Los Angeles Fire Department
The Los Angeles Fire Department provides emergency medical services, fire cause determination, fire prevention, fire suppression, hazardous materials mitigation, rescue services to the city of Los Angeles, United States. The LAFD is responsible for 4 million people who live in the agency's 471 square miles jurisdiction; the Los Angeles Fire Department founded in 1886 is one of the largest municipal fire departments in the United States, after the New York City Fire Department and the Chicago Fire Department. The department may be unofficially referred to as the Los Angeles City Fire Department or "LA City Fire" to distinguish it from the Los Angeles County Fire Department which serves the county and whose name may directly confuse people, as the county seat is the city. Another possible reason is that the city and the unincorporated County are bordering each other and thus the two appear to be serving the same area; the department is under the command of chief Ralph Terrazas. The Los Angeles Fire Department has it origins in the year 1871.
In September of that year, George M. Fall, the County Clerk for Los Angeles County organized Engine Company No. 1. It was a volunteer firefighting force with a hose jumper; the equipment was hand-drawn to fires. In the spring of 1874, the fire company asked the Los Angeles City Council to purchase horses to pull the engine; the Council refused and the fire company disbanded. Many of the former members of Engine Company No. 1 reorganized under the name of Thirty-Eights No. 1 in May 1875, Engine Co. No. 2 was organized under the name Confidence Engine Company. Los Angeles acquired its first "ladder" truck for the Thirty-Eights, it was ill-adapted to the needs of the city. It was sold to the city of Wilmington. In 1876, another "hook and ladder" truck was purchased, serving in the city until 1881. In 1878, a third fire company was formed by the residents in the neighborhood of Sixth Street and Park, it was given the name of "Park Hose Co. No. 1". East Los Angeles formed a hose company named "East Los Angeles Hose Co.
No. 2" five years later. The final volunteer company was formed in the fall of 1883 in the Morris Vineyard area; this company was called "Morris Vineyard Hose Co. No.3."All of these companies remained in service until February 1, 1886, when the present paid fire department came into existence. In 1877, the first horses were bought for the city fire department; the department would continue to use horses for its equipment for fifty years, phasing out the last horse drawn equipment on July 19, 1921. By 1900, the Department had grown to 18 fire stations with 123 full-time paid firefighters and 80 fire horses; the city had installed 194 fire-alarm boxes allowing citizens to sound the alarm if a fire was spotted. 660 fire hydrants were placed throughout the city, giving firefighters access to a reliable water source. In 1955 Station 78 in Studio City became the first racially integrated station in the department; the department utilizes a wide array of equipment. These are most but not all of the apparatus.
The triple combination Fire Engine or “TRIPLE” is the most common type of firefighting apparatus in Los Angeles. The term “triple combination” refers to the apparatus having three components; the triple can be found as a one-piece engine company or as two engines assigned to a Task Force station. The “Triples” used by the LAFD have several parallel main pumps of varying capacities. Depending upon the area served, this apparatus may carry a combination of any or all of the following sizes of hose; the water tank carrying capacity ranges from 300 gallons to 500 gallons. These apparatus are staffed by four members, including a Captain 1 as the company commander. A number of triples in the LAFD are Paramedic assessment companies – meaning they include a Paramedic as part of the crew; the LAFD uses the concept of Light Forces and Task Forces which can be considered one "Resource", although comprising more than one unit or company. A Light Force is composed of a Ladder Truck. Light forces will always respond together as one unit or resource.
A Task Force is a Light Force coupled with an Engine. An Engine is considered a single unit or "resource". A Task Force responds to larger incidents, such as structural fires, is made up of an Engine, a 200 Series Pump Engine, a Truck, all operating together. While a standard Engine is always staffed with a full crew, a 200 Series Pump Engine is only staffed by a driver; the purpose of the 200 Series Pump Engine is to provide support and equipment to the Truck in a Light Force, either the Truck or the Engine in a Task Force. Rescue Ambulances called'rescues' for short, can be considered either advanced life support, or basic life support. Ambulances number 1-112 are frontline ALS staffed by 2 firefighter / paramedics, while those in the 200 series are ALS reserves. Ambulances in the 800s are BLS staffed by 2 firefighter EMT's, while those in the 900s are BLS reserves; the Air Operations division of the LAFD operates out of Fire Station 114 at Van Nuys Airport. The division has six helicopters available for air medical services.
Copter 1 and Copter 4 are both Bell 412s. Copter 2, Copter 3 and Copter 5 are all AgustaWestland AW139s; the final helicopter, Copter 6, is a Bell 206B. The Port of Los An
Los Angeles Dodgers minor league players
Below are brief bios of some of the Los Angeles Dodgers' more notable prospects: Yadier Álvarez Ventosa is a professional Cuban baseball pitcher for the Los Angeles Dodgers of Major League Baseball. Álvarez defected from Cuba to pursue a career in Major League Baseball. He has a fastball. Scouts believe he has number two starter upside and one National League official has said that he is the best 18-year-old pitcher he had seen, he received interest from numerous MLB teams including the Philadelphia Phillies, Los Angeles Dodgers and Arizona Diamondbacks. Ranked as the second best prospect by mlb.com heading into the 2015 international signing period, Álvarez signed with the Dodgers on July 2, 2015, for a $16 million bonus. He made his professional baseball debut for the Dodgers Arizona rookie league affiliate on June 20, 2016 and struck out seven while only allowing one hit in 32⁄3 innings pitched. In five starts for the team, he was 1 -- 1 with 57 strikeouts, he was promoted to the Great Lakes Loons of the Midwest League and struck out 10 in his debut for the Loons on July 21, 2016.
He made nine starts for the Loons with 55 strikeouts in only 39 1⁄3 innings. In 2017, he was promoted to the Rancho Cucamonga Quakes of the California League and chosen to represent the world team at the All-Star Futures Game.Álvarez began 2017 with the Quakes and was promoted to the Double-A Tulsa Drillers at mid-season. Between the two leagues he made 18 starts and was 4–6 with a 4.68 ERA. He returned to Tulsa in 2018 and was selected to represent the Drillers at the mid-season Texas League All-Star Game. In 17 games, he went 1-2 with a 4.66 ERA. The Dodgers added Álvarez to their 40-man roster after the 2018 season. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference Matthew Thomas Beaty is an American professional baseball third baseman for the Los Angeles Dodgers of Major League Baseball. Beaty attended Dresden High School in Tennessee; the Kansas City Royals selected him in the 48th round of the 2011 MLB draft, but he attended Belmont University. The Dodgers selected him in the 12th round of the 2015 Major League Baseball draft.
Beaty signed with the Dodgers and spent 2015 with both the Ogden Raptors and Great Lakes Loons, posting a combined.314 batting average with four home runs and 28 RBIs in 68 total games between both clubs. He spent 2016 with the Rancho Cucamonga Quakes, compiling a.297 batting average with 11 home runs and 88 RBIs in 124 games, 2017 with the Tulsa Drillers where he slashed.326/.378/.505 with 15 home runs and 69 RBIs in 116 games, earning him league player of the year honors. He won the league batting title, he was chosen for the Fall Stars Game showcase. Beaty played for the Oklahoma City Dodgers of the Class AAA Pacific Coast League in 2018, The Dodgers added him to their 40-man roster after the 2018 season. Batting.277 with one home run and 12 RBIs in 31 games. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference Joe Neville Broussard is an American professional baseball pitcher for the Los Angeles Dodgers organization. Broussard was drafted by the Dodgers in the 15th round of the 2014 MLB Draft out of Louisiana State University.
He signed and spent 2014 with the Ogden Raptors where he went 2-2 with a 3.35 ERA in 18 relief appearances. In 2015, he played for the Great Lakes Loons and Rancho Cucamonga Quakes, pitching to a combined 4-4 record and 3.80 ERA in 38 games, in 2016, he pitched for the Quakes, Tulsa Drillers, Oklahoma City Dodgers, compiling a combined 4-2 record and 1.80 ERA in 50 appearances out of the bullpen. He spent 2017 with both Tulsa and Oklahoma City, posting a 5-1 record and 3.27 ERA with 73 strikeouts in 63.1 total innings pitched between the two clubs, he played 2018 with Oklahoma City where he went 5-4 with a 3.12 ERA in 57 relief appearances. Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference Jeter D. Downs is a Colombian-American professional baseball shortstop for the Los Angeles Dodgers organization. Downs is from San Andrés, Colombia, he was named after Derek Jeter. His father, Jerry Sr. played baseball professionally in Colombia. His family moved to the Little Havana neighborhood in Miami, when he was five years old.
Downs attended Monsignor Edward Pace High School in Miami Gardens and played for the school's baseball team as a shortstop. He committed to attend the University of Miami on a college baseball scholarship; the Cincinnati Reds selected Downs with the 32nd overall selection of the 2017 MLB draft. He signed with the Reds for a $1.825 million signing bonus. After signing, he was assigned to the Billings Mustangs of the Rookie-level Pioneer League, where he spent all of his first professional season, posting a.267 batting average with six home runs and 29 RBIs in 50 games. Downs spent the 2018 season with the Dayton Dragons of the Class A Midwest League where he hit.257 with 13 home runs, 47 RBIs, 37 stolen bases in 120 games. On December 21, 2018, the Reds traded Downs to the Los Angeles Dodgers, along with Homer Bailey and Josiah Gray in exchange for Matt Kemp, Yasiel Puig, Alex Wood, Kyle Farmer and cash considerations, he began 2019 with the Rancho Cucamonga Quakes. Downs' brother, Jerry Jr. is a professional baseball player.
Career statistics and player information from Baseball-Reference Omar Estevez is a Cuban professional baseball shortstop for the Los Angeles Dodgers organization. Estevez plated for Matanzas in the Cuban National Series as a 16-year old during the 2014-2015 season, he signed with th
Los Angeles Clippers
The Los Angeles Clippers, abbreviated by the team as the LA Clippers, are an American professional basketball team based in Los Angeles. The Clippers compete in the National Basketball Association as a member of Pacific Division of the league's Western Conference; the Clippers play their home games at Staples Center in downtown Los Angeles, an arena shared with fellow NBA team the Los Angeles Lakers, the Los Angeles Sparks of the Women's National Basketball Association, the Los Angeles Kings of the National Hockey League. The franchise was founded in 1970 as the Buffalo Braves, one of three expansion teams to join the NBA that year; the Braves moved from Buffalo, New York to San Diego, California in 1978 and became known as the San Diego Clippers. In 1984, The Clippers moved to Los Angeles. Through much of its history, the franchise failed to see significant regular season or playoff success; the Clippers were seen as an example of a perennial loser in American professional sports, drawing unfavorable comparisons to the successful Lakers, with whom they have shared a market since 1984 and an arena since 1999.
The Clippers' fortunes turned in the early 2010s with the acquisition of core players Blake Griffin, DeAndre Jordan, Chris Paul. In 2013, the franchise won its first division title, as the team made the playoffs for the ninth time in franchise history and the third time in the previous eight seasons, they added to their budding rivalry with the Lakers, as they finished with a better record than the Lakers for the fifth time and won the season series for the second time since moving to Los Angeles in 1984, this time in a sweep. They repeated as division champions in 2014; the franchise began in Western New York as the Buffalo Braves, one of three NBA expansion franchises that began play in the 1970–71 season, along with the Portland Trail Blazers and Cleveland Cavaliers. They played their home games at the Buffalo Memorial Auditorium, along with another Buffalo team that would begin play that year, the National Hockey League's Buffalo Sabres. After two bad seasons, the Braves' fortunes started to change under coach Jack Ramsay and star forward/center Bob McAdoo.
McAdoo led the NBA in scoring for three consecutive seasons and was named the league's MVP in the 1974–75 season. The Braves qualified for the playoffs three times in a row, losing twice to the eventual Eastern Conference champions. Despite the team's modest success in Buffalo, Braves owner Paul Snyder and the league found it impossible to schedule home games at the auditorium because of the Canisius Golden Griffins men's basketball team, which had a pre-existing lease on the arena and priority on game dates over the Braves; the Griffins saw the Braves as a threat to their own success, purposely scheduled all the best dates at the arena to prevent the Braves from succeeding. As a result, after a failed attempt to sell the team to an owner who intended to move it to South Florida, Snyder sold the team to Kentucky Colonels owner John Y. Brown, Jr. who decimated the team's roster, traded away all of its stars, drove attendance down to the point where they could break their own lease on the arena.
Brown met with Celtics owner Irv Levin in 1978 so they could trade franchise ownerships. Southern California resident Levin decided to move the Braves to San Diego, something the league would have never allowed him to do with the Celtics. In 1978, San Diego welcomed the relocation of the Buffalo Braves franchise because the city had lost their Rockets to Houston seven years earlier as well as their American Basketball Association franchise, the San Diego Sails after the 1974-1975 ABA season. San Diego team officials did not think Braves was a representative nickname for the club and a contest decided on "Clippers", because the city was known for the great sailing ships that passed through San Diego Bay; when the Clippers moved to Los Angeles in 1984, they kept their name. Playing at the San Diego Sports Arena, the Clippers posted a record of 43–39 in their first season in California under new head coach Gene Shue, leaving them two wins shy of the final playoff spot, it would be the Clippers' last winning season for 13 years.
It was in that first season in southern California that long-time announcer Ralph Lawler began his association with the franchise. The Clippers began pursuing star free agents, beginning with World B. Free, acquired in the offseason from the Philadelphia 76ers. Free finished second overall in NBA scoring average, with 28.9 per game, while George Gervin of the San Antonio Spurs had a 29.6 average. The 1979–80 season saw the Clippers begin to struggle, despite adding center Bill Walton, a San Diego native, two years removed from an NBA Championship with the Trail Blazers. Walton missed 68 games due to foot injuries. San Diego finished. Free again finishing second in league scoring, with 30.2 PPG. Paul Silas replaced Shue the following season, the Clippers finished 36–46, again missing the postseason. Walton missed the entire season again due to foot injuries, while Free was traded to the Golden State Warriors in exchange for guard Phil Smith; the 1981–82 season brought changes to the franchise as Levin sold the team to Los Angeles-area real estate developer and attorney Donald Sterling for $12.5 million.
The Clippers experienced poor play and franchise mismanagement in their final years in San Diego, much like in Buffalo, competition from other sports teams in town, namely the ascendant San Diego Chargers, sucked away attention from the Clippers. That season, the Clippers were drawing fewer fans than the Braves had
Southern California freeways
The Southern California freeways are a vast network of interconnected freeways in the megaregion of Southern California, serving a population of 23 million people. The Master Plan of Metropolitan Los Angeles Freeways was adopted by the Regional Planning Commission in 1947 and construction began in the early 1950s; the plan hit opposition and funding limitations in the 1970s, by 2004, only some 61% of the original planned network had been completed. Southern California's romance with the automobile owes in large part to resentment of the Southern Pacific Railroad's tight control over the region's commerce in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. During his successful campaign for governor in 1910, anti-Southern Pacific candidate Hiram Johnson traveled the state by car, no small feat at that time. In the minds of Southlanders, this associated the automobile with clean, progressive government, in stark contrast to the railroads' control over the corrupt governments of the Midwest and Northeast.
While the Southern Pacific-owned Pacific Electric Railway's famous Red Car streetcar lines were the axis of urbanization in Los Angeles during its period of spectacular growth in the 1910s and 1920s, they were unprofitable and unattractive compared to automobiles. As cars became cheaper and began to fill the region's roads in the 1920s, Pacific Electric lost ridership. Traffic congestion soon threatened to choke off the region's development altogether. At the same time, a number of influential urban planners were advocating the construction of a network of what one read book dubbed "Magic Motorways", as the backbone of suburban development; these "greenbelt" advocates called for decentralized, automobile-oriented development as a means of remedying both urban overcrowding and declining rates of home ownership. Traffic congestion was of such great concern by the late 1930s in the Los Angeles metropolitan area that the influential Automobile Club of Southern California engineered an elaborate plan to create an elevated freeway-type "Motorway System," a key aspect of, the dismantling of the streetcar lines, to be replaced with buses that could run on both local streets and on the new express roads.
In the late 1930s, when the freeway system was planned locally by Los Angeles city planners, they had intended for light rail tracks to have been installed in the center margin of each freeway, but this plan was never implemented. During World War II, transportation bottlenecks on Southern California roads and railways convinced many that if Southern California was to accommodate a large population, it needed a new transportation system; the city of Los Angeles favored an upgraded rail transit system focused on its central city. However, the success of the Arroyo Seco Parkway, built between Los Angeles and Pasadena in 1940, convinced many that a freeway system could solve the region's transportation problems. Leaders of surrounding cities, such as Whittier, South Gate, Long Beach, Pasadena, accordingly called for a web of freeways to connect the whole region, rather than funneling their residents out of their own downtowns and into that of Los Angeles. Pro-freeway sentiments prevailed, by 1947, a new comprehensive freeway plan for Los Angeles had been drawn up by the California Department of Public Works.
San Diego soon followed suit, by the early 1950s, construction had begun on much of the region's freeway system. The construction of freeways resulted in the demolition of neighborhoods and displacement of their residents. Freeways were a symbol of freedom, civic progress, the master plan for growth in Southern California as they were celebrated among progressives, freeway planners, government officials. However, they did not have the same meaning to all as they caused destruction and the displacement of many. There were many freeway revolts won by white middle-class and wealthy communities to stop freeway efforts in certain areas and neighborhoods; these movements extended to communities of color viewed as “slums”, suggestive of racism and class privilege. In Southern California, the cancellation of the Beverly Hills Freeway is one of the freeway revolts' greatest successes against the 1958 Master Plan; the freeway would have run right through Beverly Hills, east-west along Melrose Avenue and Santa Monica Boulevard, connecting to the San Diego Freeway.
Although freeway planners and government officials targeted minorities and their communities, it did not stop them from inventing their own freeway revolt, such as that of East Los Angeles. Countless communities were ripped apart and completely erased due to highway construction; the development of urban infrastructure created multiple forms of opportunity in communities but decimated others. The highway construction in California was brought by urban renewal programs as it implemented efficiency and progress, but it changed the lives of many with lasting consequences. In the 1950s, the Collier Burns Highway Act sparked a surge in freeway construction in Los Angeles; the image of freeways and encouragement to purchase automobiles began to flourish. During this time, the residents of South Central Los Angeles protested against the construction of freeways as the Harbor Freeway was proposed to destroy as many as twenty thousand homes, it would extend south from downtown between Broadway and Figueroa Avenues
Mayor of Los Angeles
The Mayor of the City of Los Angeles is the official head and chief executive officer of Los Angeles, United States. The officeholder is limited to serving no more than two terms. Under the Constitution of California, all judicial, school and city offices, including those of chartered cities, are nonpartisan. Eric Garcetti has been the city's 42nd and current mayor since 2013. California does not impose statewide term limits on school board members, but such limits can still be imposed on the local level. Los Angeles has a strong mayor–council form of government, giving the mayor the position of chief executive of the city; the mayor is given the authority to appoint general managers and commissioners, remove officials from city posts, is required to propose a budget each year. Most of the mayor's appointments and proposals are subject to approval by the Los Angeles City Council, but the mayor has the power of veto or approval of City Council legislation; the organization of the mayor's office changes with administration, but is always governed by a chief of staff, deputy chief of staff, director of communications, several deputy mayors.
Each mayor organizes his office into different offices containing the Los Angeles Housing Team, Los Angeles Business Team, International Trade Office, Mayor's Volunteer Corps, Office of Immigrant Affairs, among other divisions. The mayor has an office in the Los Angeles City Hall and resides at the Mayor's Mansion, Getty House, located in Windsor Square; as of 2017, the mayor received a salary of $248,141. The mayor is elected in citywide election. Elections follow a two-round system; the first round of the election is called the primary election. The candidate receiving a majority of the vote in the primary is elected outright. If no candidate receives a majority, the top two candidates advance to a runoff election, called the general election; the City Charter allows for write-in candidates for the primary election, but not for the runoff in the general election. The mayor is elected with a limit of two consecutive terms; the office of Mayor is nonpartisan by state law, although most mayoral candidates identify a party preference.
Elections for mayor were held in odd-numbered years from 1909 until 2013. In October 2014, the Los Angeles City Council recommended consolidating city elections with gubernatorial and presidential elections in even-numbered years in an effort to increase turnout. On March 3, 2015, voters passed a charter amendment to extend the term of the mayor elected in 2017 to five-and-a-half years. From 2022 and onward, mayoral elections will be consolidated with the statewide gubernatorial elections held every four years; the most recent election was held in March 2017. Incumbent mayor Eric Garcetti was re-elected for a second term. In the case of an office vacancy, the City Council has a choice to appoint a new mayor or to hold a special election; the replacement, if appointed, will serve until the next scheduled primary for a city general election. If any portion remains on the term, a special election will be held to elect a candidate to serve the remainder of the term; the mayor is subject to recall by registered voters if at least 15 percent of eligible voters sign a recall petition within 120 days of the first day of circulation.
If the petition is successful, a special election is held asking whether the incumbent should be removed and who among a list of candidates should replace the incumbent. If the recall is successful, the replacement candidate with the majority of votes succeeds the ousted incumbent. If no replacement candidate receives a majority of the votes, a special runoff election is held between the top two candidates; as of April 2019, 42 individuals have served as mayor of Los Angeles since its incorporation as a city in the state of California. Six individuals served non-consecutive terms, the first of which began in 1854 and the last of which ended in 1921; those who served non-consecutive terms are only counted once in the official count of mayoralties. Stephen Clark Foster was appointed as Mayor of Los Angeles in 1848 prior to California statehood and official incorporation of the city; the longest term was that of Tom Bradley, who served for 20 years over five terms prior to the establishment of successive term limits.
The shortest term, not counting city council presidents serving as acting mayor, was that of William Stephens, appointed to serve for less than two weeks after Arthur Cyprian Harper resigned from office. Two mayors died in office: Henry Mellus and Frederick A. MacDougall. Three Hispanics have served as mayor since incorporation: Antonio F. Coronel, Cristobal Aguilar, Antonio Villaraigosa. Many other Hispanics served as mayor prior to California joining the United States including Manuel Requena, who briefly served as acting mayor post-statehood in his role as city council president. Tom Bradley is the only African American to have served as mayor, but was the city's longest-serving mayor. Two French Canadians have served as mayor, including Damien Marchesseault, who served for three distinct periods, Prudent Beaudry; this list includes three Presidents of the City Council who served as Acting Mayor due to a vacancy in the office of the mayor but who were not appointed as mayor. The Council Presidents are not included in the count of mayors.
† Council presidents who temporarily served as acting mayor in case of a vacancy but were not appointed to the position are not included in the count of mayors. As of April 2019, three former Mayors of Los Angeles were alive, the oldest being Richard J. Riordan; the most recent mayor to die was Thomas Bradley, on September 29, 1998. History of Los Angeles T
National Register of Historic Places listings in Los Angeles
This is a list of the National Register of Historic Places listings in Los Angeles, California. This is intended to be a complete list of the properties and districts on National Register of Historic Places in Los Angeles, California; the locations of National Register properties and districts for which the latitude and longitude coordinates are included below may be seen in an online map. There are more than 500 properties and districts listed on the National Register in the county, including 22 National Historic Landmarks. Los Angeles is the location of 249 of these properties and districts, including 12 National Historic Landmarks; the properties and districts elsewhere in the county, including 5 National Historic Landmarks, are listed separately. A single district, the Arroyo Seco Parkway Historic District, is split between Los Angeles and other parts of the county. Another property has been removed; the first site in Los Angeles to be listed was the Rómulo Pico Adobe in the Mission Hills section of the city, listed in November 1966 at the inception of the Register.
Several of the oldest historic sites are located in the Los Angeles Plaza Historical District in Downtown Los Angeles. While most of the sites are office buildings or homes, two are ships, twenty-one are current and former branches of the Los Angeles Public Library. Seven temples or churches are listed. At least five sites are related to rail transportation. Included are four hotels, five theaters, four U. S. post offices, four fire stations. To be listed on the National Register, sites must retain their historic integrity, they must be 50 years old, their listing must be promoted – or at least not opposed – by the current owner, so many important sites in the city are not listed. Included on the list are sites relating to the movie industry such as a former office building of the Warner Bros. studios, but no film lots or film studio buildings are listed. Despite the city's involvement in aviation history, only two sites, Hangar One and Portal of the Folded Wings, appears to relate to that. Only a Victory ship and two coastal battery sites relate to the city's military-industrial history.
The listings are distributed across many neighborhoods of Los Angeles, from San Pedro in the south to the northern reaches of Chatsworth in the San Fernando Valley, from the Pacific Palisades on the west to Highland Park on the east. Thirty-eight are located in Downtown Los Angeles. Reflecting the sprawl of Los Angeles, the city's northernmost historic site in Chatsworth is more than 55 miles from its southernmost site in San Pedro; this National Park Service list is complete through NPS recent listings posted April 5, 2019. List of National Historic Landmarks in California National Register of Historic Places listings in California California Historical Landmarks in Los Angeles County, California Given Place Media: City of Los Angeles Map
Los Angeles Public Library
The Los Angeles Public Library system serves the residents of the City of Los Angeles. The system holds more than six million volumes, with over 18 million residents in the Los Angeles Metropolitan area, it serves the largest population of any publicly funded library system in the United States; the system is overseen by a Board of Library Commissioners with five members appointed by the mayor of Los Angeles in staggered terms in accordance with the city charter. Library cards are free to California residents. Circulating books, periodicals, computer access and audiovisual materials are available to patrons. Books and audiobooks are loaned for 3 weeks. Music cassettes, music CDs, documentary videos, documentary DVDs are loaned for 1 week. Entertainment videos and entertainment DVDs are loaned for 4 days. Fines are charged. There is a loan limit of 10 books, 10 magazines, 4 DVDs or videos at one time up to maximum of 30 items on the patron's record. Items checked out from Los Angeles Public Library may be returned to any of its 72 branches or to the Central Library.
Most items may be renewed a maximum of two times. Entertainment DVDs and videos may be renewed one time; the Los Angeles Public Library has many community support organizations which work with the library to raise funds and sponsor programs to enhance library service throughout the community. The Library's Rare Books Department is located in its downtown Los Angeles location. There is an extensive selection of databases covering a wide variety of topics, many of which are available to remote users who hold an LAPL library card. Examples include full-text databases of periodicals, business directories, language learning tools; the Central Library at 630 West 5th Street, between Grand Avenue and Flower Street in Downtown Los Angeles, remains an important research library, despite the development of accessible databases and public access to the Internet. The library offers an online program that allows adult patrons who have not completed high school to earn their high school diploma; the Los Angeles Library Association was formed in late 1872, by early 1873, a well-stocked reading room had opened under the first librarian, John Littlefield.
Aggressive expansion and growth of the system began in the 1920s. Under Library Board of Commissioners Chairman Orra E. Monnette, the system was improved with a large network of branch libraries with new buildings. Thelma Jackman founded the Business & Economics section of the library sometime prior to 1970; the historic Central Library Goodhue building was constructed in 1926 and is a Downtown Los Angeles landmark. The Central Library was designed by Bertram Goodhue; the Richard Riordan Central Library complex is the third largest public library in the United States in terms of book and periodical holdings. Named the Central Library, the building was first renamed in honor of the longtime president of the Board of Library Commissioners and President of the University of Southern California, Rufus B. von KleinSmid. The new wing of Central Library, completed in 1993, was named in honor of former mayor Tom Bradley; the complex was subsequently renamed in 2001 for former Los Angeles Mayor Richard Riordan, as the Richard Riordan Central Library.
The Los Angeles Public Library received the National Medal for Museum and Library Service, the nation's highest honor given to museums and libraries for service to the community. City Librarian John F. Szabo and community member Sergio Sanchez accepted the award on behalf of the library from First Lady Michelle Obama during a White House Ceremony on May 20, 2015; the Los Angeles Public Library was selected for its success in meeting the needs of Angelenos and providing a level of social and cultural services unmatched by any other public institution in the city. The award recognizes the library's programs that help people on their path to citizenship, earn their high school diploma, manage personal finances and access health and well-being services and resources. Architect Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue designed the original Los Angeles Central Library with influences of ancient Egyptian and Mediterranean Revival architecture; the central tower is topped with a tiled mosaic pyramid with suns on the sides with a hand holding a torch representing the "Light of Learning" at the apex.
Other elements include sphinxes and celestial mosaics. It has sculptural elements by the preeminent American architectural sculptor Lee Lawrie, similar to the Nebraska State Capitol in Lincoln, Nebraska designed by Goodhue; the interior of the library is decorated with various figures, statues and grilles, notably a four-part mural by illustrator Dean Cornwell depicting stages of the History of California, completed around 1933. The building is a designated Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument, is on the National Register of Historic Places; the Central Library was extensively renovated and expanded in a Modernist/Beaux-Arts architecture, according to Norman Pfeiffer, the principal architect of the renovation by Hardy Holzman Pfeiffer Associates from 1988 through 1993. It included an eight-story atrium wing dedicated to former mayor Tom Bradley. Now, the library contains an area of 538,000 square feet, has nearly 89 miles of shelves and seating for over 1,400 people; the building's limited access had caused a number of problems.
The accessible public stacks in the reading rooms only displayed about 10 to 20 percent of the actual collections of the Central Library. For anything else, a patron had to submit a request slip and a clerk would retrieve the desired material from the internal stacks. Internal stacks