultural distinctiveness from the rest of the United States. The region contains almost all of the Bible Belt, an area of high Protestant church attendance and predominantly conservative, studies have shown that Southerners are more conservative than non-Southerners in several areas, including religion, international relations and race relations. Apart from its climate, the experience in the South increasingly resembles the rest of the nation. The arrival of millions of Northerners and millions of Hispanics meant the introduction of cultural values, the process has worked both ways, with aspects of Southern culture spreading throughout a greater portion of the rest of the United States in a process termed Southernization.
The question of how to define the subregions in the South has been the focus of research for nearly a century, as defined by the United States Census Bureau, the Southern region of the United States includes sixteen states. As of 2010, an estimated 114,555,744 people, or thirty-seven percent of all U. S. residents, lived in the South, the nations most populous region. Other terms related to the South include, The Old South, the New South, usually including the South Atlantic States. The Solid South, region largely controlled by the Democratic Party from 1877 to 1964, before that, blacks were elected to national office and many to local office through the 1880s, Populist-Republican coalitions gained victories for Fusionist candidates for governors in the 1890s. Includes at least all the 11 former Confederate States, Southeastern United States, usually including the Carolinas, the Virginias, Kentucky, Alabama and Florida. The Deep South, various definitions, usually including Louisiana, Mississippi, occasionally, parts of adjoining states are included
Midwestern United States
It was officially named the North Central region by the Census Bureau until 1984. Illinois is the most populous of the states and North Dakota the least, a 2012 report from the United States Census put the population of the Midwest at 65,377,684. The Midwest is divided by the Census Bureau into two divisions, the East North Central Division includes Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin, all of which are part of the Great Lakes region. Major rivers in the include, from east to west, the Ohio River, the Upper Mississippi River. Chicago is the most populated city in the American Midwest and the third most populous in the entire country, other large Midwest cities include, Columbus, Milwaukee, Kansas City, Minneapolis, Wichita and St. Louis. Chicago and its suburbs form the largest metropolitan area with 9.8 million people, followed by Metro Detroit. Paul, Greater St. Louis, Greater Cleveland, Greater Cincinnati, Kansas City metro area, the term Midwestern has been in use since the 1880s to refer to portions of the central United States.
A variant term, Middle West, has used since the 19th century. Another term sometimes applied to the general region is the heartland. Other designations for the region have fallen out of use, such as the Northwest or Old Northwest, the Northwest Territory was one of the earliest territories of the United States, stretching northwest from the Ohio River to northern Minnesota and upper-Mississippi. The upper-Mississippi watershed including the Missouri and Illinois Rivers was the setting for the earlier French settlements of the Illinois Country, economically the region is balanced between heavy industry and agriculture, with finance and services such as medicine and education becoming increasingly important. Its central location makes it a crossroads for river boats, autos, trucks. Politically the region swings back and forth between the parties, and thus is heavily contested and often decisive in elections, after the sociological study Middletown, which was based on Muncie, commentators used Midwestern cities as typical of the nation.
The region has a higher ratio than the Northeast, the West. Traditional definitions of the Midwest include the Northwest Ordinance Old Northwest states, the states of the Old Northwest are known as Great Lakes states and are east-north central in the United States. The Ohio River runs along the section while the Mississippi River runs north to south near the center. Many of the Louisiana Purchase states in the west-north central United States, are known as Great Plains states. The Midwest lies north of the 36°30′ parallel that the 1820 Missouri Compromise established as the line between future slave and non-slave states
A university is an institution of higher education and research which grants academic degrees in various academic disciplines. Universities typically provide undergraduate education and postgraduate education, the word university is derived from the Latin universitas magistrorum et scholarium, which roughly means community of teachers and scholars. Universities were created in Italy and evolved from Cathedral schools for the clergy during the High Middle Ages, the original Latin word universitas refers in general to a number of persons associated into one body, a society, community, corporation, etc. Like other guilds, they were self-regulating and determined the qualifications of their members, an important idea in the definition of a university is the notion of academic freedom. The first documentary evidence of this comes from early in the life of the first university, the University of Bologna adopted an academic charter, the Constitutio Habita, in 1158 or 1155, which guaranteed the right of a traveling scholar to unhindered passage in the interests of education.
Today this is claimed as the origin of academic freedom and this is now widely recognised internationally - on 18 September 1988,430 university rectors signed the Magna Charta Universitatum, marking the 900th anniversary of Bolognas foundation. The number of universities signing the Magna Charta Universitatum continues to grow, the university is generally regarded as a formal institution that has its origin in the Medieval Christian setting. The earliest universities were developed under the aegis of the Latin Church by papal bull as studia generalia and it is possible, that the development of cathedral schools into universities was quite rare, with the University of Paris being an exception. Later they were founded by Kings or municipal administrations. In the early period, most new universities were founded from pre-existing schools. Many historians state that universities and cathedral schools were a continuation of the interest in learning promoted by monasteries, the first universities in Europe with a form of corporate/guild structure were the University of Bologna, the University of Paris, and the University of Oxford.
The students had all the power … and dominated the masters and leaders of city governments perceived the potential benefits of having a scholarly expertise develop with the ability to address difficult problems and achieve desired ends. The emergence of humanism was essential to understanding of the possible utility of universities as well as the revival of interest in knowledge gained from ancient Greek texts. The rediscovery of Aristotles works–more than 3000 pages of it would eventually be translated–fuelled a spirit of inquiry into natural processes that had begun to emerge in the 12th century. Some scholars believe that these represented one of the most important document discoveries in Western intellectual history. Richard Dales, for instance, calls the discovery of Aristotles works a turning point in the history of Western thought and this became the primary mission of lecturers, and the expectation of students. The university culture developed differently in northern Europe than it did in the south, Latin was the language of the university, used for all texts, lectures and examinations.
Professors lectured on the books of Aristotle for logic, natural philosophy, and metaphysics, while Hippocrates, outside of these commonalities, great differences separated north and south, primarily in subject matter