Brown is a composite color which can be produced by combining red and black pigments, or by a combination of orange and black—as can be seen in the color box at right. The color brown shown at right has a hue code of 30, signifying, a shade of orange. In the RGB color model used to create all the colors on computer and television screens, brown is made by combining red and green light at different intensities. Brown color names are not precise, some shades, such as beige, can refer to a wide variety of colors, including shades of yellow or red. Browns are described as light or dark, yellowish, or gray-brown. There are no standardized names for shades of brown; the X11 color list of web colors lists seventeen different shades of brown, but the complete list of browns is much longer. Brown colors are dark or muted shades of reds and yellows which are created on computer and television screens using the RGB color model and in printing with the CMYK color model. Browns can be created by mixing two complementary colors from the RYB color model.
In theory, such combinations should produce black, but produce brown because most commercially available blue pigments tend to be comparatively weaker. Below is a list of some of the common brown colors; the web color called. The historical and traditional name for this color is red-brown; the color shown above at the top right at the head of this article is the color and traditionally regarded as brown—a medium dark orange. Its h code is 30; the color to the immediate right, chosen as the web color "brown"—a medium dark red—is the color traditionally called red-brown. That this color is a shade of red and not orange can be ascertained by inspecting its h code, 0, signifying a shade of red; the first recorded use of red-brown as a color name in English was in 1682. Beaver is a shade of brown representative of the color of a beaver; the first recorded use of beaver as a color name in English was in 1705. The color "beaver" was formulated as one of the Crayola colors in 1998. Etymologically, it's believed that the words "brown" and "beaver" stem from the same root word.
Beige is a light tan color representative of the color of unbleached wool. Buff is a pale yellow-brown color. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, buff as a descriptor of a colour was first used in the London Gazette of 1686, describing a uniform to be "A Red Coat with a Buff-colour'd lining". Burnt umber is made by heating raw umber, which dehydrates the iron oxides and changes them to the more reddish hematite, it is used for both water color paint. The first recorded use of burnt umber as a color name in English was in 1650. Displayed at right is the color chestnut. Displayed at right is the color chocolate. Displayed at right is the color cocoa brown; the color desert sand is displayed at right. It may be regarded as a deep shade of beige, it is a pale tint of a color called desert. The color name "desert" was first used in 1920. Displayed at right is the color khaki; this is the web color called khaki in HTML/CSS. The color shown at right matches the color designated as khaki in the 1930 book A Dictionary of Color, the standard for color nomenclature before the introduction of computers.
The first recorded use of khaki as a color name in English was in 1848. The color kobicha is displayed at right, it is one of the Japanese traditional colors, in use since 660 AD in the form of various dyes used in designing kimonos. The name kobicha comes from the Japanese for the colour of a type of kelp tea, but the word was used as a synonym for a form of flattery in a curious parallel with the English usage brown nosing. Displayed at right is the web color Peru; this color was called Peruvian brown. The first recorded use of Peruvian brown as a color name in English was in 1924; the color name was changed to peru in 1987, when this color was formulated as one of the X11 colors, which in the early 1990s became known as the X11 web colors. Displayed at the right is one version of the color raw umber; the source of this color is: ISCC-NBS Dictionary of Color Names --Color Sample of Raw Umber. Displayed at right is the web color rosy brown; the color name rosy brown first came into use in 1987, when this color was formulated as one of the X11 colors, which in the early 1990s became known as the X11 web colors.
Russet is a dark brown color with a reddish-orange tinge. The first recorded use of russet as a color name in English was in 1562; the source of this color is the ISCC-NBS Dictionary of Color Names --Color dictionary used by stamp collectors to identify the colors of stamps. The name of the color derives from russet, a coarse cloth made of wool and dyed with woad and madder to give it a subdued gray or reddish-brown shade. By the statute of 1363, poor English people were required to wear russet. Russet, a color of fall, is associated with sorrow or grave seriousness. Anticipating a lifetime of regret, Shakespeare's character Biron says: "Henceforth my wooing mind shall be express'd / In russet yeas and honest kersey noes." Sandy brown is a pale shade of brown. Sandy brown is one of the web colors; as its name suggests, it is a shade of brown, similar to the color of some sands. The color name sandy
False color refers to a group of color rendering methods used to display images in color which were recorded in the visible or non-visible parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. A false-color image is an image that depicts an object in colors that differ from those a photograph would show. In addition, variants of false color such as pseudocolor, density slicing, choropleths are used for information visualization of either data gathered by a single grayscale channel or data not depicting parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. To understand false color, a look at the concept behind true color is helpful. An image is called a true-color image when it offers a natural color rendition, or when it comes close to it; this means that the colors of an object in an image appear to a human observer the same way as if this observer was to directly view the object: A green tree appears green in the image, a red apple red, a blue sky blue, so on. When applied to black-and-white images, true-color means that the perceived lightness of a subject is preserved in its depiction.
Absolute true-color rendering is impossible. There are three major sources of color error: Different spectral sensitivities of the human eye and of an image capture device. Different spectral emissions / reflections of the image render process. Differences in spectral irradiance in the case of reflective images or reflective objects – see color rendering index for details; the result of a metameric failure would be for example an image of a green tree which shows a different shade of green than the tree itself, a different shade of red for a red apple, a different shade of blue for the blue sky, so on. Color management can be used to mitigate this problem within the physical constraints. Approximate true-color images gathered by spacecraft are an example where images have a certain amount of metameric failure, as the spectral bands of a spacecraft's camera are chosen to gather information on the physical properties of the object under investigation, are not chosen to capture true-color images.
In contrast to a true-color image, a false-color image sacrifices natural color rendition in order to ease the detection of features that are not discernible otherwise – for example the use of near infrared for the detection of vegetation in satellite images. While a false-color image can be created using the visual spectrum some or all data used is from electromagnetic radiation outside the visual spectrum; the choice of spectral bands is governed by the physical properties of the object under investigation. As the human eye uses three spectral bands, three spectral bands are combined into a false-color image. At least two spectral bands are needed for a false-color encoding, it is possible to combine more bands into the three visual RGB bands – with the eye's ability to discern three channels being the limiting factor. In contrast, a "color" image made from one spectral band, or an image made from data consisting of non-EM data is a pseudocolor image. For true color, the RGB channels from the camera are mapped to the corresponding RGB channels of the image, yielding a "RGB→RGB" mapping.
For false color this relationship is changed. The simplest false-color encoding is to take an RGB image in the visible spectrum, but map it differently, e.g. "GBR→RGB". For traditional false-color satellite images of Earth a "NRG→RGB" mapping is used, with "N" being the near-infrared spectral band – this yields the typical "vegetation in red" false-color images. False color is used for satellite and space images: Examples are remote sensing satellites, space telescopes or space probes; some spacecraft, with rovers being the most prominent examples, have the ability to capture approximate true-color images as well. Weather satellites produce, in contrast to the spacecrafts mentioned grayscale images from the visible or infrared spectrum. A pseudocolor image is derived from a grayscale image by mapping each intensity value to a color according to a table or function. Pseudo color is used when a single channel of data is available, in contrast to false color, used to display three channels of data.
A typical example for the use of pseudo color is thermography, where infrared cameras feature only one spectral band and show their grayscale images in pseudo color. Another familiar example of pseudo color is the encoding of elevation using hypsometric tints in physical relief maps, where negative values are represented by shades of blue, positive values by greens and browns. Pseudocoloring can make some details more visible, as the perceived difference in color space is bigger than between successive gray levels alone. Depending on the table or function used and the choice of data sources, pseudocoloring may increase the information contents of the original image, for example adding geographic information, combining information obtained from infrared or ultra-violet light, or other sources like MRI scans. A further application of pseudocoloring is to store the results of image
A colour cast is a tint of a particular colour unwanted, which affects the whole, or portion, of a photographic image evenly. Certain types of light can cause film and digital cameras to have a colour cast. Illuminating a subject with light sources of different colour temperatures will cause colour cast problems in the shadows. In general, the human eye does not notice the unnatural colour, because our eyes and brains adjust and compensate for different types of light in ways that cameras cannot. In film, colour casts can be caused by problems in development. Improper timing or imbalanced chemical mixtures can cause unwanted casts. Colour casts can occur in old photographs due to fading of dyes under the action of ultra violet light; these may be correctable on a scanned version of the photograph with image editing techniques. Most digital cameras try to automatically detect and compensate colour cast and have a selection of manually set white balance settings to choose from. Otherwise, photo editing programs, such as Photoshop have built in colour correction facilities.
For film, blue filters and amber filters are used to counter casts. Amber filters are used to reduce the blueish tint caused by daylight. Blue filters reduce the orange colour caused by incandescent light. A variety of coloured filters in varying degrees of intensity are available. Kodak's amber filters, for example, vary from palest yellow to deepest amber. A photographer chooses. Colour temperature meters can read the temperature of the existing lighting conditions and guide the selection of the filter. Clouded sky, for example, requires a paler amber than clear blue sky. If a filter is unavailable, flash is an alternative solution which provides enough neutral white light to counter the cast. In the case of film, if photographs all contain the same cast, it is indicative of improper chemical development. If the film itself does not contain any cast, it can be reused to create another set of photographs in proper chemical conditions. If the film contains a cast, filters can be used during photo processing to correct it.
Colour balance Colour temperature
Animal coloration is the general appearance of an animal resulting from the reflection or emission of light from its surfaces. Some animals are brightly colored. In some species, such as the peafowl, the male has strong patterns, conspicuous colors and is iridescent, while the female is far less visible. There are several separate reasons. Camouflage enables an animal to remain hidden from view. Animals use color to advertise services such as cleaning to animals of other species; some animals use flashes of color to divert attacks by startling predators. Zebras may use motion dazzle, confusing a predator's attack by moving a bold pattern rapidly; some animals are colored for physical protection, with pigments in the skin to protect against sunburn, while some frogs can lighten or darken their skin for temperature regulation. Animals can be colored incidentally. For example, blood is red. Animals colored in these ways can have striking natural patterns. Animals produce color in both indirect ways. Direct production occurs through the presence of visible colored cells known as pigment which are particles of colored material such as freckles.
Indirect production occurs by virtue of cells known as chromatophores which are pigment-containing cells such as hair follicles. The distribution of the pigment particles in the chromatophores can change under hormonal or neuronal control. For fishes it has been demonstrated that chromatophores may respond directly to environmental stimuli like visible light, UV-radiation, temperature, pH, etc. Color change helps individuals in becoming more or less visible and is important in agonistic displays and in camouflage; some animals, including many butterflies and birds, have microscopic structures in scales, bristles or feathers which give them brilliant iridescent colors. Other animals including squid and some deep-sea fish can produce light, sometimes of different colors. Animals use two or more of these mechanisms together to produce the colors and effects they need. Animal coloration has been a topic of research in biology for centuries. In the classical era, Aristotle recorded that the octopus was able to change its coloration to match its background, when it was alarmed.
In his 1665 book Micrographia, Robert Hooke describes the "fantastical" colors of the Peacock's feathers: The parts of the Feathers of this glorious Bird appear, through the Microscope, no less gaudy do the whole Feathers. Their upper sides seem to me to consist of a multitude of thin plated bodies, which are exceeding thin, lie close together, thereby, like mother of Pearl shells, do not onely reflect a brisk light, but tinge that light in a most curious manner. Now, that these colours are onely fantastical ones, that is, such as arise from the refractions of the light, I found by this, that water wetting these colour'd parts, destroy'd their colours, which seem'd to proceed from the alteration of the reflection and refraction. According to Charles Darwin's 1859 theory of natural selection, features such as coloration evolved by providing individual animals with a reproductive advantage. For example, individuals with better camouflage than others of the same species would, on average, leave more offspring.
In his Origin of Species, Darwin wrote: When we see leaf-eating insects green, bark-feeders mottled-grey. Grouse, if not destroyed at some period of their lives, would increase in countless numbers. Hence I can see no reason to doubt that natural selection might be most effective in giving the proper colour to each kind of grouse, in keeping that colour, when once acquired and constant. Henry Walter Bates's 1863 book The Naturalist on the River Amazons describes his extensive studies of the insects in the Amazon basin, the butterflies, he discovered that similar butterflies belonged to different families, with a harmless species mimicking a poisonous or bitter-tasting species to reduce its chance of being attacked by a predator, in the process now called after him, Batesian mimicry. Edward Bagnall Poulton's Darwinian 1890 book The Colours of Animals, their meaning and use considered in the case of insects argued the case for three aspects of animal coloration that are broadly accepted today but were controversial or wholly new at the time.
It supported Darwin's theory of sexual selection, arguing that the obvious differences between male and female birds such as the Argus pheasant were selected by the females, pointing out that bright male plumage was found only in species "which court by day". The book introduced the concept of frequency-dependent selection, as when edible mimi
A spectral color is a color, evoked in a normal human by a single wavelength of light in the visible spectrum, or by a narrow band of wavelengths known as monochromatic light. Every wavelength of visible light is perceived in a continuous spectrum; the spectrum is divided into named colors, though any division is somewhat arbitrary. Traditional colors in English include: red, yellow, green and violet. In some other languages the ranges corresponding to color names do not agree with those in English; the division used by Isaac Newton, in his color wheel, was: red, yellow, blue and violet. Less "VIBGYOR" is used for the reverse order. In modern divisions of the spectrum, indigo is omitted. One needs at least trichromatic color vision for there to be a distinction between spectral and non-spectral colours: trichromacy gives a possibility to perceive both hue and saturation in the chroma. In color models capable of representing spectral colors, such as CIELUV, a spectral color has the maximal saturation.
In color spaces which include all, or most spectral colors, they form a part of boundary of the set of all real colors. If luminance is counted spectral colors form a surface, otherwise their locus is a curve in a two-dimensional chromaticity space. Theoretically, only RGB-implemented colors which might be spectral are its primaries: red and blue, whereas any other color is inherently non-spectral, but due to different chromaticity properties of different spectral segments, due to practical limitations of light sources, the actual distance between RGB pure color wheel colors and spectral colors shows a complicated dependence on the hue. Due to location of R and G primaries near the "flat" spectral segment, RGB color space is reasonably good with approximating spectral orange and bright green, but is poor in reaching a visual appearance of spectral colors between green and blue, as well as extreme spectral colors; the sRGB standard has an additional problem with its "red" primary, shifted to orange due to a trade-off between purity of red and its reasonable luminance, so that the red spectral became unreachable.
Some samples in the table below provide only rough approximations of spectral and near-spectral colors. CMYK is even poorer than RGB in its reach of spectral colors, with notable exception of process yellow, rather close to spectral colors due to aforementioned flatness of the spectral locus in the red–green segment. Note that spectral color are universally included to scientific color models such as CIE 1931, but industrial and consumer color spaces such as sRGB, CMYK, Pantone, do not include any spectral colors. Exceptions include Rec. 2020, which uses three spectral colors as primaries, color spaces such as the ProPhoto RGB color space which use imaginary colors as primaries. Most of the colors listed do not reach the maximal colorfulness, or are not seen with it, but they can be saturated enough to be perceived to their dominant wavelength spectral colors. Ranges of wavelengths and frequencies are only approximate. Wavelengths and frequencies in gray indicate dominant wavelengths and frequencies, not actual range of spectrum composing a specified color, which extends farther to both sides and is averaged by receptors to give a near-spectral appearance.
Among some of the colors that are not spectral colors are: Grayscale colors, such as white and black. Any color obtained by mixing such as pink, or brown. Violet-red colors, which in color theory include line of purples colors, other variations of purple and red. Impossible colors, which cannot be seen under normal viewing of light, such as over-saturated colors or colors that are brighter than white. Metallic colors which reflect light by effect. Imaginary color
Varieties of the color red may differ in hue, chroma or lightness, or in two or three of these qualities. Variations in value are called tints and shades, a tint being a red or other hue mixed with white, a shade being mixed with black. A large selection of these various colors is shown below. At right is displayed the web color pink. Though many believe it is a light tint of red, pink is its own color. Pink is considered to be a basic color term on its own. At right is displayed the color light red. Though similar to pink, this shade of red is 50% lighter red. At right is displayed the pinkish tone of salmon, called salmon in Crayola crayons; this color was introduced by Crayola in 1949. See the List of Crayola crayon colors; the color coral pink is displayed at a pinkish orange color. The web color salmon is displayed at right, it represents the color of the flesh of an average salmon. However, actual salmon flesh can range in hue from a light pinkish-orange to a bright red; the color displayed at right, red, RGB red, or electric red is the brightest possible red that can be reproduced on a computer monitor.
This color is an approximation of an orangish red spectral color. It is one of the three primary colors of light in the RGB color model, along with blue; the three additive primaries in the RGB color system are the three colors of light chosen such as to provide the maximum gamut of colors that are capable of being represented on a computer or television set, at a reasonable expense of power. Portable devices such as mobile phones might have an narrower gamut due to this purity–power tradeoff and their "red" may be less colorful and more orangish than the standard red of sRGB; this color is the color called red in the X11 web colors, which were formulated in 1987. It is called color wheel red, it is at zero degrees on the HSV color wheel known as the RGB color wheel. Its complementary color is cyan. Pigment red is the color red, achieved by mixing process magenta and process yellow in equal proportions; this is the color red, shown in the diagram located at the bottom of the following website offering tintbooks for CMYK printing:.
The purpose of the CMYK color system is to provide the maximum possible gamut of colors capable of being reproduced in printing. Psychedelic art made people used to brighter colors of red, pigment colors or colored pencils called "true red" are produced by mixing pigment red with a tiny amount of white; the result approximates the electric red shown above. The color defined as red in the Natural Color System is shown at right; the Natural Color System is a color system based on the four unique hues or psychological primary colors red, yellow and blue. The NCS is based on the opponent process theory of vision; the Natural Color System is used in Scandinavia. The color defined; the Munsell color system is a color space that specifies colors based on three color dimensions: hue and chroma, spaced uniformly in three dimensions in the elongated oval at an angle shaped Munsell color solid according to the logarithmic scale which governs human perception. In order for all the colors to be spaced uniformly, it was found necessary to use a color wheel with five primary colors—red, green and purple.
The Munsell colors displayed are only approximate as they have been adjusted to fit into the sRGB gamut. The color defined; the source of this color is color No. 032M—Red. The color defined as red in Crayola crayons is displayed at right. Red was one of the original colors formulated by Crayola in 1903. Scarlet is a bright red with a orange tinge. According to surveys in Europe and the United States and other bright shades of red are the colors most associated with courage, passion and joy. In the Roman Catholic Church, scarlet is the color worn by cardinals, is associated with the blood of Christ and the Christian martyrs, with sacrifice. See Imperial blue At right is displayed the color imperial red. Imperial red is a representation of the red color of the Imperial Standard of Napoleon I; the first recorded use of imperial red as a color name in English was in 1914. Note: the RGB values for Pantone red and imperial red are identical; the name Indian red derives from the red laterite soil found in India, composed of occurring iron oxides.
The first recorded use of "Indian red" as a color term in English was in 1792. Spanish red is the color, called rojo in the Guía de coloraciones by Rosa Gallego and Juan Carlos Sanz, a color dictionary published in 2005, popular in the Hispanophone realm; the color carmine is a saturated red. In its pigment form it contains the red light with wavelengths longer than 600 nm, i.e. it is close to the extreme spectral red. This places it far beyond standard gamuts, its given RGB value is a poor approximation only. Ruby is a color, a representation of the color of the cut and polished ruby gemstone. Crimson is a strong, deep red color combined with some blue or violet, resulting in a small degree of purple; the color rusty red is displayed at right. Rusty red is a color formulated by Cr
Color symbolism in art and anthropology refers to the use of color as a symbol in various cultures. There is great diversity in the use of colors and their associations between cultures and within the same culture in different time periods; the same color may have different associations within the same culture at any time. Diversity in color symbolism occurs because color meanings and symbolism occur on an individual and universal basis. Color symbolism is context-dependent and influenced by changes over time. Symbolic representations of religious concepts or articles may include a specific color with which the concept or object is associated. There is evidence to suggest that colors have been used for this purpose as early as 90,000 BC. Red is a primary color, it is associated with love and lust. It is used in relation to Valentine's Day, it can be used to signify danger or warning but it's associated with importance. For instance, it is used for stop signs and fire engines. In China, red is used to symbolize good luck or happiness, is used for many holidays or weddings.
Blue is a primary color. It is the color of the sky, it can be a calming color, symbolize reliability. In the Catholic Church, the Virgin Mary is most depicted wearing blue, to symbolize being "full of grace" by divine favor. Blue is used for baby boys' clothes or bedrooms, although the reason blue is so associated with boys is debated. Yellow is a primary color, it is a color associated with sunshine or joy. It is sometimes used in association with cowardice or fear, i.e, the phrase "yellow-bellied". Children tend to like this color, it is used to market products to children. Green is a secondary color, it is most used to represent nature, healing, or fertility, since it's such a dominant color in nature. It can be a relaxing color but is used in the US to symbolize money, greed, or jealousy. Saying that someone is "green" means they're inexperienced or new. Black, in Western culture, is considered a negative color and symbolizes death, grief, or evil. People wear black for mourning, although this practice isn't as wide-spread as it was in the past.
White most symbolizes perfection, innocence and cleanliness. Brides wear white dresses to symbolize virginity or purity. Pink is associated with softness, femininity and love. However, it was used as a masculine color used for baby boys. Color plays an important role in setting expectations for a product and communicating its key characteristics. Color is the second most important element. Marketers for products with an international market navigate the color symbolism variances between cultures with targeted advertising; the car manufacturer, Volkswagen ran a commercial in Italy with a black sheep in the middle of a larger flock symbolizing those who owned a VW Golf as someone unique and self-assured among a crowd of others who were not. In several cultures around the world, a black sheep represents an outcast and is seen as something undesirable. In Italy, a black sheep represents independence. There are many additional variances in color symbolism between cultures. Cold is symbolized by blue in East Asia, the USA, Sweden while warmth is symbolized by yellow in the USA and by blue in The Netherlands.
Sometimes the meanings of colors are in stark opposition across geographic boundaries, requiring products marketed to specific demographics to account for those changes across different markets. For instance, feminity is symbolized by blue in The Netherlands and pink in the USA. Whereas masculinity is symbolized by blue in Sweden and the USA, red in the UK and France. In some instances color symbolism in marketing is constructed. For companies whose products are defined by the name of their color their sales are susceptible to the symbolism and association of that name. In one example, a company selling a paint color named “off white” more than doubled its sales by renaming the same color as “ancient silk.” Color symbolism has changed over time. Between the 5th and 17th centuries color was related to in a religious context. Blue was white of purity. Today, purity is still symbolized by white in Australia and the USA but by blue in other countries like India; the church influenced the perception of colors like crimson and purple.
Because the dyes for these colors could only be sourced from precious pigments, religious figures like Madonna and the Virgin were seen in scarlet and purple. Today, purple symbolizes evil and infidelity in Japan, but the same is symbolized by blue in East Asia and by yellow in France. Additionally, the sacred color of Hindu and Buddhist monks is orange; the Renaissance was a time in which black and purple were colors of mourning. Today, Mourning or death is symbolized by white in East Asia, black in the USA, blue in Iran, while happiness is symbolized by white in Australia and NZ, yellow in China. There is a general disagreement over whether reactions to color and their symbolism are a result of cultural conditioning or of instinct. Several studies concluded that color is part of the social learning process because of the significant symbolism within the culture. High quality and dependability are symbolized by blue in the USA, Japan and green and yellow in China - as well as purple in China, South Korea and Japan.
Because of these