International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a numeric commercial book identifier, intended to be unique. Publishers purchase ISBNs from an affiliate of the International ISBN Agency. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. The method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country; the initial ISBN identification format was devised in 1967, based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966. The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. Published books sometimes appear without an ISBN; the International ISBN agency sometimes assigns such books ISBNs on its own initiative.
Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines and newspapers. The International Standard Music Number covers musical scores; the Standard Book Numbering code is a 9-digit commercial book identifier system created by Gordon Foster, Emeritus Professor of Statistics at Trinity College, for the booksellers and stationers WHSmith and others in 1965. The ISBN identification format was conceived in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the United States by Emery Koltay; the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO 2108. The United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. ISO has appointed the International ISBN Agency as the registration authority for ISBN worldwide and the ISBN Standard is developed under the control of ISO Technical Committee 46/Subcommittee 9 TC 46/SC 9; the ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978.
An SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit "0". For example, the second edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has "SBN 340 01381 8" – 340 indicating the publisher, 01381 their serial number, 8 being the check digit; this can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8. Since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format, compatible with "Bookland" European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each variation of a book. For example, an ebook, a paperback, a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN; the ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, 10 digits long if assigned before 2007. An International Standard Book Number consists of 4 parts or 5 parts: for a 13-digit ISBN, a prefix element – a GS1 prefix: so far 978 or 979 have been made available by GS1, the registration group element, the registrant element, the publication element, a checksum character or check digit. A 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces. Figuring out how to separate a given ISBN is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN is most used among others special identifiers to describe references in Wikipedia and can help to find the same sources with different description in various language versions. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency, responsible for that country or territory regardless of the publication language; the ranges of ISBNs assigned to any particular country are based on the publishing profile of the country concerned, so the ranges will vary depending on the number of books and the number and size of publishers that are active. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture and thus may receive direct funding from government to support their services. In other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded.
A full directory of ISBN agencies is available on the International ISBN Agency website. Partial listing: Australia: the commercial library services agency Thorpe-Bowker.
Welsh or y Gymraeg is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages. It is spoken natively in Wales, by some in England, in Y Wladfa, it has been known in English as "Cambrian", "Cambric" and "Cymric". Of usual residents in Wales aged three and over, 19.0% were able to speak Welsh according to the United Kingdom Census 2011. According to the 2001 Census, 20.8 per cent of the population aged 3+ were able to speak Welsh. This suggests that there was a decrease in the number of Welsh speakers in Wales from 2001 to 2011 – from about 582,000 to 562,000 respectively; the Annual Population Survey conducted by the ONS for the year ending in December 2018 suggested that 898,700 people or 29.8 per cent of people aged three or over in Wales were able to speak Welsh. The results for the most recent National Survey for Wales suggested that 19 percent of the population aged 16 and over were able to speak Welsh, with an additional 12 percent noting that they had ‘some Welsh speaking ability’; the Welsh Language Measure 2011 gave the Welsh language official status in Wales, making it the only language, de jure official in any part of the United Kingdom, with English being de facto official.
The Welsh language, along with English, is a de jure official language of the National Assembly for Wales. The language of the Welsh developed from the language of Britons, according to academic T. M. Charles-Edwards; the emergence of Welsh was not instantaneous and identifiable. Instead, the shift occurred over a long period of time, with some historians claiming that it had happened by as late as the 9th century, with a watershed moment being that proposed by Kenneth H. Jackson, the Battle of Dyrham, a military battle between the West Saxons and the Britons in 577 AD. which split the South Western British from direct overland contact with the Welsh. Four periods are identified in the history of Welsh, with rather indistinct boundaries: Primitive Welsh, Old Welsh, Middle Welsh, Modern Welsh; the period following the language's emergence is sometimes referred to as Primitive Welsh, followed by the Old Welsh period –, considered to stretch from the beginning of the 9th century to sometime during the 12th century.
The Middle Welsh period is considered to have lasted from until the 14th century, when the Modern Welsh period began, which in turn is divided into Early and Late Modern Welsh. The name Welsh originated as an exonym given to its speakers by the Anglo-Saxons, meaning "foreign speech"; the native term for the language is Cymraeg: North/Central Wales pronunciation /kɘm'raɪg/, South Wales pronunciation /kɘm'ra:g/. Welsh evolved from the Celtic language spoken by the ancient Celtic Britons. Classified as Insular Celtic, the British language arrived in Britain during the Bronze Age or Iron Age and was spoken throughout the island south of the Firth of Forth. During the Early Middle Ages the British language began to fragment due to increased dialect differentiation, thus evolving into Welsh and the other Brittonic languages, it is not clear. Kenneth H. Jackson suggested that the evolution in syllabic structure and sound pattern was complete by around 550, labelled the period between and about 800 "Primitive Welsh".
This Primitive Welsh may have been spoken in both Wales and the Hen Ogledd – the Brittonic-speaking areas of what is now northern England and southern Scotland – and therefore may have been the ancestor of Cumbric as well as Welsh. Jackson, believed that the two varieties were distinct by that time; the earliest Welsh poetry – that attributed to the Cynfeirdd or "Early Poets" – is considered to date to the Primitive Welsh period. However, much of this poetry was composed in the Hen Ogledd, raising further questions about the dating of the material and language in which it was composed; this discretion stems from the fact that Cumbric was believed to have been the language used in Hen Ogledd. An 8th-century inscription in Tywyn shows the language dropping inflections in the declension of nouns. Janet Davies proposed; this is evidenced by the dropping of final syllables from Brittonic: *bardos "poet" became bardd, *abona "river" became afon. Though both Davies and Jackson cite minor changes in syllable structure and sounds as evidence for the creation of Old Welsh, Davies suggests it may be more appropriate to refer to this derivative language as Lingua Brittanica rather than characterising it as a new language altogether.
The argued dates for the period of "Primitive Welsh" are debated, with some historians' suggestions differing by hundreds of years. The next main period is Old Welsh; as Germanic and Gaelic colonisation of Britain proceeded, the Brittonic speakers in Wales were split off from those in northern England, speaking Cumbric, those in the southwest, speaking what would become Cornish, so the languages diverged. Both the works of Aneirin and the Book of Taliesin were during this era. Middle Welsh is the label attached to the Welsh of the 12th to 14th centuries, of which much more remains than for any earlier period; this is the language of nearly all surviving early manuscripts of the Mabinogion, although the tales themselves are much older. It is
Irish is a Goidelic language originating in Ireland and spoken by the Irish people. Irish is spoken as a first language in substantial areas of counties Galway, Kerry and Donegal, smaller areas of Waterford and Meath, a few other locations, as a second language by a larger group of non-habitual speakers across the country. Irish has been the predominant language of the Irish people for most of their recorded history, they brought it with them to other regions, notably Scotland and the Isle of Man, where Middle Irish gave rise to Scottish Gaelic and Manx respectively, it has the oldest vernacular literature in Western Europe. Irish has constitutional status as the national and first official language of the Republic of Ireland and is an recognised minority language in Northern Ireland, it is among the official languages of the European Union. The public body Foras na Gaeilge is responsible for the promotion of the language throughout the island of Ireland. In An Caighdeán Oifigiúil the name of the language — in the Irish language — is Gaeilge.
Before the spelling reform of 1948, this form was spelled Gaedhilge. Older spellings of this include Gaoidhealg in Classical Goídelc in Old Irish; the modern spelling results from the deletion of the silent dh in the middle of Gaedhilge, whereas Goidelic, used to refer to the language family including Irish, is derived from the Old Irish term. Other forms of the name found in the various modern Irish dialects include Gaedhilic/Gaeilic/Gaeilig or Gaedhlag in Ulster Irish and northern Connacht Irish and Gaedhealaing/Gaoluinn/Gaelainn in Munster Irish; the name of the language — in the English language — is Irish, defined in the European Union as "the Celtic language of Ireland". The English-language term Gaelic is sometimes used outside Ireland to refer to the language but according to the European Union, "Contrary to certain usage, those two terms are not synonymous" and it defines Gaelic as the "Celtic language group of Ireland and Scotland". In Europe and in Asia the language is referred to as Irish, with Gaelic or Irish Gaelic used in some instances elsewhere.
The term Irish Gaelic is used when English speakers discuss the relationship between the three Goidelic languages. Written Irish is first attested in Ogham inscriptions from the 4th century AD, a stage of the language known as Primitive Irish; these writings have been found throughout the west coast of Great Britain. Primitive Irish transitioned into Old Irish through the 5th century. Old Irish, dating from the 6th century, used the Latin alphabet and is attested in marginalia to Latin manuscripts. During this time, the Irish language absorbed some Latin words, some via Old Welsh, including ecclesiastical terms: examples are easpag from episcopus, Domhnach. By the 10th century, Old Irish had evolved into Middle Irish, spoken throughout Ireland and in Scotland and the Isle of Man, it is the language including the Ulster Cycle. From the 12th century, Middle Irish began to evolve into modern Irish in Ireland, into Scottish Gaelic in Scotland, into the Manx language in the Isle of Man. Early Modern Irish, dating from the 13th century, was the basis of the literary language of both Ireland and Gaelic-speaking Scotland.
Modern Irish, as attested in the work of such writers as Geoffrey Keating, may be said to date from the 17th century, was the medium of popular literature from that time on. From the 18th century on, the language lost ground in the east of the country; the reasons behind this shift were complex but came down to a number of factors: Discouragement of its use by Anglo-British administrations. The Catholic church supporting the use of English over Irish; the spread of bilingualism from the 1750s, resulting in language shift. It was a change characterised by transitional bilingualism. By the mid-18th century, English was becoming a language of the Catholic middle class, the Catholic Church and public intellectuals in the east of the country; as the value of English became apparent, the prohibition on Irish in schools had the sanction of parents. Once it became apparent that immigration to the United States and Canada was for a large portion of the population, the importance of learning English became relevant.
This allowed the new immigrants to get jobs in areas other than farming. It has been estimated that, due to the immigration to the United States because of the Famine, anywhere from a quarter to a third of the immigrants were Irish speakers. Irish was not marginal to Ireland's modernisation in the 19th century, as assumed. In the first half of the century there were still around three million people for whom Irish was the primary language, their numbers alone made them a cultural and social force. Irish speakers insisted on using the language in law courts, Irish was common in commercial transactions; the language was implicated in the "devotional revolution" which marked the standardisation of Catholic religious practice and was widely used in a political context. Down to the time of the Great Famine and afterwards, the language was in use by all clas
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to as Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland. A member of the Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages, Scottish Gaelic, like Modern Irish and Manx, developed out of Middle Irish. Most of modern Scotland was once Gaelic-speaking, as evidenced by Gaelic-language placenames. In the 2011 census of Scotland, 57,375 people reported as able to speak Gaelic, 1,275 fewer than in 2001; the highest percentages of Gaelic speakers were in the Outer Hebrides. There are revival efforts, the number of speakers of the language under age 20 did not decrease between the 2001 and 2011 censuses. Outside Scotland, Canadian Gaelic is spoken in Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. Scottish Gaelic is not an official language of either the United Kingdom. However, it is classed as an indigenous language under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, which the British government has ratified, the Gaelic Language Act 2005 established a language development body, Bòrd na Gàidhlig.
Aside from "Scottish Gaelic", the language may be referred to as "Gaelic", pronounced or in English. "Gaelic" may refer to the Irish language. Scottish Gaelic is distinct from Scots, the Middle English-derived language varieties which had come to be spoken in most of the Lowlands of Scotland by the early modern era. Prior to the 15th century, these dialects were known as Inglis by its own speakers, with Gaelic being called Scottis. From the late 15th century, however, it became common for such speakers to refer to Scottish Gaelic as Erse and the Lowland vernacular as Scottis. Today, Scottish Gaelic is recognised as a separate language from Irish, so the word Erse in reference to Scottish Gaelic is no longer used. Gaelic was believed to have been brought to Scotland, in the 4th–5th centuries CE, by settlers from Ireland who founded the Gaelic kingdom of Dál Riata on Scotland's west coast in present-day Argyll.:551:66 However, archaeologist Dr Ewan Campbell has argued that there is no archaeological or placename evidence of a migration or takeover.
This view of the medieval accounts is shared by other historians. Regardless of how it came to be spoken in the region, Gaelic in Scotland was confined to Dál Riata until the eighth century, when it began expanding into Pictish areas north of the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde. By 900, Pictish appears to have become extinct replaced by Gaelic.:238–244 An exception might be made for the Northern Isles, where Pictish was more supplanted by Norse rather than by Gaelic. During the reign of Caustantín mac Áeda, outsiders began to refer to the region as the kingdom of Alba rather than as the kingdom of the Picts. However, though the Pictish language did not disappear a process of Gaelicisation was under way during the reigns of Caustantín and his successors. By a certain point during the 11th century, all the inhabitants of Alba had become Gaelicised Scots, Pictish identity was forgotten. In 1018, after the conquest of the Lothians by the Kingdom of Scotland, Gaelic reached its social, cultural and geographic zenith.:16–18 Colloquial speech in Scotland had been developing independently of that in Ireland since the eighth century.
For the first time, the entire region of modern-day Scotland was called Scotia in Latin, Gaelic was the lingua Scotica.:276:554 In southern Scotland, Gaelic was strong in Galloway, adjoining areas to the north and west, West Lothian, parts of western Midlothian. It was spoken to a lesser degree in north Ayrshire, the Clyde Valley and eastern Dumfriesshire. In south-eastern Scotland, there is no evidence that Gaelic was widely spoken. Many historians mark the reign of King Malcom Canmore as the beginning of Gaelic's eclipse in Scotland, his wife Margaret of Wessex spoke no Gaelic, gave her children Anglo-Saxon rather than Gaelic names, brought many English bishops and monastics to Scotland.:19 When Malcolm and Margaret died in 1093, the Gaelic aristocracy rejected their anglicised sons and instead backed Malcolm's brother Donald Bàn. Donald had spent 17 years in Gaelic Ireland and his power base was in the Gaelic west of Scotland, he was the last Scottish monarch to be buried on Iona, the traditional burial place of the Gaelic Kings of Dàl Riada and the Kingdom of Alba.
However, during the reigns of Malcolm Canmore's sons, Alexander I and David I, Anglo-Norman names and practices spread throughout Scotland south of the Forth–Clyde line and along the northeastern coastal plain as far north as Moray. Norman French displaced Gaelic at court; the establishment of royal burghs throughout the same area under David I, attracted large numbers of foreigners speaking Old English. This was the beginning of Gaelic's status as a predominantly rural language in Scotland.:19-23 Clan chiefs in the northern and western parts of Scotland continued to support Gaelic bards who remained a central feature of court life there. The semi-independent Lordship of the Isles in the Hebrides and western coastal mainland remained Gaelic since the language's recovery there in the 12th century, providing a political foundation for cultural prestige down to the end of the 15th century.:553-6By the mid-14th century what came to be called Scots emerged as the official language of government and law.:139 Scotland's emergent nat
English is a West Germanic language, first spoken in early medieval England and became a global lingua franca. It is named after the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes that migrated to the area of Great Britain that took their name, as England. Both names derive from a peninsula in the Baltic Sea; the language is related to Frisian and Low Saxon, its vocabulary has been influenced by other Germanic languages Norse, to a greater extent by Latin and French. English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years; the earliest forms of English, a group of West Germanic dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the 5th century, are collectively called Old English. Middle English began in the late 11th century with the Norman conquest of England. Early Modern English began in the late 15th century with the introduction of the printing press to London, the printing of the King James Bible and the start of the Great Vowel Shift. Through the worldwide influence of the British Empire, the United States, Modern English has been spreading around the world since the 17th century.
Through all types of printed and electronic media, spurred by the emergence of the United States as a global superpower, English has become the leading language of international discourse and the lingua franca in many regions and professional contexts such as science and law. English is the third most-spoken native language in the world, after Standard Chinese and Spanish, it is the most learned second language and is either the official language or one of the official languages in 60 sovereign states. There are more people. English is the most spoken language in the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia and New Zealand, it is spoken in some areas of the Caribbean and South Asia, it is a co-official language of the United Nations, the European Union and many other world and regional international organisations. It is the most spoken Germanic language, accounting for at least 70% of speakers of this Indo-European branch. English has a vast vocabulary, though counting. English speakers are called "Anglophones".
Modern English grammar is the result of a gradual change from a typical Indo-European dependent marking pattern, with a rich inflectional morphology and free word order, to a analytic pattern with little inflection, a fixed SVO word order and a complex syntax. Modern English relies more on auxiliary verbs and word order for the expression of complex tenses and mood, as well as passive constructions and some negation. Despite noticeable variation among the accents and dialects of English used in different countries and regions—in terms of phonetics and phonology, sometimes vocabulary and spelling—English-speakers from around the world are able to communicate with one another with relative ease. English is an Indo-European language and belongs to the West Germanic group of the Germanic languages. Old English originated from a Germanic tribal and linguistic continuum along the Frisian North Sea coast, whose languages evolved into the Anglic languages in the British Isles, into the Frisian languages and Low German/Low Saxon on the continent.
The Frisian languages, which together with the Anglic languages form the Anglo-Frisian languages, are the closest living relatives of English. Low German/Low Saxon is closely related, sometimes English, the Frisian languages, Low German are grouped together as the Ingvaeonic languages, though this grouping remains debated. Old English evolved into Middle English. Particular dialects of Old and Middle English developed into a number of other Anglic languages, including Scots and the extinct Fingallian and Forth and Bargy dialects of Ireland. Like Icelandic and Faroese, the development of English in the British Isles isolated it from the continental Germanic languages and influences, it has since evolved considerably. English is not mutually intelligible with any continental Germanic language, differing in vocabulary and phonology, although some of these, such as Dutch or Frisian, do show strong affinities with English with its earlier stages. Unlike Icelandic and Faroese, which were isolated, the development of English was influenced by a long series of invasions of the British Isles by other peoples and languages Old Norse and Norman French.
These left a profound mark of their own on the language, so that English shows some similarities in vocabulary and grammar with many languages outside its linguistic clades. But it is not mutually intelligible with any of those languages; some scholars have argued that English can be considered a mixed language or a creole—a theory called the Middle English creole hypothesis. Although the great influence of these languages on the vocabulary and grammar of Modern English is acknowledged, most specialists in language contact do not consider English to be a true mixed language. English is classified as a Germanic language because it shares innovations with other Germanic languages such as Dutch and Swedish; these shared innovations show that the languages have descended from a single common ancestor called Proto-Germanic. Some shared features of Germanic languages include the division of verbs into strong and weak classes, the use of modal verbs, the sound changes affecting Proto-Indo-European consonants, known as Gr
Gaulish was an ancient Celtic language, spoken in parts of Europe before and during the period of the Roman Empire. In the narrow sense, Gaulish was the language spoken by the Celtic inhabitants of Gaul. In a wider sense, it comprises varieties of Celtic that were spoken across much of central Europe, parts of the Balkans, Asia Minor, which are thought to have been related; the more divergent Lepontic of Northern Italy has sometimes been subsumed under Gaulish. Together with Lepontic and the Celtiberian language spoken in the Iberian Peninsula, Gaulish forms the geographic group of Continental Celtic languages; the precise linguistic relationships among them, as well as between them and the modern Insular Celtic languages, are uncertain and a matter of ongoing debate because of their sparse attestation. Gaulish is found in some 800 fragmentary, inscriptions including calendars, pottery accounts, funeral monuments, short dedications to gods, coin inscriptions, statements of ownership, other texts curse tablets.
Gaulish texts were first written in the Greek alphabet in southern France and in a variety of the Old Italic script in northern Italy. After the Roman conquest of those regions, writing shifted to the use of the Latin alphabet. Gaulish in Western Europe was supplanted by Vulgar Latin and various Germanic languages from around the 5th century AD onwards, it is thought to have gone extinct some time around the late 6th century. It is estimated that during the Bronze Age, Proto-Celtic started fragmenting into distinct languages, including Celtiberian and Gaulish; as a result of the expansion of Celtic tribes during the 4th and 3rd centuries BC related varieties of Celtic came to be spoken in a vast arc extending from present-day Britain and France through the Alpine region and Pannonia in central Europe, into parts of the Balkans and Anatolia. Their precise linguistic relationships are uncertain because of the fragmentary nature of the evidence; the Gaulish varieties of central and eastern Europe and of Anatolia are attested, but from what little is known of them it appears that they were still quite similar to those of Gaul and can be considered dialects of a single language.
Among those regions where substantial inscriptional evidence exists, three varieties are distinguished. Lepontic, attested from a small area on the southern slopes of the Alps, around the present-day Swiss town of Lugano, is the oldest Celtic language known to have been written, with inscriptions in a variant of the Old Italic script appearing circa 600 BC, it has been described as either an "early dialect of an outlying form of Gaulish" or a separate Continental Celtic language. Attestations of Gaulish proper in present-day France are known as "Transalpine Gaulish", its written record begins in the 3rd century BC with inscriptions in the Greek alphabet, found in the Rhône area of southern France, where Greek cultural influence was present via the colony of Massilia, founded circa 600 BC. After the Roman conquest of Gaul, the writing of Gaulish shifted to the Latin alphabet. There are a small number of inscriptions from the second and first centuries BC in Cisalpine Gaul, which share the same archaic alphabet as the Lepontic inscriptions but are found outside the Lepontic area proper.
As they were written after the time of the Gaulish conquest of Cisalpine Gaul, they are identified as "Cisalpine Gaulish". They share some linguistic features both with Transalpine Gaulish. Scholars have debated to what extent the distinctive features of Lepontic reflect its earlier origin or a genuine genealogical split, to what extent Cisalpine Gaulish should be seen as a continuation of Lepontic or an independent offshoot of mainstream Transalpine Gaulish; the relationship between Gaulish and the other Celtic languages is subject to debate. Most scholars today agree that Celtiberian was the first to branch off from the remaining Celtic languages. Gaulish, situated in the centre of the Celtic language area, shares with the neighbouring Brittonic languages of Great Britain, the change of the Indo-European labialized voiceless velar stop /kʷ/ > /p/, whereas both Celtiberian in the south and Goidelic in Ireland retain /kʷ/. Taking this as the primary genealogical isogloss, some scholars see the Celtic languages to be divided into a "q-Celtic" group and a "p-Celtic" group, in which the p-Celtic languages Gaulish and Brittonic form a common "Gallo-Brittonic" branch.
Other scholars place more emphasis on shared innovations between Brittonic and Goidelic and group these together as an Insular Celtic branch. Sims-Williams discusses a composite model, in which the Continental and Insular varieties are seen as part of a dialect continuum, with genealogical splits and areal innovations intersecting. At least 13 references to Gaulish speech and Gaulish writing can be found in Greek and Latin writers of antiquity; the word "Gaulish" as a language term is first explicitly used in the Appendix Vergiliana in a poem referring to Gaulish letters of the alphabet. Julius Caesar reported in his Commentarii de Bello Gallico of 58 BC that the Celts/Gauls and their language are separated from the neighboring Aquitanians and Belgae by the rivers Garonne and Seine/Marne, respectively. Caesar relates that census accounts written in the Gre