Cinema of the United Kingdom
The United Kingdom has had a significant film industry for over a century. Many British actors have achieved fame and critical success, including Maggie Smith, Michael Caine, Sean Connery. Some of the films with the largest ever box office returns have been made in the United Kingdom, including the second, the identity of the British industry, and its relationship with the Cinema of the United States, has been the subject of debate. The history of production in Britain has often been affected by attempts to compete with the American industry. The career of the producer Alexander Korda was marked by this objective, the Rank Organisation attempted to do so in the 1940s, in 2009 British films grossed around $2 billion worldwide and achieved a market share of around 7% globally and 17% in the United Kingdom. UK box-office takings totalled £1.1 billion in 2012, with 172.5 million admissions, the British Film Institute has produced a poll ranking what they consider to be the 100 greatest British films of all time, the BFI Top 100 British films.
The annual BAFTA awards hosted by the British Academy of Film, the first people to build and run a working 35 mm camera in Britain were Robert W. Paul and Birt Acres. They made the first British film Incident at Clovelly Cottage in February 1895, soon several British film companies had opened to meet the demand for new films, such as Mitchell and Kenyon in Blackburn. Although the earliest British films were of everyday events, the early 20th century saw the appearance of shorts, mainly comedies. The early films were often melodramatic in tone, and there was a preference for story lines already known to the audience, in particular, adaptations of Shakespeare plays. The Lumière brothers first brought their show to London in 1896, in 1898 American producer Charles Urban expanded the London-based Warwick Trading Company to produce British films, mostly documentary and news. Also in 1898 Hepworth Studios was founded in Lambeth, South London by Cecil Hepworth, the Bamforths began producing films in Yorkshire, in 1902 Ealing Studios was founded by Will Barker, becoming the oldest continuously-operating film studio in the world.
In 1902 the earliest color film in the world was made, like other films made at the time, in 2012 it was found by the National Media Museum in Bradford after lying forgotten in an old tin for 110 years. The previous title for earliest color film, using the Kinemacolour process, was thought to date from 1909 and was actually an inferior method, the re-discovered films were made by pioneer Edward Raymond Turner from London who patented his process on 22 March 1899. In 1903 Frank Mottershaw of Sheffield produced the film A Daring Daylight Robbery, in 1911 the Ideal Film Company was founded in Soho, distributing almost 400 films by 1934, and producing 80. In 1913 stage director Maurice Elvey began directing British films, becoming Britains most prolific film director, in 1914 Elstree Studios was founded, and acquired in 1928 by German-born Ludwig Blattner, who invented a magnetic steel tape recording system that was adopted by the BBC in 1930. In 1920 Gaumont opened Islington Studios, where Alfred Hitchcock got his start, in 1920 Cricklewood Studios was founded by Sir Oswald Stoll, becoming Britains largest film studio, known for Fu Manchu and Sherlock Holmes film series.
In 1920 the short-lived company Minerva Films was founded in London by the actor Leslie Howard and his friend, some of their early films include four written by A. A. Milne including The Bump, starring C