Tangible Cultural Property (Japan)
A Tangible Cultural Property as defined by the Japanese government's Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties is a part of the Cultural Properties of high historical or artistic value such as structures, sculptures, calligraphic works, ancient books, historic documents, archeological artifacts and other such items created in Japan. All objects which are not structures are called "works of fine crafts. Considered by the Japanese government to be, like all Cultural Properties, a precious legacy of the Japanese people, they are protected in various ways, their export is either controlled or forbidden. Tangible Cultural Properties can be Registered; the two terms imply different terms of protection under the law. To protect Japan's cultural heritage, the country's government has established with the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties a "designation system" under which it selects important items and designates them as Cultural Properties, imposing restrictions to their alteration and export.
The law categorizes Cultural Properties according to their characteristics. Concrete items of high historical or artistic value such as structures, sculptures, calligraphic works, ancient books, historic documents, archeological artifacts and other such items are classified as Tangible Cultural Properties. All objects which are not structures are referred to as "works of fine crafts. Designated Tangible Cultural Properties can if they satisfy certain criteria, be designated either as Important Cultural Properties of Japan or as National Treasures, in the case of valuable items; the designation can take place at prefectural or national level. Designations of different level can coexist. For example, Sankei-en, a traditional Japanese-style garden in Naka Ward, owns both city designated and nationally designated Important Cultural Properties; as of April 2009, 2344 sites and 4272 structures have been designated Tangible Cultural Properties. Any alteration to Important Cultural Properties and National Treasures requires governmental permission.
Conservation work is performed by an item's owner, with financial support available for large expenses. Because many items are made of wood and other flammable materials, they are extremely susceptible to fires. Owners are therefore given subsidies to install other disaster prevention systems. In the "works of fine arts and crafts" sector, as of April, 2009 1956 paintings, 2628 sculptures, 2415 artifacts, 1865 calligraphic works and old books, 726 ancient texts, 567 archeological items and 154 historical items were designated Important Cultural Properties or National TreasuresAny intervention on this type of Cultural Property requires previous approval and their exportation is forbidden, except when authorized; the National Treasury supports the conservation and restoration of these items, the Commissioner for Cultural Affairs provides technical assistance for their administration, public display and other activities. Besides the designation system there exists a "registration system", which guarantees a lower level of protection and support.
So far there this category includes 9 works of fine arts and crafts. Compared to designated Important Cultural Properties and National Treasures, Registered Tangible Cultural Properties entail fewer responsibilities for the owner. Loss, change of ownership and intended changes that affect more than 25 percent of the visible surface need to be announced. On the other hand, the owner is eligible for low interest loans for maintenance and repairs, subsidies for an architect and tax reductions of up to 50 percent; this new protection level is based on notification and advice, aims at voluntary protection of cultural properties by their owners. For lists of National Treasures of Japan, see Lists of National Treasures of Japan Cultural Properties of Japan Lists of Cultural Properties of the Philippines Enders, Siegfried R. C. T.. Hozon: architectural and urban conservation in Japan. Stuttgart/London: Edition Axel Menges. ISBN 3-930698-98-6
Groups of Traditional Buildings
Groups of Traditional Buildings is a Japanese category of historic preservation introduced by a 1975 amendment of the law which mandates the protection of groups of traditional buildings which, together with their environment, form a beautiful scene. They can be post towns, castle towns, mining towns, merchant quarters, farming or fishing villages, etc; the Japanese government's Agency for Cultural Affairs recognizes and protects the country's cultural properties under the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties. Municipalities can designate items of particular importance as Preservation Districts for Groups of Traditional Buildings and approve measures to protect them. Items of higher importance are designated Important Preservation Districts for Groups of Traditional Buildings by the central government; the Agency for Cultural Affairs provides guidance and funds for repairs and other work. Additional support is given in the form of preferential tax treatment; as of May 18, 2018, 118 districts have been classified as Important Preservation Districts for Groups of Traditional Buildings.
Important Preservation Districts for Groups of Traditional Buildings are designated according to three criteria: Groups of traditional buildings that show excellent design as a whole Groups of traditional buildings and land distribution that preserve the old state of affairs well Groups of traditional buildings and their surrounding environment that show remarkable regional characteristics The table's columns are sortable by table headings. The following gives an overview of how the sorting works. Name: name of the important preservation district as registered in the Database of National Cultural Properties Type: type of the district Criteria: number of criterion under which the district is designated Area: area covered Remarks: general remarks Location: "town-name prefecture-name". Images: picture of the structure Tourism in Japan
Intangible Cultural Property (Japan)
An Intangible Cultural Property, as defined by the Japanese government's Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties, is a part of the Cultural Properties of high historical or artistic value such as drama and craft techniques. The term refers to human skills possessed by individuals or groups which are indispensable to produce Cultural Properties. Items of particular importance can be designated as Important Intangible Cultural Properties. Recognition is given to the owners of an item to encourage its transmission. There are three types of recognition: individual recognition, collective recognition, group recognition. Special grants of two million yen a year are given to individual holders to help protect their properties; the government contributes part of the expenses incurred either by the holder of an Intangible Cultural Property during training of his successor, or by a recognized group for public performances. To promote the understanding, therefore the transmission across generations, of Cultural Properties, exhibitions concerning them are organized.
The government through the Japan Arts Council holds training workshops and other activities to educate future generations of noh and kabuki personnel. For lists of holders of Important Intangible Cultural Properties, see List of Living National Treasures of Japan and List of Living National Treasures of Japan Cultural Properties of Japan Intangible Cultural Heritage of the Philippines Important Intangible Cultural Properties of Korea UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage Lists Cultural properties database Department of Intangible Cultural Heritage Safeguarding Intangible Cultural Heritage in Japan JAANUS - dictionary of terms
Cultural Property (Japan)
A Cultural Property is administered by the Japanese government's Agency for Cultural Affairs, includes tangible properties. Buried properties and conservation techniques are protected. Together these cultural properties are to be preserved and utilized as the heritage of the Japanese people. To protect Japan's cultural heritage, the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties contains a "designation system" under which selected important items are designated as Cultural Properties, which imposes restrictions on the alteration and export of such designated objects. Designation can occur at a prefectural or municipal level; as of 1 February 2012, there were 16,000 nationally designated, 21,000 prefecturally designated, 86,000 municipally designated properties. Besides the designation system there exists a "registration system", which guarantees a lower level of protection and support; the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties 1950 classifies items designated as Cultural Properties in the following categories: Tangible Cultural Properties are cultural products of high historical or artistic value whether structures, works of art, craft works, calligraphic works, ancient documents, archaeological materials, historic materials and other such items.
All objects which are not structures are termed "works of fine arts and crafts". Items designated Tangible Cultural Properties can if they satisfy certain criteria, be designated Important Cultural Properties of Japan or National Treasures for valuable items. Any alteration to Important Cultural Properties and National Treasures requires governmental permission and exportation is forbidden, except when authorized; the National Treasury supports the conservation and restoration of these items, the Commissioner for Cultural Affairs provides technical assistance for their administration, public display and other activities. Conservation work is performed by an item's owner, with financial support available for large expenses; because many items are made of wood and other flammable materials, they are extremely susceptible to fires. Owners are therefore given subsidies to install other disaster prevention systems; as of 1 February 2012, there were 12,816 Important Cultural Properties, of which one fifth were structures.
By class, there were 1,974 paintings. There were 49,793 at municipal level. Intangible Cultural Properties are cultural products of high historical or artistic value such as drama and craft techniques. Items of particular importance can be designated as Important Intangible Cultural Properties. Recognition is given to the'holders' of the necessary techniques, to encourage their transmission. There are three types of recognition: individual recognition, collective recognition, group recognition. Special grants of two million yen a year are given to individual holders to help protect these properties; the government contributes part of the expenses incurred either by the holder of the Intangible Cultural Property during training of his successor, or by a recognized group for public performances. To promote understanding, therefore the transmission across generations, of these Cultural Properties, exhibitions concerning them are organized; the government through the Japan Arts Council holds training workshops and other activities to educate future generations of noh and kabuki personnel.
As of 1 February 2012, there were 115 Important Intangible Cultural Properties and a further 167 designations at prefectural and 522 at municipal level. Folk Cultural Properties are items indispensable to understand the role and influence of tradition in the daily life of the Japanese, such as manners and customs related to food, work, religion. Folk Cultural Properties can be classified as Tangible. Intangible Folk Cultural Properties are items such as manners and customs related to food and housing, occupation and annual events. Clothes and implements, houses and other objects used together with Intangible Folk Cultural Properties are classified as Tangible Folk Cultural Properties. Folk Cultural Properties can if they satisfy certain criteria, be designated Important Tangible Folk Cultural Properties or Important Intangible Folk Cultural Properties; the government subsidizes projects for the restoration, preservation, disaster prevention, etc. of Important Tangible Folk Cultural Properties.
In the case of Important Intangible Folk Cultural Properties, public subsidies help local
National Treasure (Japan)
A National Treasure is the most precious of Japan's Tangible Cultural Properties, as determined and designated by the Agency for Cultural Affairs. A Tangible Cultural Property is considered to be of historic or artistic value, classified either as "buildings and structures" or as "fine arts and crafts." Each National Treasure must show outstanding workmanship, a high value for world cultural history, or exceptional value for scholarship. 20% of the National Treasures are structures such as castles, Buddhist temples, Shinto shrines, or residences. The other 80% are paintings; the items span the period of ancient to early modern Japan before the Meiji period, including pieces of the world's oldest pottery from the Jōmon period and 19th-century documents and writings. The designation of the Akasaka Palace in 2009 and of the Tomioka Silk Mill in 2014 added two modern, post-Meiji Restoration, National Treasures. Japan has a comprehensive network of legislation for protecting and classifying its cultural patrimony.
The regard for physical and intangible properties and their protection is typical of Japanese preservation and restoration practices. Methods of protecting designated National Treasures include restrictions on alterations and export, as well as financial support in the form of grants and tax reduction; the Agency for Cultural Affairs provides owners with advice on restoration and public display of the properties. These efforts are supplemented by laws that protect the built environment of designated structures and the necessary techniques for restoration of works. Kansai, the region of Japan's capitals from ancient times to the 19th century, has the most National Treasures. Fine arts and crafts properties are owned or are in museums, including national museums such as Tokyo and Nara, public prefectural and city museums, private museums. Religious items are housed in temples and Shinto shrines or in an adjacent museum or treasure house. Japanese cultural properties were in the ownership of Buddhist temples, Shinto shrines, aristocratic or samurai families.
Feudal Japan ended abruptly in 1867/68 when the Tokugawa shogunate was replaced by the Meiji Restoration. During the ensuing haibutsu kishaku triggered by the official policy of separation of Shinto and Buddhism and anti-Buddhist movements propagating the return to Shinto, Buddhist buildings and artwork were destroyed. In 1871, the government confiscated temple lands, considered symbolic of the ruling elite. Properties belonging to the feudal lords were expropriated, historic castles and residences were destroyed, an estimated 18,000 temples were closed. During the same period, Japanese cultural heritage was impacted by the rise of industrialization and westernization; as a result and Shinto institutions became impoverished. Temples decayed, valuable objects were exported. In 1871, the Daijō-kan issued a decree to protect Japanese antiquities called the Plan for the Preservation of Ancient Artifacts. Based on recommendations from the universities, the decree ordered prefectures and shrines to compile lists of important buildings and art.
However, these efforts proved to be ineffective in the face of radical westernisation. In 1880, the government allotted funds for the preservation of ancient temples. By 1894, 539 shrines and temples had received government funded subsidies to conduct repairs and reconstruction; the five-storied pagoda of Daigo-ji, the kon-dō of Tōshōdai-ji, the hon-dō of Kiyomizu-dera are examples of buildings that underwent repairs during this period. A survey conducted in association with Okakura Kakuzō and Ernest Fenollosa between 1888 and 1897 was designed to evaluate and catalogue 210,000 objects of artistic or historic merit; the end of the 19th century was a period of political change in Japan as cultural values moved from the enthusiastic adoption of western ideas to a newly discovered interest in Japanese heritage. Japanese architectural history began to appear on curricula, the first books on architectural history were published, stimulated by the newly compiled inventories of buildings and art. On June 5, 1897, the Ancient Temples and Shrines Preservation Law was enacted.
Formulated under the guidance of architectural historian and architect Itō Chūta, the law established government funding for the preservation of buildings and the restoration of artworks. The law applied to architecture and pieces of art relating to an architectural structure, with the proviso that historic uniqueness and exceptional quality were to be established. Applications for financial support were to be made to the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the responsibility for restoration or preservation lay in the hands of local officials. Restoration works were financed directly from the national coffers. A second law was passed on December 15, 1897, that provided supplementary provisions to designate works of art in the possession of temples or shrines as "National Treasures"; the new law provided for pieces of religious architecture to be designated as a "Specially Protected Building"
Cultural Landscape (Japan)
A Cultural Landscape is a landscape in Japan, which has evolved together with the way of life and geocultural features of a region, and, indispensable for understanding the lifestyle of the Japanese people, is recognized by the government of under article 2, paragraph 1, item 5 of the Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties. Cultural Landscapes of high value may be further designated as Important Cultural Landscapes. Local governments that are in charge of designated Cultural Landscapes can obtain financial assistance from the Agency for Cultural Affairs for surveys and other research, the preparation of preservation plans, repair, restoration, disaster prevention, promotional and educational activities. Research into cultural landscapes began before the Second World War with increasing concern about their disappearance. Historical research into shōen and rural engineering, the scientific investigation of geographic features, studies for urban and countryside planning have since increased.
The movement to protect cultural landscapes has been influenced by the Law Concerning Special Measures for the Preservation of Historical Natural Features in Ancient Cities, the international trend for recognising "cultural landscapes" under the World Heritage Convention, the designation in 1980 of Mount Hakusan, Mount Ōdaigahara & Mount Ōmine, Shiga Highland and Yakushima as UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Reserves, the designation of Monuments of Japan, initiatives such as the 100 selected terraced rice fields of Japan. From 2000 to 2003 a study was made to define the concept of "cultural landscape" and identify their distribution, with 2,311 areas identified in the first phase and 502 selected for the second, 180 being of particular importance. Important Cultural Landscapes are designated based on their type as: single-type Cultural Landscapes associated with agriculture such as rice paddies, etc. man-made grassland or livestock ranching such as hayfields, etc. forests such as timber forests, disaster prevention forests, etc. fisheries such as fish cultivation rafts, nori seaweed cultivation fields, etc. water uses such as reservoirs, harbors, etc. mining or industrial manufacture such as mines, groups of workshops, etc. transportation and communication such as roads, etc. residences and settlements such as stonewalls, coppices attached to premises, etc.
A combination of two or more of the above cultural landscapes. An overview of what is included in the table and the manner of sorting is as follows: the columns are sortable by pressing the arrows symbols. Name: the English name as used by the Agency for Cultural Affairs and Japanese name as registered in the Database of National Cultural Properties Criteria: the selection criteria for the designation as Important Cultural Landscape Remarks: general remarks Location: "town-name prefecture-name". Year: year of designation as Important Cultural Landscape Picture: picture of the Important Cultural Landscape Cultural landscapes−related topics — international. Cultural Landscapes of Australia Historic American Landscapes Survey — U. S. cultural landscape heritage documentation program. 重要文化的景観選定地一覧. Nara National Research Institute for Cultural Properties. Retrieved 2014-08-21. Chiang, Yen-Cheng. "The Preservation of Important Rural Japanese Cultural Landscapes – Considering the Warabino Paddy Field as an Example".
Journal of the Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University. 58: 209–218. Nakagoshi, Nobukazu. "How to Conserve Japanese Cultural Landscapes: The Registration System for Cultural Landscapes". In Sun-kee Hong. Landcape Ecology in Asian Cultures. Springer. Pp. 249–276. ISBN 978-4-431-87798-1
Monuments of Japan
Monuments is a collective term used by the Japanese government's Law for the Protection of Cultural Properties to denote Cultural Properties of Japan as historic locations such as shell mounds, ancient tombs, sites of palaces, sites of forts or castles, monumental dwelling houses and other sites of high historical or scientific value. The government designates "significant" items of this kind as Cultural Properties and classifies them in one of three categories: Historic Sites Places of Scenic Beauty, Natural Monuments. Items of high significance may receive a higher classification as: Special Historic Sites Special Places of Scenic Beauty Special Natural Monuments, respectively; as of September 2013, there were 3,089 nationally designated Monuments: 1,710 Historic Sites, 374 Places of Scenic Beauty, 1,005 Natural Monuments. Since a single property can be included within more than one of these classes, the total number of properties is less than the sum of designations: for example Hamarikyu Gardens are both a Special Historic Site and a Special Place of Scenic Beauty.
As of 1 May 2013, there were a further 2,961 Historic Sites, 266 Places of Scenic Beauty, 2,985 Natural Monuments designated at a prefectural level and 12,840 Historic Sites, 845 Places of Scenic Beauty, 11,020 Natural Monuments designated at a municipal level. Alterations to the existing state of a site or activities affecting its preservation require permission from the Commissioner for Cultural Affairs. Financial support for purchasing and conserving designated land and for the utilization of the site is available through local governments; the Agency for Cultural Affairs designates monuments based on a number of criteria. A monument can be designated based on multiple criteria. Shell mounds, settlement ruins, other historic ruins of this type Ruins of fortified towns, government administration offices, old battlefields and other historic ruins related to politics or government Remains of shrines and temples, former compound grounds and other historic ruins related to religion Schools, research institutions, cultural facilities and other historic ruins related to education, learning or culture Medical care and welfare facilities, life related institution, other society and life related historic ruins Transport and communication facilities, forest conservation and flood control facilities, manufacture facilities and other historic sites related to finance or manufacture activities Graves and stone monuments with inscriptions Former residences, gardens and other areas of particular historical significance Ruins related to foreign countries or foreigners Parks and gardens Bridges and embankments Flowering trees, flowering grass, autumn colors, green trees and other places of dense growth Places inhabited by birds and wild animals, fish/insects and others Rocks, caves Ravines, waterfalls, mountain streams, abysses Lakes, wetlands, floating islands, springs Sand dunes, seasides, islands Volcanoes, onsen Mountains, plateaus, rivers Viewpoints Animals Well-known animals peculiar to Japan and their habitat Animals which are not peculiar to Japan, but need to be preserved as well-known characteristic Japanese animals, their habitat Animals or animal groups peculiar to Japan within their natural environment Domestic animals peculiar to Japan Well-known imported animals presently in a wild state, with the exception of domestic animals.
Remarkable occurrence of epiphytic plants on rocks, trees or shrubs Remarkable plant growth on marginal land Remarkable growth in the wild of crop plants Wild habitat of rare or near extinct plants Geological and mineralogical features Rocks and fossil producing sites Conformable and unconformable strata Fold and thrust strata Geological features caused by the work of living creatures Phenomena related to earthquake dislocation and landmass motion Caves, grottoes Examples of rock organization Onsen and their sediments Erosion and weathering related phenomena Fumaroles and other items related to volcanic activity Ice and frost related phenomena Particularly precious rock and fossil specimen Representative territories rich in natural monuments to be protected A separate system of "registration" has been established for modern edifices threatened by urban sprawl or other factors. Monuments from the Meiji period onward which require preservation can be registered as Registered Monuments. Members of this class of Cultural Property receive more limited assistance and protection based on governmental notification and guidance.
As of April 2012, 61 monuments were registered under this system. List of Spec