This article includes lists of all Olympic medalists since 1896, organized by each Olympic sport or discipline, by Olympiad. ^ A. Including military patrol event at 1924 Games, which IOC now refers to biathlon.^ B. Figure skating was held at the 1908 and 1920 Summer Olympic games prior to the establishment of the Winter Olympics. 21 medals were awarded in seven events.^ C. A men's ice hockey tournament was held at the 1920 Summer Olympics, added as a Winter Olympics event. Three medals were awarded. ^ D. The IOC site for the 1900 Olympic Games gives erroneous figure of 95 events, while the IOC database for the 1900 Olympic Games lists 85 ones.^ E. The IOC site for the 1904 Olympic Games gives erroneous figure of 91 events, while the IOC database for the 1904 Olympic Games lists 94 ones.^ F. The IOC site for the 1920 Olympic Games gives erroneous figure of 154 events, while the IOC database for the 1920 Olympic Games lists 156 ones.^ G. Due to Australian quarantine laws, 6 equestrian events were held in Stockholm several months before the rest of the 1956 Games in Melbourne.^ H.
The IOC site for the 1956 Olympic Games gives figure of 145 events, however there was 151. List of sport awards List of multiple Olympic gold medalists List of multiple Olympic gold medalists at a single Games List of multiple Olympic gold medalists in one event List of multiple Olympic medalists List of multiple Olympic medalists at a single Games List of multiple Olympic medalists in one event List of Olympians who won medals in the Summer and Winter Games List of athletes with the most appearances at Olympic Games Lists of Paralympic medalists List of Olympic medalists in art competitions General"Factsheet: Records and medals Games of the Olympiad". International Olympic Committee. January 2009. Archived from the original on 2011-10-16. Retrieved 2009-02-23. "Factsheet: Records and medals at the Olympic Winter Games". International Olympic Committee. February 2008. Retrieved 2009-02-23. "Results database". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2009-02-23. "Olympic sports index". Sports-reference.com.
Retrieved 2009-02-23. "Summer games index". Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 2009-02-26. "Winter games index". Sports-reference.com. Retrieved 2009-02-23. Specific Olympic Review and Revue Olympique. LA84 Foundation
Confusion is a 1975 album by Nigerian Afrobeat musician Fela Kuti and his Africa 70 band. It was arranged and produced by Kuti, who recorded the album after choosing to emphasize his African heritage and nationalism in his music. Confusion is a commentary on the confused state of post-colonial Lagos and its lack of infrastructure and proper leadership at the time. Kuti's pidgin English lyrics depict difficult conditions in the city, including a frenetic, multilingual trading market and inextricable traffic jams in Lagos' major intersections. Confusion is a one-song Afrobeat album that begins with an instrumental first half, which features free form interplay between Kuti's electric piano and drummer Tony Allen, it leads to an extended mid-tempo section with Allen's polyrhythms and tenor saxophone by Kuti, who subsequently delivers call-and-response vocal passages. In reviews since the record's release by EMI, the album was praised by music critics, who found it exemplary of Kuti's Afrobeat style and recommended it as a highlight from his extensive catalog.
In both 2000 and 2010, Confusion was bundled with Kuti's 1973 Gentleman album. After becoming dissatisfied with studying European composers at the Trinity College of Music, Fela Kuti formed his first band Koola Lobitos in 1961 and became a popular act in the London club scene, he returned to his native Nigeria in 1963 and formed another band that played a rhythmic fusion of traditional highlife music and jazz. Kuti dubbed his hybrid style "Afrobeat", which served in part as his critique of African performers who he felt had forsaken their native musical roots for American popular music trends. In 1969, he toured with his band in Los Angeles and was introduced by a friend to the writings of black nationalist and Afrocentrist figures such as Malcolm X and Eldridge Cleaver. Inspired by what he had read, Kuti decided to write more political and critical music, changed the name of his band to the Nigeria 70 and the Africa 70. During the 1970s, Kuti began to emphasize his identification with Africa and its culture in his music and opposed the colonial mentality of identification with Western powers such as the United States and the United Kingdom.
His albums during this period expressed aspects of his ideology such as his African heritage and nationalism. On his 1973 song "Eko lie", Kuti declared that Lagos was his home rather than London or New York City, where he had performed earlier in his career. Lagos and its landmark events became common themes in his songs, he revisited the theme on Confusion in 1974 to acknowledge that he identifies with the city despite its problems. Confusion is a one-song album with a duration of 36 seconds; the album's first side is instrumental. It begins with a free-form introduction, which musically depicts the disorienting impact of Lagos' problems, according to music scholar Frank Thurmond Fairfax. Although Kuti used amplified instruments, he employed elaborate electronic effects and instead relied on more natural sounds. Kuti, who plays electric piano, drummer Tony Allen start the introduction out of tempo and exhibit abstract musical techniques, including dramatic free jazz interplay between their instruments.
Although he was known for his critical background in classical study, Kuti allowed Allen to improvise in the Africa 70's rhythm section and viewed him as a drummer with the mind of a composer, or "one who composes on the spot". The introduction's keyboard fantasia opens the band's languid, expansive interplay; the song's groove is established with the introduction of a bass guitar ostinato at 4:50. Rhythm and tenor guitars and a horn section are played in the next two minutes. During the bridge, Allen's drumming intensifies within the song's seven-minute mark, which leads to a developed Afrobeat section. Confusion's extended mid-tempo section has complex arrangements of danceable grooves, multiple solos, Allen's polyrhythms. In this section, Kuti plays tenor saxophone, which he had learned after the Africa 70's original tenor player, Igo Chico, left in 1973; the music is complemented by his outspoken call-and-response vocal passages. The song's final 10 minutes comprise raucous trumpet, tenor saxophone solos, Kuti's lead vocals.
Its closing section revisits the abstract interplay of the introduction. Confusion is a commentary on the confused state of post-colonial, urban Nigeria Lagos, its lack of infrastructure and proper leadership during a period of military dictatorship. Kuti's lyrics depict the complicated and multilingual market of the Ojuelegba crossroad, in doing so addresses what Nigerian historian Toyin Falola described as the "infrastructural nightmare of Lagos and the continued hegemony of the West in all aspects of African life". According to The Rough Guide to World Music, the album uses a "hectic crossroads in Lagos... as a metaphor to explore the problems of an entire corrupt nation". In the opening lines, Kuti comments on his social reality: "When we talk say confusion / Everything out of control", his lyrics decry what he viewed as the colonial mindset of some Africans and employ pidgin English, the lingua franca of most people in English-speaking West Africa. Kuti makes reference to three currencies that make trading in urban Nigeria difficult.
African Arts journalist E. J. Collins interpreted one of the verses as a reference to the protracted nature of transactions in Lagos. In this verse, Kuti sings: Kuti uses ironic humor to express pride in Nigerians' abili
Now in a Minute is the debut studio album by Welsh singer-songwriter Donna Lewis, released in 1996. The album is best known for the single "I Love You Always Forever", which broke the airplay record in the United States for exceeding one million spins on radio, becoming the most-played single up to that point. Two other singles were released from the album, "Without Love" and "Mother". All tracks written except where noted. "Without Love" – 3:41 "Mother" – 4:34 "I Love You Always Forever" – 3:59 "Nothing Ever Changes" – 4:26 "Simone" – 4:26 "Love & Affection" – 3:55 "Agenais" – 4:12 "Fool's Paradise" – 4:01 "Lights of Life" – 4:51 "Silent World" – 2:52 "I Love You Always Forever" – 4:40 Credits for Now in a Minute adapted from the liner notes. Donna Lewis – vocals, piano, omnichord Tony Franklin – bass Harvey Jones – prophet, mellotron flutes, keyboards Jimmy Bralower – drum programming Gerry Leonard – electric guitar, acoustic guitar Bill Dillon – guitar Mark Hutchins – additional keyboards, percussive scissors Dean Sharp – drum programming Eric Friedlander – cello Kevin Killen – omnichord
Odorrana is a genus of true frogs from East Asia and surrounding regions. Many of these frogs inhabit fast-flowing mountain streams, they have a remarkably pointed snout, as evidenced by common names like tip-nosed frog and scientific names like nasica or nasutus. Odorrana has a confusing systematic history. Most species placed here were placed in Rana; some were considered to belong in Amolops and Huia instead, yet again others were separated as Eburana. The most extreme proposal was to merge Odorrana into Huia. In the early 21st century, molecular phylogenetic studies established that the systematic confusion was due to widespread convergent evolution between Amolops and Odorrana, which represent quite distinct lineages of Raninae; this necessitated some taxonomic changes affecting Huia. It was found that Odorrana is a rather close relative of Rana – the most related living lineage, and while it is not certain that Odorrana is in fact a distinct genus, the available evidence points towards this being so.
Initial studies have revealed what seems to be several clades of Odorrana, which are sometimes considered subgenera. But few species have had their DNA sequence data sampled, that the convergent evolution is liable to obscure relationships if assessed by morphology alone: A number of basal species, including O. bacboensis, O. chapaensis, Ishikawa's Frog and others do not seem to be close to any of the larger groups or each other. A robustly-supported clade containing the type species O. margaretae as well as at least O. andersonii, O. daorum O. grahami and O. hmongorum. A minor but quite distinct lineage containing O. absita, O. khalam and others. Namely O. hejiangensis and O. schmackeri might belong here, or represent another minor and distinct lineage. A large group, quite a clade, containing the Amami Tip-nosed Frog, O. banaorum, O. chloronota, Hose's Frog, O. livida, O. morafkai, O. megatympanum, the Ryukyu Tip-nosed Frog, O. supranarina, O. swinhoana, O. tiannanensis, O. utsunomiyaorum and others.
The specialized lineage encompassing the Long-snout Torrent Frog, the Concave-eared Torrent Frog, O. versabilis, maybe some more species belongs here. In addition, the Phu Luang Cliff Frog might belong in Odorrana too. Cai, Hong-xia. Zootaxa 1531: 49–55. PDF fulltext Stuart, Bryan L.: The phylogenetic problem of Huia. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 46: 49-60. Doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2007.09.016 PDF fulltext
This is a list of notable people whose full legal name is a mononym, either by name change or by being born mononymic. This list does not include people who are mononymous only as a stage name, pen name, in certain contexts, or by dint of fame. Ahmad, Malagasy football administrator and President of the Confederation of African Football Akihito, Emperor Emeritus of Japan since his abdication in April 2019 Aiko, daughter of Emperor Naruhito Boediono, former Vice President of Indonesia Cher, American singer and actress Chyna, American professional wrestler and actress DotComGuy, American computer specialist Fumihito, heir presumptive of Emperor Naruhito Goodspaceguy, American perennial political candidate Govindjee, Indian-American biochemist Hirohito, Emperor of Japan Indrani, Indian-British-Canadian director, girls' empowerment activist and author iOTA, Australian musician and actor Loongkoonan, Australian aboriginal artistMayawati, Indian politician who served as Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh Michiko, Japanese empress consort Naruhito, Emperor of Japan Nenê, Brazilian basketball player Riazuddin, Pakistani physicist Sjumandjaja, Indonesian director and actor Sudirman, Indonesian National Hero and the first commander of Indonesian Armed Forces Suharto, former President of Indonesia Sukarno, former President of Indonesia Supriyadi, Indonesian National Hero and the first appointed Minister of Defense of Indonesia Teller, American magician U Thant, Burmese diplomat, the longest-serving Secretary-General of the United Nations Triyatno, Indonesian weightlifter and Olympic silver medalist Warrior, an American professional wrestler Winter, American software programmer best known for his goal to visit every company-owned Starbucks location in the world List of one-word stage names Mononymous person
Álvaro José Domínguez Cabezas is a former Colombian footballer. Álvaro Domínguez, a native of the town of El Cerrito from the center of Valle del Cauca, began his career with Deportivo Cali in 2000. In 2002, he played on loan with Atlético Huila. Upon returning to Cali, Domínguez became an important player for his team. In 2005, he helped Cali to capture the Finalización title. In 2007, he joined Swiss side FC Sion, where he was recognized for his sacrifice, long-distance shots and vision of the game. While with Sion he made 122 league appearances and scored 21 goals. During this period Domínguez was a key player in helping Sion to two Swiss Cup titles. In 2011, he joined Turkish club Samsunspor on loan. At the end of the season he returned to his native Colombia signing with his first club Deportivo Cali, he played for Colombia at the 2007 Copa America against Paraguay, as well as in friendlies before the tournament. Álvaro Domínguez at National-Football-Teams.com Player Profile FC Sion-Online