A writer is a person who uses written words in various styles and techniques to communicate their ideas. Writers produce various forms of literary art and creative writing such as novels, short stories, plays and essays as well as various reports and news articles that may be of interest to the public. Writers' texts are published across a range of media. Skilled writers who are able to use language to express ideas well contribute to the cultural content of a society; the term "writer" is used elsewhere in the arts – such as songwriter – but as a standalone "writer" refers to the creation of written language. Some writers work from an oral tradition. Writers can produce material across a number of genres, non-fictional. Other writers use multiple media – for example, graphics or illustration – to enhance the communication of their ideas. Another recent demand has been created by civil and government readers for the work of non-fictional technical writers, whose skills create understandable, interpretive documents of a practical or scientific nature.
Some writers may use multimedia to augment their writing. In rare instances, creative writers are able to communicate their ideas via music as well as words; as well as producing their own written works, writers write on how they write. Writers work professionally or non-professionally, that is, for payment or without payment and may be paid either in advance, or only after their work is published. Payment is only one of the motivations of writers and many are never paid for their work; the term writer is used as a synonym of author, although the latter term has a somewhat broader meaning and is used to convey legal responsibility for a piece of writing if its composition is anonymous, unknown or collaborative. Writers choose from a range of literary genres to express their ideas. Most writing can be adapted for use in another medium. For example, a writer's work may be read or recited or performed in a play or film. Satire for example, may be written as a poem, an essay, a film, a comic play, or a piece of journalism.
The writer of a letter may include elements of biography, or journalism. Many writers work across genres; the genre sets the parameters but all kinds of creative adaptation have been attempted: novel to film. Writers may change to another. For example, historian William Dalrymple began in the genre of travel literature and writes as a journalist. Many writers have produced both fiction and non-fiction works and others write in a genre that crosses the two. For example, writers of historical romances, such as Georgette Heyer, invent characters and stories set in historical periods. In this genre, the accuracy of the history and the level of factual detail in the work both tend to be debated; some writers write both creative fiction and serious analysis, sometimes using different names to separate their work. Dorothy Sayers, for example, wrote crime fiction but was a playwright, essayist and critic. Poets make maximum use of the language to achieve an emotional and sensory effect as well as a cognitive one.
To create these effects, they use rhyme and rhythm and they exploit the properties of words with a range of other techniques such as alliteration and assonance. A common theme is its vicissitudes. Shakespeare's famous love story Romeo and Juliet, for example, written in a variety of poetic forms, has been performed in innumerable theatres and made into at least eight cinematic versions. John Donne is another poet renowned for his love poetry. Novelists write novels -- stories, they situate invented characters and plots in a narrative designed to be both credible and entertaining. Every novel worthy of the name is like another planet, whether large or small, which has its own laws just as it has its own flora and fauna. Thus, Faulkner's technique is the best one with which to paint Faulkner's world, Kafka's nightmare has produced its own myths that make it communicable. Benjamin Constant, Eugène Fromentin, Jacques Rivière, all used different techniques, took different liberties, set themselves different tasks.
François Mauriac, novelist A satirist uses wit to ridicule the shortcomings of society or individuals, with the intent of exposing stupidity. The subject of the satire is a contemporary issue such as ineffective political decisions or politicians, although human vices such as greed are a common and universal subject. Philosopher Voltaire wrote a satire about optimism called Candide, subsequently turned into an opera, many well known lyricists wrote for it. There are elements of Absurdism in Candide, just as there are in the work of contemporary satirist Barry Humphries, who writes comic satire for his character Dame Edna Everage to perform on stage. Satirists use various techniques such as irony and hyperbole to make their point and they choose from the full range of genres – the satire may be in the form of prose or poetry or dialogue in a film, for example. One of the most famous satirists is Jonathan Swift who wrote the four-volume work Gulliver's Travels and many other satires, including A Modest Proposal and The Battle of the Books.
It is amazing to me that... our age is wholly illiterate and has hardly produced one writer upon any subject. Jonathan Swift, satirist A short story writer is a writer of short stories, works of fiction that can be read in a single sitting. Libretti (the p
Media are the communication outlets or tools used to store and deliver information or data. The term refers to components of the mass media communications industry, such as print media, the news media, cinema and advertising; the term "medium" is defined as "one of the means or channels of general communication, information, or entertainment in society, as newspapers, radio, or television."The phrase "mass media" was, according to H. L. Mencken, used as early as 1923 in the United States; the term media in its modern application relating to communication channels was first used by Canadian communications theorist Marshall McLuhan, who stated in Counterblast: "The media are not toys. They can be entrusted only to new artists, because they are art forms." By the mid-1960s, the term had spread to general use in the United Kingdom. Writers such as Howard Rheingold have framed early forms of human communication as early forms of media, such as the Lascaux cave paintings and early writing. Another framing of the history of media starts with the Chauvet Cave paintings and continues with other ways to carry human communication beyond the short range of voice: smoke signals, trail markers, sculpture.
The development of early writing and paper enabled longer-distance communication systems such as mail, including in the Persian Empire and Roman Empire, which can be interpreted as early forms of media. In the last century, a revolution in telecommunications has altered communication by providing new media for long distance communication; the first transatlantic two-way radio broadcast occurred in 1906 and led to common communication via analog and digital media: Analog telecommunications include some radio systems, historical telephony systems, historical television broadcasts. Digital telecommunications allow for computer-mediated communication and computer networks. Modern communication media now allow for intense long-distance exchanges between larger numbers of people. On the other hand, many traditional broadcast media and mass media favor one-to-many communication. Electronic media usage is growing, although concern has arisen that it distracts youth from face-to-face contact with friends and family.
Research on the social engagement effect is mixed. One study by Wellman found that "33% of Internet users said that the Internet had improved their connections to friends'a lot', 23% said it had increased the quality of their communication with family members by a similar amount. Young people in particular took advantage of the social side of the Internet. Nearly half of the 18- to 29-year-olds said that the Internet had improved their connections to friends a lot. On the other hand, 19% of employed Internet users said that the Internet had increased the amount of time they spent working in home". Electronic media now comes in the forms of tablets, desktops, cell phones, mp3 players, DVDs, game systems and television. Technology has spiked to record highs within the last decade, thus changing the dynamic of communication; the spike in electronic media started to grow in 2007 when the release of the first iPhone came out. The meaning of electronic media, as it is known in various spheres, has changed with the passage of time.
The term media has achieved a broader meaning nowadays as compared to that given it a decade ago. Earlier, there was multimedia, once only a piece of software used to play video. Following this, it was CD and DVD camera of 3G applications in the field. In modern terms, the term "media" includes all the software which are used in PC or laptop or mobile phone installed for normal or better performance of the system; this type of hard disc is becoming smaller in size. The latest inclusion in the field is magnetic media whose application is common in the fastest growing information technology field. Modern day IT media is used in the banking sector and by the Income Tax Department for the purpose of providing the easiest and fastest possible services to consumers. In this magnetic strip, account information linking to all the data relating to a particular consumer is stored; the main features of these types of media are prepared unrecorded, data is stored at a stage as per the requirement of its user or consumer.
Media technology has made viewing easier as time has passed throughout history. Children today are encouraged to use media tools in school and are expected to have a general understanding of the various technologies available; the internet is arguably one of the most effective tools in media for communication tools such as e-mail and Facebook have brought people closer together and created new online communities. However, some may argue. Therefore, it is an important source of communication. In a large consumer-driven society, electronic media and print media are important for distributing advertisement media. More technologically advanced societies have access to goods and services through newer media than less technologically advanced societies. In addition to this "advertising" role
Tragedy is a form of drama based on human suffering that invokes an accompanying catharsis or pleasure in audiences. While many cultures have developed forms that provoke this paradoxical response, the term tragedy refers to a specific tradition of drama that has played a unique and important role in the self-definition of Western civilisation; that tradition has been multiple and discontinuous, yet the term has been used to invoke a powerful effect of cultural identity and historical continuity—"the Greeks and the Elizabethans, in one cultural form. From its origins in the theatre of ancient Greece 2500 years ago, from which there survives only a fraction of the work of Aeschylus and Euripides, as well as a large number of fragments from other poets. A long line of philosophers—which includes Plato, Saint Augustine, Hume, Hegel, Kierkegaard, Freud, Camus and Deleuze—have analysed, speculated upon, criticised the genre. In the wake of Aristotle's Poetics, tragedy has been used to make genre distinctions, whether at the scale of poetry in general or at the scale of the drama.
In the modern era, tragedy has been defined against drama, the tragicomic, epic theatre. Drama, in the narrow sense, cuts across the traditional division between comedy and tragedy in an anti- or a-generic deterritorialisation from the mid-19th century onwards. Both Bertolt Brecht and Augusto Boal define their epic theatre projects against models of tragedy. Taxidou, reads epic theatre as an incorporation of tragic functions and its treatments of mourning and speculation; the word "tragedy" appears to have been used to describe different phenomena at different times. It derives from Classical Greek τραγῳδία, contracted from trag-aoidiā = "goat song", which comes from tragos = "he-goat" and aeidein = "to sing". Scholars suspect this may be traced to a time when a goat was either the prize in a competition of choral dancing or was that around which a chorus danced prior to the animal's ritual sacrifice. In another view on the etymology, Athenaeus of Naucratis says that the original form of the word was trygodia from trygos and ode, because those events were first introduced during grape harvest.
Writing in 335 BCE, Aristotle provides the earliest-surviving explanation for the origin of the dramatic art form in his Poetics, in which he argues that tragedy developed from the improvisations of the leader of choral dithyrambs: Anyway, arising from an improvisatory beginning, grew little by little, as developed whatever of it had appeared. In the same work, Aristotle attempts to provide a scholastic definition of what tragedy is: Tragedy is an enactment of a deed, important and complete, of magnitude, by means of language enriched, each used separately in the different parts: it is enacted, not recited, through pity and fear it effects relief to such emotions. There is some dissent to the dithyrambic origins of tragedy based on the differences between the shapes of their choruses and styles of dancing. A common descent from pre-Hellenic fertility and burial rites has been suggested. Friedrich Nietzsche discussed the origins of Greek tragedy in his early book The Birth of Tragedy. Here, he suggests the name originates in the use of a chorus of goat-like satyrs in the original dithyrambs from which the tragic genre developed.
Scott Scullion writes: There is abundant evidence for tragoidia understood as "song for the prize goat". The best-known evidence is Horace, Ars poetica 220-24. Athenian tragedy—the oldest surviving form of tragedy—is a type of dance-drama that formed an important part of the theatrical culture of the city-state. Having emerged sometime during the 6th century BCE, it flowered during the 5th century BCE, continued to be popular until the beginning of the Hellenistic period. No tragedies from the 6th century and only 32 of the more than a thousand that were performed in the 5th century have survived. We have complete texts extant by Aeschylus and Euripides. Athenian tragedies
A literary magazine is a periodical devoted to literature in a broad sense. Literary magazines publish short stories and essays, along with literary criticism, book reviews, biographical profiles of authors and letters. Literary magazines are called literary journals, or little magazines, terms intended to contrast them with larger, commercial magazines. Nouvelles de la république. Literary magazines became common in the early part of the 19th century, mirroring an overall rise in the number of books and scholarly journals being published at that time. In Great Britain, critics Francis Jeffrey, Henry Brougham and Sydney Smith founded the Edinburgh Review in 1802. Other British reviews of this period included the Westminster Review, The Spectator, Athenaeum. In the United States, early journals included the Philadelphia Literary Magazine, the Monthly Anthology, which became the North American Review, the Yale Review, The Knickerbocker and the New Orleans-based De Bow's Review. Several prominent literary magazines were published in Charleston, South Carolina, including The Southern Review and Russell's Magazine.
The North American Review, founded in 1815, is the oldest American literary magazine. However, it had its publication suspended during World War II, the Yale Review did not. Begun in 1889, Poet Lore is considered the oldest journal dedicated to poetry. By the end of the century, literary magazines had become an important feature of intellectual life in many parts of the world. Among the literary magazines that began in the early part of the 20th century is Poetry magazine. Founded in 1912, it published T. S. Eliot's first poem, "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock." Other important early-20th century literary magazines include The Times Literary Supplement, Southwest Review, Virginia Quarterly Review, Southern Review, New Letters. The Sewanee Review, although founded in 1892, achieved prominence thanks to Allen Tate, who became editor in 1944. Two of the most influential—though radically different—journals of the last-half of the 20th century were The Kenyon Review and the Partisan Review; the Kenyon Review, edited by John Crowe Ransom, espoused the so-called New Criticism.
Its platform was avowedly unpolitical. Although Ransom came from the South and published authors from that region, KR published many New York-based and international authors; the Partisan Review was first associated with the American Communist Party and the John Reed Club, however, it soon broke ranks with the party. Politics remained central to its character, while it published significant literature and criticism; the middle-20th century saw a boom in the number of literary magazines, which corresponded with the rise of the small press. Among the important journals which began in this period were Nimbus: A Magazine of Literature, the Arts, New Ideas, which began publication in 1951 in England, the Paris Review, founded in 1953, The Massachusetts Review and Poetry Northwest, which were founded in 1959, X Magazine, which ran from 1959–62, the Denver Quarterly, which began in 1965; the 1970s saw another surge in the number of literary magazines, with a number of distinguished journals getting their start during this decade, including Columbia: A Journal of Literature and Art, The Iowa Review, Agni, The Missouri Review, New England Review.
Other regarded print magazines of recent years include The Threepenny Review, The Georgia Review, Shenandoah, The Greensboro Review, ZYZZYVA, Glimmer Train, Tin House, Half Mystic Journal, the Canadian magazine Brick, the Australian magazine HEAT, Zoetrope: All-Story. Some short fiction writers, such as Steve Almond, Jacob M. Appel and Stephen Dixon have built national reputations in the United States through publication in literary magazines; the Committee of Small Magazine Editors and Presses was founded by Hugh Fox in the mid-1970s. It was an attempt to organize the energy of the small presses. Len Fulton and founder of Dustbook Publishing and published the first real list of these small magazines and their editors in the mid-1970s; this made it possible for poets to pick and choose the publications most amenable to their work and the vitality of these independent publishers was recognized by the larger community, including the National Endowment for the Arts, which created a committee to distribute support money for this burgeoning group of publishers called the Coordinating Council of Literary Magazines.
This organisation evolved into the Council of Literary Presses. Many prestigious awards exist for works published in literary magazines including the Pushcart Prize and the O. Henry Awards. Literary magazines provide many of the pieces in The Best American Short Stories and The Best American Essays annual volumes. SwiftCurrent, created in 1984, was the first online literary magazine, it functioned as more of a database of literary works than a literary publication. In 1995, the Mississippi Review was the first large literary magazine to launch a online issue. By 1998, Fence and Timothy McSweeney's Quarterly Concern were published and gained an audience. Around 1996, literary magazines began to appear more online. At first, some writers and readers dismissed online literary magazines as not equal in quality or prestige to their print counterparts, while others said that these
A literary genre is a category of literary composition. Genres may be determined by literary technique, content, or length; the distinctions between genres and categories are flexible and loosely defined with subgroups. The most general genres in literature are epic, tragedy and creative nonfiction, they can all be in the form of poetry. Additionally, a genre such as satire, allegory or pastoral might appear in any of the above, not only as a subgenre, but as a mixture of genres, they are defined by the general cultural movement of the historical period in which they were composed. Genre should not be confused with age categories, by which literature may be classified as either adult, young adult, or children's, they are not the same as format, such as graphic novel or picture book. Just as there are different types of painting: landscape, still life, portrait; these types tend to share specific characteristics. Genres describe. Genres are divided into subgenres. Literature is divided into the classic three forms of Ancient Greece, poetry and prose.
Poetry may be subdivided into the genres of lyric and dramatic. The lyric includes all the shorter forms of poetry, e.g. song, ballad, sonnet. Dramatic poetry might include comedy, tragedy and mixtures like tragicomedy; the standard division of drama into tragedy and comedy derives from Greek drama. This parsing into subgenres can continue: comedy has its own subgenres, for example, comedy of manners, sentimental comedy, burlesque comedy, satirical comedy; the criteria used to divide up works into genres are not consistent, may change and be subject of argument and challenge by both authors and critics. However a loose term like fiction is not universally applied to all fictitious literature, but instead is restricted to the use for novel, short story, novella, but not fables, is usually a prose text. Types of fiction genres are science fiction and fantasy, historical fiction, realistic fiction and mysteries. Semi-fiction spans stories, it may be the retelling of a true story with only the names changed.
The other way around, semi-fiction may involve fictional events with a semi-fictional character, such as Jerry Seinfeld. Genres may be confused with literary techniques, though only loosely defined, they are not the same. Poetry Prose Genre fiction Bakhtin, Mikhail M.. "Epic and Novel". In Holquist, Michael; the Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays. Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-71527-7. Derrida, Jacques. "On Narrative: The Law of Genre". Critical Inquiry; the University of Chicago Press. 7: 55–81. Doi:10.1086/448088. Dorst, John D.. "Neck-Riddle as a Dialogue off Genres: Applying Bakhtin's Genre Theory". Journal of American Folklore. 96: 413–433. JSTOR 540982. List of fiction subgenres and indicative words Literary Genres Blog
Poetry is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning. Poetry has a long history, dating back to prehistorical times with the creation of hunting poetry in Africa, panegyric and elegiac court poetry was developed extensively throughout the history of the empires of the Nile and Volta river valleys; some of the earliest written poetry in Africa can be found among the Pyramid Texts written during the 25th century BCE, while the Epic of Sundiata is one of the most well-known examples of griot court poetry. The earliest Western Asian epic poetry, the Epic of Gilgamesh, was written in Sumerian. Early poems in the Eurasian continent evolved from folk songs such as the Chinese Shijing, or from a need to retell oral epics, as with the Sanskrit Vedas, Zoroastrian Gathas, the Homeric epics, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Ancient Greek attempts to define poetry, such as Aristotle's Poetics, focused on the uses of speech in rhetoric, drama and comedy.
Attempts concentrated on features such as repetition, verse form and rhyme, emphasized the aesthetics which distinguish poetry from more objectively informative, prosaic forms of writing. Poetry uses forms and conventions to suggest differential interpretation to words, or to evoke emotive responses. Devices such as assonance, alliteration and rhythm are sometimes used to achieve musical or incantatory effects; the use of ambiguity, symbolism and other stylistic elements of poetic diction leaves a poem open to multiple interpretations. Figures of speech such as metaphor and metonymy create a resonance between otherwise disparate images—a layering of meanings, forming connections not perceived. Kindred forms of resonance may exist, between individual verses, in their patterns of rhyme or rhythm; some poetry types are specific to particular cultures and genres and respond to characteristics of the language in which the poet writes. Readers accustomed to identifying poetry with Dante, Goethe and Rumi may think of it as written in lines based on rhyme and regular meter.
Much modern poetry reflects a critique of poetic tradition, playing with and testing, among other things, the principle of euphony itself, sometimes altogether forgoing rhyme or set rhythm. In today's globalized world, poets adapt forms and techniques from diverse cultures and languages; some scholars believe. Others, suggest that poetry did not predate writing; the oldest surviving epic poem, the Epic of Gilgamesh, comes from the 3rd millennium BCE in Sumer, was written in cuneiform script on clay tablets and on papyrus. A tablet dating to c. 2000 BCE describes an annual rite in which the king symbolically married and mated with the goddess Inanna to ensure fertility and prosperity. An example of Egyptian epic poetry is The Story of Sinuhe. Other ancient epic poetry includes the Iliad and the Odyssey. Epic poetry, including the Odyssey, the Gathas, the Indian Vedas, appears to have been composed in poetic form as an aid to memorization and oral transmission, in prehistoric and ancient societies.
Other forms of poetry developed directly from folk songs. The earliest entries in the oldest extant collection of Chinese poetry, the Shijing, were lyrics; the efforts of ancient thinkers to determine what makes poetry distinctive as a form, what distinguishes good poetry from bad, resulted in "poetics"—the study of the aesthetics of poetry. Some ancient societies, such as China's through her Shijing, developed canons of poetic works that had ritual as well as aesthetic importance. More thinkers have struggled to find a definition that could encompass formal differences as great as those between Chaucer's Canterbury Tales and Matsuo Bashō's Oku no Hosomichi, as well as differences in content spanning Tanakh religious poetry, love poetry, rap. Classical thinkers employed classification as a way to assess the quality of poetry. Notably, the existing fragments of Aristotle's Poetics describe three genres of poetry—the epic, the comic, the tragic—and develop rules to distinguish the highest-quality poetry in each genre, based on the underlying purposes of the genre.
Aestheticians identified three major genres: epic poetry, lyric poetry, dramatic poetry, treating comedy and tragedy as subgenres of dramatic poetry. Aristotle's work was influential throughout the Middle East during the Islamic Golden Age, as well as in Europe during the Renaissance. Poets and aestheticians distinguished poetry from, defined it in opposition to prose, understood as writing with a proclivity to logical explication and a linear narrative structure; this does not imply that poetry is illogical or lacks narration, but rather that poetry is an attempt to render the beautiful or sublime without the burden of engaging the logical or narrative thought process. English Romantic poet John Keats termed this escape from logic "Negative Capability"; this "romantic" approach views form as a key element of successful poetry because form is abstract and distinct from the underlying notional logic. This approach remained influential into t
As a literary genre of high culture, romance or chivalric romance is a type of prose and verse narrative, popular in the aristocratic circles of High Medieval and Early Modern Europe. They were fantastic stories about marvel-filled adventures of a chivalric knight-errant portrayed as having heroic qualities, who goes on a quest, it developed further from the epics. Romances reworked legends, fairy tales, history to suit the readers' and hearers' tastes, but by c. 1600 they were out of fashion, Miguel de Cervantes famously burlesqued them in his novel Don Quixote. Still, the modern image of "medieval" is more influenced by the romance than by any other medieval genre, the word medieval evokes knights, distressed damsels and other romantic tropes. Romance literature was written in Old French, Anglo-Norman and Provençal, in Portuguese, English and German. During the early 13th century, romances were written as prose. In romances those of French origin, there is a marked tendency to emphasize themes of courtly love, such as faithfulness in adversity.
Unlike the form of the novel and like the chansons de geste, the genre of romance dealt with traditional themes. These were distinguished from earlier epics by heavy use of marvelous events, the elements of love, the frequent use of a web of interwoven stories, rather than a simple plot unfolding about a main character; the earliest forms were invariably in verse, but the 15th century saw many in prose retelling the old, rhymed versions. The romantic form pursued the wish-fulfillment dream where the heroes and heroines were considered representations of the ideals of the age while the villains embodied the threat to their ascendancy. There is a persistent archetype, which involved a hero's quest; this quest or journey served as the structure. With regards to the structure, scholars recognize the similarity of the romance to folk tales. Vladimir Propp identified a basic form for this genre and it involved an order that began with initial situation followed by departure, first move, second move, resolution.
This structure is applicable to romance narratives. Overwhelmingly, these were linked in some way only in an opening frame story, with three thematic cycles of tales: these were assembled in imagination at a late date as the "Matter of Rome", the "Matter of France" and the "Matter of Britain". In reality, a number of "non-cyclical" romances were written without any such connection. Indeed, some tales are found so that scholars group them together as the "Constance cycle" or the "Crescentia cycle"—referring not to a continuity of character and setting, but to the recognizable plot. Many influences are clear in the forms of chivalric romance; the medieval romance developed out of the medieval epic, in particular the Matter of France developing out of such tales as the Chanson de Geste, with intermediate forms where the feudal bonds of loyalty had giants, or a magical horn, added to the plot. The epics of Charlemagne, unlike such ones as Beowulf had feudalism rather than the tribal loyalties; the romance form is distinguished from the earlier epics of the Middle Ages by the changes of the 12th century, which introduced courtly and chivalrous themes into the works.
This occurred regardless of congruity to the source material. Chivalry was treated as continuous from Roman times; this extended to such details as clothing. When Priam sends Paris to Greece in a 14th-century work, Priam is dressed in the mold of Charlemagne, Paris is dressed demurely, but in Greece, he adopts the flashier style, with multicolored clothing and fashionable shoes, cut in lattice-work—signs of a seducer in the era. Historical figures reappeared, reworked, in romance; the entire Matter of France derived from known figures, suffered somewhat because their descendants had an interest in the tales that were told of their ancestors, unlike the Matter of Britain. Richard Coeur de Lion reappeared in romance, endowed with a fairy mother who arrived in a ship with silk sails and departed when forced to behold the sacrament, bare-handed combat with a lion, magical rings, prophetic dreams. Hereward the Wake's early life appeared in chronicles as the embellished, romantic adventures of an exile, complete with rescuing princess and wrestling with bears.
Fulk Fitzwarin, an outlaw in King John's day, has his historical background a minor thread in the episodic stream of romantic adventures. The earliest medieval romances dealt with themes from folklore, which diminished over time, though remaining a presence. Many early tales had the knight