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Undeclared War

Undeclared War is a 1990 Hong Kong action film directed by Ringo Lam and starring Danny Lee, Olivia Hussey, Peter Lapis, Rosamund Kwan and Vernon G. Wells. Warsaw's liberation allies is a terrorist organization under the banner of a revolution and in order to show their strength, they prepare to create a bombing incident when the US business delegates visit Hong Kong to achieve their political objectives; the CIA sends Agent Gary Redner to Hong Kong to prevent this conspiracy. Due to the matter of politics, Hong Kong Police sends Inspector Lee Ting-bong to assist Redner in the operation; the two cops from different environment were incompatible working together at first, but they produced a profound friendship and they work together to shatter the terrorists' attempt to create an explosion and wounded Hannibal, the leader of the organization. However, thing are not over yet, as Hannibal breaks into the television news department and takes all the staff hostage including Lee's girlfriend Ann and prepares to create a bloodshed to be broadcast throughout the world.

At this time and Redner arrives, only to find that Lee's assistant Tang has been bribed by the terrorists and holds them at gunpoint. Danny Lee as Inspector Lee Ting-bong Olivia Hussey as Rebecca Ecke Peter Lapis as Gary Redner Rosamund Kwan as Ann Cheung Vernon G. Wells as Hannibal Tommy Wong as Lieutenant Tang Victor Hon as Diem David Hedison as US Ambassador Louis Roth as Alex Vladovich Mars as Tiger Mark King as Simon Jonathan Isgar as Iam Dean Harrington as Callahan Wong Kwong-fai Jameson Lam as Special Branch officer Ng Kwok-kin as Policeman Suen Kwok-ming as Guard Chan Tat-kwong Ernest Mauser James M. Crockett Stuart Smith as Colin Undeclared War was released in Hong Kong on 1 September 1990; the film grossed HK$5,523,958 at the Hong Kong box office. List of action films of the 1990s List of Hong Kong films of 1990 Undeclared War at the Hong Kong Movie DataBase Undeclared War at Hong Kong Cinemagic Undeclared War on IMDb Undeclared War Film Review at Hong Kong Film Net

Holderness (UK Parliament constituency)

Holderness was a parliamentary constituency centred on the Holderness area of the East Riding of Yorkshire. It returned one Member of Parliament to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom; the constituency was created for the 1885 general election, abolished for the 1950 general election. 1885–1918: 1918–1950: The Municipal Boroughs of Beverley and Hedon, the Urban Districts of Cottingham and Withernsea, the Rural Districts of Patrington and Skirlaugh, part of the Rural District of Beverley, in the Rural District of Sculcoates the civil parishes of Preston and Sutton. General Election 1914/15: Another General Election was required to take place before the end of 1915; the political parties had been making preparations for an election to take place and by the July 1914, the following candidates had been selected. British parliamentary election results 1885–1918. Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. ISBN 0-900178-27-2. Craig, F. W. S.. British parliamentary election results 1918–1949.

Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. ISBN 0-900178-06-X

Socialist Party of Uruguay

The Socialist Party of Uruguay is a Uruguayan socialist political party. The party was founded in 1910, its main leader and spokesman was Dr Emilio Frugoni, a prominent advocate of socialist ideas in Uruguay. Its central organ was the newspaper Germinal superseded by El Sol; the party was a member of the Labour and Socialist International between 1932 and 1940. In 1951 it joined the Socialist International, which it left in 1960, rejoined it in 1999. In 2017 the party once again withdrew from the Socialist International and joined the Progressive Alliance. In 1971, the party was one of the founding members of the Broad Front, a left-wing coalition than won the 2005 election electing one of its affiliates, Tabaré Vasquez, as president, it is led by Gonzalo Civila. Official webpage

Eleanor Gamble

Eleanor Acheson McCulloch Gamble was an influential American psychologist from the late 19th century through the early 20th century. Gamble published most of her work on audition and memory influenced by Georg Elias Müller, Edward B. Titchener, Mary Whiton Calkins, Ernst Heinrich Weber. Despite her debilitating chronic eye conditions she was successful in editing volumes of textbooks, her own papers, directing many master's degree students, she earned her undergraduate degree from Wellesley College in 1889. She went on to obtain her doctorate from Cornell University in 1898, she held several teaching positions over the course of her career and was a member of several influential organizations including the American Psychological Association. Gamble was a distinguished and well-liked professor at Wellesley College for more than two decades, by 1930 she was the head of the Department of Philosophy and Psychology following the death of Mary Whiton Calkins. At the time of her death she was professor of psychology and director of the psychological laboratory at Wellesley College.

Gamble's education began in 1889 when she graduated with her bachelor's degree Wellesley College, MA. She went on to pursue her PhD at Cornell University, one of the few schools accepting women in this time period. During this time, she began to study smell under her supervisor E. B. Titchener and wrote her doctoral thesis “The Applicability of Weber’s Law to Smell”. Gamble was able to become a part of The Experimentalists since she received her PhD degree at Cornell University, because this university was one of the few universities accepting women during this time. Gamble was considered physical handicapped from birth when they discovered she had amblyopia in her left eye. In her life, she began to develop glaucoma in her right eye after her first study abroad trip to Europe, her vision continually worsened throughout her life despite several surgical operations. Eleanor Gamble received her PhD under Edward B. Titchener at Cornell in 1898. Next, she began teaching in her home state of Ohio New York, before being offered a teaching position in the philosophy and psychology department at her alma mater, all in 1898.

At Wellesley she specialized in experimental psychology. Gamble became an associate professor of psychology in 1903, full professor seven years in 1910. In her time as an associate professor, Gamble received a postdoctoral research grant to study with Müller in Germany in 1906. After returning from Germany, Gamble became the director of the psychological laboratory at Wellesley run by Mary Whiton Calkins. From this position, Gamble supervised psychological research until the 1931. After Calkins passed away in 1930, Gamble became the new head of the philosophy and psychology department at Wellesley. American Psychological Association American Philosophical Association Ninth International Congress of Psychology Sigma Xi Phi Beta Kappa The applicability of Weber's law to smell The perception of sound direction as a conscious process Attention and thoracic breathing Minor studies from the psychological laboratory of Wellesley College: Intensity as a criterion in estimating the distance of sounds A defense of psychology as science of selves A study in spatial associations in learning and in recall Gamble's research on the olfactory senses and on memory gave way to new research, including research done by her own advisor, Titchener.

At the time of her death, she was doing new research on word memory and chance-reactions to words. She helped to edit and publish multiple books, texts and theses, she was a beloved teacher and was elected as an honorary member of the class of 1926 at Wellesley College. Wellesley College has a series of stained glass windows in their chapel, including one dedicated to Eleanor Gamble on 17 June 1939, it was gifted to the college by her classmates of 1889. The window features multiple images, including a woman with a pen and book, an owl to symbolize wisdom; the second is an image of St. Francis of the patron saint of animals. Gamble had multiple cocker spaniels whom she cared for greatly; the window has an inscription,'Wisdom, expressive of the great teacher'. Her funeral was held at Wellesley College, one of her colleagues, T. Proctor, gave a eulogy. According to Proctor, Eleanor was a talented teacher, devoted to her research and students. Works at the Internet Archive

Howler monkey

Howler monkeys are among the largest of the New World monkeys. They are famous for their loud howls; these monkeys are native to Central American forests. Threats include human habitat destruction and capture for pets or zoo animals. Fifteen species are recognized. Classified in the family Cebidae, they are now placed in the family Atelidae. A. palliata group Coiba Island howler, Alouatta coibensis Alouatta coibensis coibensis Azuero howler, Alouatta coibensis trabeata Mantled howler, Alouatta palliata Ecuadorian mantled howler, Alouatta palliata aequatorialis Golden-mantled howler, Alouatta palliata palliata Mexican howler monkey, Alouatta palliata mexicana Guatemalan black howler, Alouatta pigra A. seniculus group Ursine howler, Alouatta arctoidea Red-handed howler, Alouatta belzebul Spix's red-handed howler, Alouatta discolor Brown howler, Alouatta guariba Northern brown howler, Alouatta guariba guariba Southern brown howler, Alouatta guariba clamitans Juruá red howler, Alouatta juara Guyanan red howler, Alouatta macconnelli Amazon black howler, Alouatta nigerrima Purus red howler, Alouatta puruensis Bolivian red howler, Alouatta sara Venezuelan red howler, Alouatta seniculus Maranhão red-handed howler, Alouatta ululata A. caraya group Black howler, Alouatta caraya Howler monkeys have short snouts and wide-set, round nostrils.

Their noses are keen, they can smell out food up to 2 km away. Their noses are roundish snout-type, the nostrils have many sensory hairs growing from the interior, they range in size from 56 to 92 cm, excluding their tails, which can be as long, in fact in some cases the tail has been found to be five times the body length. This is a prime characteristic. Like many New World monkeys, they have prehensile tails, which they use for picking fruit and nuts from trees. Unlike other New World monkeys, both male and female howler monkeys have trichromatic color vision; this has evolved independently from other New World monkeys due to gene duplication. They have lifespans of 15 to 20 years. Howler species are dimorphic and can be dichromatic. Males are, 1.5 to 2.0 kg heavier than females. The hyoid of Alouatta is pneumatized, one of the few cases of postcranial pneumaticity outside the Saurischia; the volume of the hyoid of male howler monkeys is negatively correlated with the dimensions of their testes.

Howler monkeys move quadrupedally on the tops of branches grasping a branch with at least two hands or one hand and the tail at all times. Their strong prehensile tails are able to support their entire body weight. Grown adult howler monkeys do not rely on their tails for full body support, whereas juveniles do so more frequently. Most howler species live in groups of six to 15 animals, with one to three adult males and multiple females. Mantled howler monkeys are an exception living in groups of 15 to 20 individuals with more than three adult males; the number of males in a given group is inversely correlated with the size of their hyoid, is positively correlated with testes size. This results in two distinct groups, wherein one male with a larger hyoid and smaller testes copulates with a group of females; the other group has more males, which have smaller hyoids, larger testes, free copulation occurs among the group. The larger the number of males, the smaller the hyoid, the larger the testes.

Unlike most New World monkeys, in which one sex remains in natal groups, juveniles of both sexes emigrate from their natal groups, such that howler monkeys could spend the majority of their adult lives in association with unrelated monkeys. Physical fighting among group members is infrequent and of short duration. However, serious injuries can result. Both males and females fight with each other, but physical aggression is more rare between sexes. Group size varies with an approximate ratio of one male to four females; as their name suggests, vocal communication forms an important part of their social behavior. They each have an enlarged hyoid bone, which helps them make their loud vocalizations. Group males call at dawn and dusk, as well as interspersed times throughout the day; the main vocals consist of loud, deep guttural growls or "howls". Howler monkeys are considered to be the loudest land animal. According to Guinness Book of World Records, their vocalizations can be heard for 3 mi; the function of howling is thought to relate to intergroup spacing and territory protection, as well as to mate-guarding.

These large and slow-moving monkeys are the only folivores of the New World monkeys. Howlers eat top canopy leaves, together with fruit, buds and nuts, they need to be careful not to eat too many leaves of certain species in one sitting, as some contain toxins that can poison them. Howler monkeys are known to raid birds' nests and chicken coops and consume the eggs. While aggressive, howler monkeys do not take well to captivity and are of surly disposition. However, the black howler is a common pet monkey in contemporary Argentina due to its gentle nature, in comparison to the capuchin monkey's aggressive tendencies, in spite of its lesser intelligence, as well as the liabilities meant by the size of its droppings and the males' loud vocalisations. John Lloyd Stephens described the howler monkeys at the Maya ruins of Copán as "grave and solemn emotionally wounded, as if officiating as the guardians of consecrated ground". To the Mayas of the Classic period, they